DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis & Mutations STUDY GUIDE

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring and is used by an individual as the recipe for making proteins. It is found it the nucleus & has 2 strands.
Double Helix
A pair of double helices intertwined and spiral that is the structure of DNA.
Watson & Crick
Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix.
DNA Replication
The process of coping DNA molecules. DNA molecules are copied from a parent cell, proving your genetic information.
DNA Replication – Steps
1. DNA Helicase attaches to a DNA molecule and moves along (untwists & unzips DNA, breaks apart hydrogen bonds of the bases).
2. DNA strands separate
3. Unpaired bases in each strand react or pair with complementary bases of single nucleotides floating in the nucleus (bond together by forming hydrogen bonds).
4. DNA polymers bond deoxyribose sugar & phosphate together.
5. 2 NEW STRANDS are made (strands are the same, Each new stands has one old strand in place attached to one new strand [semi-conservation]).
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; A nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins. It is found in cytoplasm & has one strand.
Nucleotide
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Nitrogen Bases (RNA)
Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Uracil (U)
DNA vs RNA
DNA RNA
-Genetic Info -3 Types of RNA
-1 Kind of DNA -tRNA (transfer)
-Deoxyribose Sugar -mRNA (messenger)
-A=T -rRNA (ribosomal)
-G=C -Ribose Sugar
-2 Strands -A=U
-Nucleus -G=C
-1 Strand
-Cytoplasm
Transcription
The process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Translation
Process in which mRNA attaches to the ribosome and a protein is assembled.
Chain of Amino Acids
Protein
Bond That Holds Amino Acids Together
Polypeptide Bonds
Codon
Three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid.
Anticodon
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.
Mutation
A change in a cell’s genetic material. Once the genetic material has changed, the change is inherited by the offspring of that cell.
Point Mutation
Gene mutations involving a change in one or a few nucleotides, occur at a single point in the DNA sequence. They include substitutions (affect no more than a single amino acid).
Frameshift Mutation
The addition or deletion of a nucleotide causes a shift in the grouping of codons. They include insertions (an extra base is inserted into a base sequence) and deletions (the loss of a single base is deleted and the reading frame is shifted).