Diseases and conditions Ch 1

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An abnormality in or mutation of a gene may produce which of the following?
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Genetic disease
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What type of tumors tend to metastasize and may spread to distant sites in the body?
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malignant tumors
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Which of the following are included in the body’s natural defense mechanism?
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Mechanical and chemical barriers inflammatory response immune response Answer: All of the above
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Which of the following describe how a pathogen can cause disease?
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By releasing harmful toxins into the body. Invasion and destruction of living tissue. Answer: Both A and B
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Systemic manifestations of severe allergic responses include:
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Arthralgia Status asthmaticus Anaphylaxis Answer: All of the above
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The concept of medical care that focuses on the needs of the whole person-spiritual, cognitive, social, physical, and emotional-is the:
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Holistic concept
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The concept of care that affirms life and neither hastens or postpones death is the :
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Hospice philosophy
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Which of the following is responsible for stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies?
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antigen
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A new tissue growth or a tumor is called a:
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Neoplasm
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Predisposing factors related to lifestyle include:
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smoking, poor nutrition, lack of exercise, risky sexual behavior
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Pain as described by the patient is:
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subjective and individualized
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Patient education:
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Helps improve patient and family coping. Is interactive. Is based on the patient’s plan of care. Answer: All of the above
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The tumor Gleason grade reflects:
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The degree of abnormal microscopic appearance of the tumor cells.
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The TNM system of staging a malignant tumor assesses for:
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Tumor size. The extent of lymph node involvement. The number of distant metastases. Answer: All of the above.
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Aging is a risk factor for:
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More stress. Adverse drug reactions. Immunosenescene. Answer: All of the above.
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Medication issues for concern relating to the elderly include:
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adverse drug reaction substance abuse overmedication Answer: All of the above.
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Categories of infectious disease management medications include:
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Antibacterials (antibiotics) Antifungal and antiviral medications Antihelmintics Answer: All of the above
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Medications prescribed for pain are termed:
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analgesic
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An epinephrine kit for self administration may be prescribed for an individual known to have severe:
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allergies
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Chemotherapy for cancer involves use of medicines to:
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Destroy cancer cells.
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Reye syndrome has been associated with the use of
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Aspirin
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Loss of appetitie, vomiting, irritability, and ataxic gait are symptoms associated with:
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Lead poisoning
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The leading cause of absenteeisim in school children is:
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asthma
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The failure of the testicle(s) to descend into the scrotum is called:
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cryptorchidism
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If a child is born with tetralogy of Fallot, how many actual heart defects are present?
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four
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When a person is diagnosed with leukemia, there will be a/an:
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increase in white blood cells
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A sensitivity to iron or cow’s milk may cause
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infantile colic
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The most progressive form of muscular dystrophy is:
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Duchenne’s
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One method of preventing epidemics of contagious diseases is to administer:
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immunizations
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Hypertension, hematuria, and pain are symptoms of
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wilm’s disease
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The number one cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year is:
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sudden infant death syndrome
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Rheumatic fever, kidney complications, and rheumatic heart disease may be complications of untreated:
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Tonsilitis caused by A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
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Intracranial pressure is present when cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the skull when the patient has:
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hydrocephlus
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Women of childbearing age are adviced to increase their intake of __________ to help prevent neural tube defects in their unborn child.
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Folic acid.
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An electrocardiogram is suggested for athletes to identify those who may have:
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Hypertrophic cardiomegaly.
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The most common childhood malignancy is:
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Leukemia.
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The condition where the foreskin of the penis does not have adequate opening to allow it to be pulled back over the end of the penis is called:
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Phimosis.
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Erythroblastosis fetalis is a condition caused by:
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Rh incompatability
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Childhood obesity may be caused by
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All of the above
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Treatment for hydrocephalus includes:
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Starting surgical intervention to insert a shunt
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Closure of patent ductus arteriosus may be attempted by drug therapy using:
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An antiprostaglandin
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Medications which contain __________ may mask the symptoms of Reye’s syndrome and are generally avoided in the treatment of chickenpox.
