Earth Science Unit 3 Test

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convection
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The earth’s interior heat and pressure drive a process of heat transfer in the mantle called _____.
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second
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When energy is transformed, some is used, but most is released as unusable heat energy, according to the _____ law of thermodynamics.
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work, thermodynamics
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Energy is the ability to do _____ . The study of energy and its changing forms is called _____.
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releasing waste and decomposition
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In the nitrogen cycle, once a consumer gains nitrogen nutrients from animals or plants, it recycles these nutrients back to the earth by _____.
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1. Inner core 2. Outer core 3. Lower mantle 4. Upper mantle (asthenosphere) 5. Crust (lithosphere)
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Starting from the center of the earth, number its layers in the correct order.
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a rabbit eating grass
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Mr. Goldsmith suggested that animals must capture energy from their environment. An example of this would be _____.
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Plate tectonics
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The lithosphere floats on the asthenosphere like glass on clay. When the clay moves, the glass moves. The movement of the lithosphere is _____.
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igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
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In the rock cycle, rocks can change into three different forms. These are _____.
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interdependent
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The atmosphere provides the biosphere with necessary gases to live and breathe. This is an example of how Earth’s spheres are _____.
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food chains
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In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus can recycle through waste products, decomposition, and ____ of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
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evaporation and transpiration
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In the hydrologic cycle, after water precipitates to the surface, it can return to the atmosphere by processes of _____.
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food chains, decomposers
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During the carbon cycle, carbon cycles from plants through the ____ then recycles back into the soil by ____, like fungi and bacteria.
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atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
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The four main spheres of Earth are the _____.
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divergent, convergent
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In the tectonic cycle, new but recycled lithosphere rises to the ground at ____ boundaries and can be subducted at ____ boundaries.
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Fossilized plants and animals of the same species found on separate continents, Geological features, such as mountain ranges, that align on matching coasts of different continents
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Choose the pieces of evidence that supported the existence of Pangaea and continental drift theory.
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first, sun and core of earth
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The _____ law of thermodynamics states that energy can’t be created or destroyed. Two natural sources of energy on Earth are the _____.
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respiration and burning of fossil fuels and wood
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Carbon is released to the atmosphere by _____.
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1) Made of solid iron about 1,200 km thick. Temperature is about 7,000°C. 2) Very dense liquid of iron and sulfur about 2,250 km thick. Temperature is about 4,000°C. 3) Solid rock about 2,200 km thick. Temperature is about 3,000°C. 4) Solid rock about 720 km thick that flows from plasticity. Temperature is about 850°C. 5) Plates that average about 30km in thickness and 25°C in temperature.
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Match the layer with its correct description. 1. inner core 2. outer core 3. lower mantle 4. upper mantle 5. crust
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1. Ocean trenches and mountains 2. Ocean ridges and rift valleys 3. Tremors and earthquakes
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For each boundary, choose the correct resulting formation or primary activity. 1. Convergent 2. Divergent 3. Transform
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Compaction and cementation into sedimentary rock, then heat and pressure into metamorphic rock.
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During the rock cycle, rocks get broken apart by weathering, carried along by erosion, and eventually deposited in a body of water. What happens next?
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nitrogen fixation, ammonification, and nitrification
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Which of the following are processes of nitrogen and ammonia conversion that make nitrogen absorbable by plants?
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10%
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Approximately how much energy is transferred from one step in a food chain to the next?
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sphere interaction
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Plants absorb water from the soil to live and grow. This is an example ____ of of the biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
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Pangaea, panthalassa
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The continents at one time were one supercontinent called ____. This supercontinent was surrounded by an ocean called ____.
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lithosphere, geological
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Phosphorus isn’t as abundant as nitrogen or carbon because it is contained in the ____ and released with ____ processes, which can take a long time.
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Alfred Wegener
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____ found evidence that the continents were joined together at one time.
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chain, web
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You can follow the flow of energy in an ecosystem by following its food ____ or ____.
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expands and rises, cools and sinks
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During convection, hot material ____ then moves to the side and ____. This circular pattern is called a convection current.
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1. Cars crash in a head on collision 2. Lovebirds part and go separate ways 3. rubbing your hands together
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Match the plate boundary with the best analogy description: 1. Convergent 2. Divergent 3. Transform fault
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1. It’s all about water 2. erosion, deposition, metamorphism 3. subduction, uplift, and mantle convection 4. photosynthesis and respiration 5. Its all about special bacteria 6. housed mostly in rock material
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Select the best description for each cycle: 1. hydrologic 2. rock 3. tectonic 4. carbon 5. nitrogen 6. phosphorus
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True
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Earth’s geochemical and biogeochemical cycles are important because they tend to maintain a balance of Earth’s materials.
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True
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On Earth, old matter is recycled into new matter.
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evaporates, condense
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In the hydrologic cycle, water from the ocean ____ into the atmosphere where it can ____ and change back into tiny water droplets.

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