welfare economics
the study of how the allocation of resources affects economic well-being

willingness to pay
(WTP) the maximum amount that a buyer will pay for a good

consumer surplus
the amount a buyer is willing to pay for a good minus the amount the buyer actually pays for it

the value of everything a seller must give up to produce a good

producer surplus
the amount a seller is paid for a good minus the seller’s cost of providing it

Total surplus
value to buyers – cost to sellers

the property of a resource allocation of maximizing the total surplus received by all members of society

the property of distributing economic prosperity uniformly among the members of society

deadweight loss
the fall in total surplus that results from a market distortion, such as a tax