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aspirin
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Mumps is a childhood disease which is best prevented by:
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MMR vaccine
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Acute tonsillitis (strep positive) is generally treated with __________ to prevent rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease.
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penicillin
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Roundworms, pinworms, and tapeworm can be treated with which medications?
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Mebendazole (Vermox)
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Childhood asthma can be treated with all of the following except ___________.
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Tetracycline (Sumycin)
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Idiopathic thrombocytopenic anemia involves a deficiency of platelets and:
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the inability to clot blood
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Active immunity is acquired when a person
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has a disease receives a immunization which one?
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Autoimmune diseases occur when
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antibodies develop and begin to destroy the body’s own cells
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Symptoms of butterfly rash, fever, joint pain, malaise, and weight loss are present with:
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systemic lupus erythematosus
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Symptoms of inflammation and edema are present at the onset of:
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rheumatoid arthritis
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Symptoms of hardening and shrinking of the skin are associated with:
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scleroderma
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Myasthenia gravis is treated with:
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mestinon
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The thymus glands produce:
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T-cell lymphocytes
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HIV is transmitted by:
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sexual contact blood and bodily fluids Answer: Both A and B
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Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency disease is:
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the most common form of immunodeficiency in the general population.
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Pernicious anemia is treated with:
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vitamin B12
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Ankylosing spondyliasis primarily affects the:
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The Spine
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Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease that attacks:
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The myelin sheath
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Myasthenia gravis is a chronic progressive disease that is characterized by:
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extreme muscular weakness and progressive fatigue
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Congenital X-linked agammaglobulinemia:
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Is a condition of severe B-cell deficiency Affects only males Is treated with intravenous infusions of immune globulin Answer: All of the above
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Of significant importance in the treatment and prognosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is:
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Early aggressive treatment to help prevent deformity.
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The patient with Goodpasture’s syndrome has:
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An autoimmune disease that can cause acute renal failure
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The patient with Sjogren’s syndrome has:
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inflammation in various glands of the body.
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Although no cure or effective vaccine exists for AIDS, highly active antiretroviral therapy:
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has significantly prolonged the lifespan of those infected with AIDS.
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Currently HIV infection is most often associated with:
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homosexual activity
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The only curative treatment for most types of severe combined immunodeficiency is:
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bone marrow transplantation
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transmission of HIV is possible:
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before it can be detected by laboratory tests
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patients with positive test results for HIV:
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Are encouraged to inform their partners that they may be at high risk for contracting the disease
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which autoimmune disease occurs in males only?
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X-linked agammaglobulinemia Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Answer: both B and C
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Testing for which immunodeficiency disease is now part of newborn screening in the United States?
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SCID
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Which medications are not used in the treatment of systemic lupus?
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anticolagulants
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The drug(s) of choice for myasthenia gravis is (are):
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Pyridostigmine (Mestinon)
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The primary objective of the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is the reduction of pain and inflammation. which of the following would be considered first line therapy?
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anti-inflammatory drugs
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Acromegaly is caused from a hypersecretion of human growth hormone (hGH) that occurs:
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After puberty
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Inadequate amounts of dietary iodine may be the cause of:
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A simple nontoxic goiter
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A calculated diet and exercise, blood and urine testing, and insulin administration are treatments for:
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Diabetes mellitus
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Hyperglycemia, thirst, nausea, vomiting, and dry skin are all symptoms of:
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Diabetic coma
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Any dysfunction of the endocrine system results in a/an:
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Increase secretion of hormones. Decrease in secretion of hormones. Answer: Both of the above.
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A person experiencing insulin shock requires:
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Simple sugar
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Severe hypothyroidism or myxedema has its onset during:
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older childhood Adult hood Answer: both b and c
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Dwarfism is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body or hypopituitarism that occurs in:
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infancy
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Gigantism is caused from a hypersecretion of human growth hormone that occurs:
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Before puberty
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Cushing syndrome causes symptoms of:
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Fatigue, muscle weakness, and changes in body appearance
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Palpation of a hard, painless lump or nodule on the thyroid gland, vocal cord paralysis, obstructive symptoms, and cervical-lymph adenopathy all indicate:
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An evaluation for cancer of the thyroid gland.
