Ecology – Space

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Definition: Agriculture
Process of producing food, fiber and desired products by cultivation of certain plants and raising of domestic animals
Examples of agriculture
plants for human use
pre-agriculture societies:
Difficult timing, based on season
Agriculture revolution
Invented agriculture irrigation
Theory on agriculture
Compost–> seeds–> growth(garden)–> more vegetables
population growth: agriculture
Tilling, plant selection, harvesting, processing, drying and long term storage
Population grew exponentially
Homestead act of 1909
Moving west to farm untouched land
A loss of 10% or more in crop productivity
Causes: erosion, fertilizers, overgrazing, decrease water
Green revolution
Not enough food, increase agriculture output to feed everyone
Definition: Pesticide
Kills pests
Insects, mice, rats, rats, mites, fungus, bacteria,nematode
Definition: Arms race
Pests evolving/resistance to pesticide
Definition: GMO
Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA is created by merging the DNA of multiple species

Changing molecules of life/merging DNA from multiple species to improve qualities/traits

Examples of GMO properties
Disease resistance, increase shelf life, kill pests, increase size, alter taste, alter basic plant requirements, alter nutritional values, increase crop productivity
Definition: pollen escape
Pollen from another farm spreads to another through wind
Definition: Monoculture
Little to no diversity
Non- target that is affected by Bt corn and Round Up ready crops (Herbicide and weed killer). Globally, have a “near threatened” status due to major population losses.
GMO benefits
Research, education, habitat restoration, invest in low income farmers, fewer pesticides, lower carbon emissions
Definition: Competition
2 or more individuals fighting over the same LIMITED resources
1 type of competition WITHIN a species
Ex: deeds, lions, penguins (mating/space/food)
1 type of competition BETWEEN different species
Ex: lion and hyenas, rabbits in SimBio
Example of Anoles: what happened?
Native to where they’re from, weaker competitor and their realized niche(where they actually live) shrinks
graph: invasive species takes over
Definition: Resource Partitioning
dividing up resources
ex: food, shelter(avoid competition by minimizing niche overlap), space, habitat)
Definition: Predation
one species(predator) eats another species (prey)
Predators strategies
camouflage, speed/strength, ambush, packs, nocturnal, lure
prey strategies
poison, school/group, hide, mechanical (thorns), armor, eye spots, playing dead, chemical (ink, spray), poison(warning coloration),
prey strategies: mimicry
copy cat
types of mimicry: batesian
1 species is toxic and one is not
ex: red on yellow, dangerous fellow. red on black, friend of jack
types of mimicry: mullerian
both are toxic (reinforcement)
definition: simbiosis
2 species that have an intimate relationship
partners: symbionts
types of simbiosis: commensalism
0/+, one benefits, the other neither benefits nor loses, (shark/fish)
types of simbiosis: mutualism
+/+, both benefits, (clown fish and anemone)
types of simbiosis: parasitism
+/-, one benefits, one loses, (mosquito to human)
Definition: invasive species
destroys habitat, out competitive, disrupts ecosystem, decrease food, money, biodiversity
Definition:Native species
species that originally occurs in a particular area (endemic)
Definition: non-native species
does not originally occur
Definition: Intentional release
Humans released organism to gain and benefit (toad)
Definition: non-intentional release
Through cargo, mail, museum, pet, garden(zebra mussel)
Getting rid of species: spraying pesticide (GMO)
Hitting non-target (other organisms)
Getting rid of species: traps
Killing organisms
Getting rid of species: Integrated Pest Management
Bring in predator
Getting rid of species: Bounty (Nutria)
Offering money to kill predators
Getting rid of species: Hunting season
Spearing, electro shocking
Getting rid of species: Manual removal
Manually removing species ourselves
Getting rid of species: PREVENTING INTRODUCTION
It is hard to control
Zebra Mussel:
came around the great lakes from Russia
Attached itself to boats and traveled
Size of a dime
REPRODUCE (attach to other animals: cannot move/suffocate)
Add more nutrients
clog water intake pipes
Brown Tree Snake
came to Guam from Russia
Through cargo
Attacked Guam Rail Bird(flightless)
Became extinct from guam
Fire Ant
Came to southern US from South America
Tree samples/soils
Introduced fly, didn’t work
They build large mounds
Can sting other animals (swarm organism)
Emerald Ash Bourer
came from Asian,
Larvae tunneling ash trees
Kills trees, can’t produce nutrients (oxygen)
Don’t take wood back and forth so you don’t spread larvae
Ecological community
a group of species that live together and interact with each other.
some eat others, some provide shelter for their neighbors, and some compete with each other for food and/or space.
community structure
the composition and relative abundance of the different types of organisms present
intertidal community
comprised of organisms living in the area covered by water at high tide and exposed to the air at low tide
food chain
the progression of what eats what, from plant to herbivore to predator
food web diagram
a diagram that connects different species and food chains together based on these relationships
trophic levels
a species level indicates its relative position in the ecosystems food chain
use energy from the sun to produce their own food rather than consuming other organisms, thus they occupy the lowest trophic level.
competitively dominant (the winner)
when one species is better at obtaining or holding space than another, or is able to displace the second species
competitive dominance hierarchy
similar to a food web, construct a diagram to illustrate which species are superior competitors within a community
dominant species
the species that is more abundant in number or biomass than any other
keystone species
the presence of a single species controls community structure even though that species may have relatively low abundance
the decline or removal will drastically alter the structure of the local community
transition matrix
a set of probabilities that determine what happens from one time step to the next on a particular space on the rock.
Which organisms compete for space on intertidal rocks?
A) algae and barnacles
B) whelk and starfish
C) algae, barnacles, and whelk
D) starfish only
Algae and barnacles
Which species eats acorn barnacles?
A. mussel
b. starfish
c. whelk
d. chiton
Which species is competitively dominant?
A. black pine
b. goose-neck barnacle
c. nori seaweed
d. acorn barnacle
Goose-neck barnacle
What dramatically changes when starfish are removed from the simulated system?
A. acorn and goose neck increase
b. mussel pop. Increase
c. coral weed increase
d. system is unchanged
Mussel population increase
Which of the following is NOT an essential characteristic of a keystone species?
A. a low abundance
b. removal of the species leads to a large change
c. direct interaction with every other species in the community
d. a high impact on the community relative to its population size
Direct interaction
If you fenced a plot of land in the savanna so that animals were completely excluded, over time, which type of plant would dominate the plot, according to the diagrams?
A. grasses
b. shrubs
c. trees
d. none
If you removed all the lions from a large area of savanna, which of the following changes is most likely, according to the diagrams?
A. fewer cheetahs
b. more zebra
c. more grasses
d. more elephants
More zebra
If you removed all the cheetahs from a large area of savanna, which of the following changes is most likely, according to the diagram?
A. fewer gazelle
b. fewer shrubs
c. fewer lions
d. fewer grasses
Fewer grasses
If you removed all the elephants from a large area of savanna, which of the following two changes is more likely, according to the diagrams?
A. fewer trees
b. fewer grasses
Fewer grasses
Which of the following is the best candidate for a keystone species?
A. elephants
b. cheetahs
d. zebras

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