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Addison’s disease has a gradual onset and involves the:
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adrenal glands
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Which of the following statements is true regarding myxedema coma?
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Myxedema coma is a medical emergency because it has a high mortality rate
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Which endocrine gland secretes growth hormone?
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The anterior pituitary
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The gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium is:
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the parathyroid gland
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Hypothyroidism is usually treated with thyroid replacemnt hormones. Which of the following is not a type of thyroid replacement?
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Estradiol (Estrace)
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Type 2 diabetes can be treated with all of the following therapies except:
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Corticosteroids
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Type 1 diabetes can be treated with which of the following therapies except:
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Answer: None of the above. All can be used. Short-acting insulin Long-acting insulin Inhaled insulin
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Medical treatment of Grave’s disease includes:
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Antithyroid drugs. Drugs to block the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Beta blockers to treat tachycardia. Answer: All of the above.
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hammer toe
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condition of the toe in which the toe bends upward like a claw because of an abnormal flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint
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fractures
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caused by stress on the bone resulting from a traumatic insult to the musculoskeletal system, severe muscle spasm, or bone disease. can occur in any bone. described by specific names or by location
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strain
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injured tendon, muscle, or other tissue
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sprain
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acute, partial tear of a ligament
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dislocation
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forcible displacement of a bone from its joint, thereby causing loss of joint function
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adhesive capsulitis
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condition in which a shoulder is significantly limited in its range of motion as a result of inflammation, scarring, thickening, and shrinkage of capsule that surrounds the normal shoulder joint. (frozen shoulder)
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severed tendon
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is torn completely into two section and thus prevents the muscle from performing its function of moving a body part
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shin splints
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a painful condition involving inflammation of the periosteum, the extensor muscles in the lower leg, and the surrounding tissues.
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Plantar Fasciitis (calcaneal spur)
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inflammatory response at the bottom of the heel bone.
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ganglion
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benign, saclike swelling, or cyst, that is filled with a colorless, jellylike fluid. formed from tissue that lines a joint or tendon
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torn meniscus
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a tear of the meniscus (semilunar cartilage found in the knee joint) is a crack or fissure that usually a result of wear or injury
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rotator cuff tears
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tear in any of the rotator cuff tendons limit the function of the shoulder, produce an immediate snapping sound and acute pain. ROM is limited
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The transmission route for _________ is fecal oral and is tranmitted by contaminated water, food, and stools. Poor hygiene also plays a role in tranmission.
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Hepatitis A
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The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is associated with the occurence of:
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Pseudomembrane enterocolitis
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The symptoms of bilary colic with radiating pain and jaudice accompany:
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cholecystitis Cholelithiasis
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Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which the person perceives their body image as:
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overweight
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A chronic irreversible degeneration of the liver is:
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cirrhosis
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The route of transmission for _____________ is by blood or body fluid.
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Hepatitis A&B
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Peritonititis is an infection that involves the:
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Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
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Neoplasm, volvulus, intussusception, and fecal impaction can all cause:
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Mechanical bowel obstruction
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The fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States is:
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pacreatic cancer
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Allergic reaction or irration from foods, mechanical injury, medications, poisons, alcohol, and infectious diseases may damage the gastric lining and cause:
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gastritis
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The following statements about periodontitis are true, except:
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it is not related to gingivitis
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The clinical management of Barrett’s esophagus includes:
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Treatment of the symptoms of GERD Endoscoopic survellance every 3 years to detect dysplasia Acid-suppressive medications, lifestyle changes, and possibly antireflux surgery
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Some medications may cause discoloration of the teeth. Which of the following drugs has been shown to discolor teeth when taken during early childhood?
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Tetracycline
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In advanced cases of gingivitis, which antibacterial mouthwash is frequently prescribed?
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Chlorhexidine (Periogard)
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Oral thrush (Candida albicans) is often treated with which oral antifungal agent?
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Nystatin
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may be treated with all of the following, except ___________.
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Theophylline
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Which of the following drugs should be avoided in a patient with peptic ulcer?
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Naproxen sodium (Aleve)
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Which of the following is used to treat peptic ulcers?
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Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
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The treatment of ulcerative colitis may include all of the following, except ___________
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Timolol (Timoptic)
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Inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis) may be treated with any or all of the following, except______________.
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Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
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Which of the following medications may be used to treat motion sickness?
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Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
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Dysphonia is a common symptom of a:
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Tumor of the larynx
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Nasal polyps are growths that form from distended mucous membranes and protrude into the:
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nasal cavity
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A pulmonary abscess is an area of contained ______________ in the lung.
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Infectious material
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Histoplasmosis is a ____________ disease origination in the lungs with greatest occurence in the midwestern United States.
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fungal
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A pnuemothorax is a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity that can cause:
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a collapsed lung
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Infectious mononucleosis is caused from:
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Epstein-Barr Virus
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Organism specific antibiotics are used to treat:
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Bacterial pnuemonia
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Exposure to _______________ smoke may make an individual more susceptible to any respiratory condition.
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primary secondary
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Pnuemoconiosis is caused from inhaltion of:
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inorganic dust
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Examples of occupational diseases include:
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Asbestosis, anthracosis, and silicosis
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Legionellosis is a more severe form of Pontiac fever, and both forms are:
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not contagious
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Barrel chest, chronic cough, and dyspnea are all symptoms of:
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Emphysema
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With flail chest, there are _____________ fractures of three or more adjacent ribs.
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double
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Sinusotomy, antibiotics, and decongestants may all be treatments for:
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sinusitis
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There are almost 200 different viruses that are responsible for causing:
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The common cold
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In the Southwest, coccidiomycosis is caused by a fungus, Coccidioides immitis. This is the agent that causes the disease known as:
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San Joaquin Valley Fever
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Treatment of a common cold of a viral nature could include all of the following, except ____________.
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Chicken soup
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When sinusitis or pharyngitis is of a bacterial nature, which of the following would be considered proper treatment?
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Cephaloexin (Keflex)
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Treatment of pneumonia may include all of the following, except ________.
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Dicyclomine (Bentyl)
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Influenza can be treated with which of the following therapies?
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Bed rest Fluid intake Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
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Pulmonary emphysema can be treated with various therapies. Which of the following would not be a common treatment?
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Furosemide (Lasix)
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Pleurisy is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs. Which combination of medications would be the best therapy?
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Antibiotics and analgesics
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Infectious mononucleosis can be treated with all of the following therapies, except _______.
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Salmeterol inhaler (Serevent)
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A person who complains of experiencing chest pains with exertion is having:
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Angina pectoris
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Pericarditis is an inflamation of the:
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Sac enclosing the heart
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Raynaud phenomenon is a vasospastic disease that affects the:
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Hands, fingers, and feet
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The diagnosis of anemia indicates that the patient is experiencing a reduction in:
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Red blood cells and hemoglobin
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The hereditary blood disease, sickle cell anemia, is predominantly seen in:
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the black race
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The lymphatic tissue in Hodgkin’s disease patients contains:
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Reed-Sternberg cells
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Rheumatic heart disease may cause problems with the:
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valves
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Left-sided crushing chest pain, irregular heartbeat, dyspnea, and excessive sweating, nausea, anxiety, and denial are all symptoms of:
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myocardial infarction
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Electrocution, myocardial infarction, and drug overdose may cause:
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cardiac arrest
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People with mitral valve prolapse are sometimes:
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Asymptomatic Anxious Experiencing heart palpatations
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Primary or essential hypertension
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has an unknown cause
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Ischemia causes:
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death to tissue
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Blood transfusion incompatibility reactions are:
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potentially life threatening
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Lymphedema causes swelling of:
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an extremity
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Cardiac arrhythmias are the result of:
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Interference with the conduction system of the heart
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Angina pectoris is commonly treated with sublingual nitroglycerin tablets. Which of the following is correct concerning the use of nitroglycerin?
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Sublingual tablets are kept in original glass container
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Which of the following interventions would be expected to be taken in the event of a cardiac arrest?
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CPR
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Which of the following medications are not commonly used to treat hypertension?
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Glyburide (Diabeta)
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Which of the following drugs should be avoided in a patient with hypertension?
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Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is frequently treated with which of the following medications?
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Vasodilators Beta blockers Digoxin
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The use of which of the following medications is discouraged when a patient is taking nitrate based vasodilators?
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Sildenafil (Viagra)
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Which of the following medications may be used in the treatment of cardiomyopathy?
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Digoxin and Warfarin
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Medications used to treat endocarditis would most often include _______. (Best Answer)
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antibiotics
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Which of the following drugs would be best at preventing thrombi?
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Warfarin (Coumadin)
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Which of the following treatments would not be acceptable for the treatment of shock?
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application of ice packs
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Which of the following is not a drug used to treat elevated cholesterol levels?
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Methylprednisolone (Medrol)
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Which of the following statements is true?
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Heparin is given by injection
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Which of the following medications are not used in treatment of anemia?
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vitamin D
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Obstructive diseases of the kidney may be caused by:
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Congenital or structural defects
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The most common type of renal disease is:
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Pyelonephritis
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Symptoms of cystitis includes:
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Urinary urgency, fequency, and incontinence Pelvic pain Burning with urination
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Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus may precede:
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Acute glomerulonephritis
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Lithotripsy, relief of pain, surgical intervention, increased fluid intake, and diuretics are all ways of treating
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Renal calculi
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An ascending bacterial invasion of the urinary tract can cause:
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Cystitis and urethritis
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Chronic glomerulonephritis is:
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Slowly progressive and noninfectious
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Enuresis is caused from a weakening of the:
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Pelvic floor muscles Urethral structure
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Solvents, heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, and mushrooms are known to:
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cause renal failure
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Smoking, obesity, and prolonged exposure to chemicals such as asbestos and cadmium are risk factors associated with:
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renal cell carcinoma
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Pus in urine is called:
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pyuria
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Hematuria is:
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blood in the urine
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Azotemia is:
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Excess urea in the blood
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A clinical emergency that involves the renal system is:
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Acute renal failure
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Which of the following medications may cause nephrotoxicity?
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Cyclosporin (Neoral) Amphotericin B Naproxen (Aleve)
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Treatment of UTI’s may include all of the following therapies except:
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reduced fluid intake
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Urinary incontinence due to muscle spasms of the bladder may be treated with ________.
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Both Ditropan and Detrol
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Genital warts and many different types of cancer develop from:
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HPV
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Pelvic infammatory disease, septicemia, and septic arthritis are complications that may develop from untreated:
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Gonorrhea
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When functioning endometrial tissue is present outside the uterine cavity, the condition is called:
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None of the above
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Dyspareunia is more common in:
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women
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Impotence may be caused from:
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Use of recreational drugs Use of hypertensive medications Drinking alcohol
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Protusion of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina is a:
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Rectocele
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Pain that ocurs at ovulation is called:
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Mittelschmerz
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A Pap smear may be valuable tool in diagnosing:
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cervical cancer
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Herpes simplex virus:
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is not curable
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A digital rectal examination, blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and a biopsy to confirm are evaluations for:
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prostate cancer
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Signs of hyperemesis gravidarum may include:
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dehydration
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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) refers to:
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Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is:
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A major advance in the prevention of cervical cancer Recommended for girls and women 9 to 26 years of age Given as three doses at 0, 2, and 6 months
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Treatment of gonorrhea has become more complex due to antibiotic resistance to which antibiotic?
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Penicillin Amoxicillin
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Genital herpes is not curable, but drug therapy may reduce the frequency and duration of outbreaks. Which medication is frequently used to treat this disease?
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Acyclovir (Zovirax) Famiciclovir (Famvir) Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
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Which of the following statements are associated with the use of sildenafil (Viagra)?
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Men who have had a heart attack should not take Viagra. Viagra may cause temporary vision changes (blurred vision or color changes)
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition of men 50 years and older. Which of the following medications should be avoided with this condition?
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Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
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Which of the following may be useful in the treatment of menopause?
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Conjugated hormone (Premarin) Alendronate (Fosamax) Weight-bearing exercise
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Drug catagories for reproductive hormone replacement include:
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Androgens Estrogens Progestins
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Efferent nerves transmit impulses:
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Away from the brain and spinal cord Toward the brain and spinal cord
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Afferent nerves:
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Transmit impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
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Chronic alcohol intoxication, toxicity, and infectious disease are possible causes of:
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Peripheral neuritis
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A TIA is a ___________________ episode of impaired neurologic functioning, which is a result of a lack of blood flow to a portion of the brain.
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Temporary
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Paraplegia is paralysis that involves loss of motor and sensory control of the trunk and:
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Two extremities
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Pill-rolling tremor of the thumb and forefinger, muscular rigidity, mask-like facial expression, and shuffling gait are all signs of:
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Parkinson’s disease
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The blood, penetrating trauma, and infection in adjoining structures like the ear or sinuses are all routes through which infectious organisms:
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May reach the brain and cause infection
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Meningitis is an inflammation of the:
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Membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
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Poliomyelitis:
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Is not diagnosed as frequently as it was before 1960 Is a highly contagious viral disease that affects the anterior horn cells of the gray matter in the spinal cord
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The prognosis for patients with tumors involving the brain is:
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Poor
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Migraine headaches:
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Are periodic Are sometime incapacitating May be triggered by certain foods in some patients
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Hemiparesis is a paralysis involving:
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Either half of the body
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Huntington’s chorea is:
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a familial type (inherited) disorder characterized by ceaseless, uncontrolled, involuntary movements
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis causes symptoms of:
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Progressive destruction of motor neurons resulting in muscle atrophy
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Treatment of stroke may include which of the following medications?
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Aspirin
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Migraine headaches have been treated with many different types of therapy. Which of the following is not a common therapy of migraine treatment?
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Dipyridamole (Persantine)
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Which of the following is not considered a medication for the treatment of epilepsy?
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Gemfibrozil (Lopid)
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Which of the following drug combinations is frequently used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease?
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Carbidopa/levodopa
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Anxiety is a major factor that creates and maintains:
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stuttering
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Autistic disorder involves symptoms of:
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Extreme withdrawal and lack of social interaction
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Haldol is the drug of choice used to treat:
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Tourette disorder
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Pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and peripheral neuropathy may be the result of:
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Prolonged, heavy use of alcohol
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Bipolar disorder causes symptoms of:
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Intense mood swings from manic to depressive
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The grief process has five phases. They are, in order:
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Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
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Electroconvulsive therapy, psychotherapy, and antidepressant drug therapy may be used to treat:
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Major depressive disorders
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Tourette disorder is characterized by:
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Vocal and motor tics
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Suicidal thoughts and actions may be brought on by:
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major depression
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Anxiety, amnesia, and impotence have been associated with:
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Excessive use of alcohol
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Panic, phobic, and obsessive-compulsive disorders are all included in the group of:
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Anxiety disorders
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Genetic disorders, infection, trauma, poisoning, early alterations in embryonic developmental general medical conditions, prematurity, or hypoxia are all identifiable causes of:
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Mental retardation
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Which of the following medications are used in the treatment of ADHD?
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Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Amphetamine salts (Adderall) Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
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Which of the following ADHD medications are not a DSA schedule II substance?
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Atomoxetine (Strattera)
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Which of the following medications is not a common therapy for Alzheimer’s?
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Vitamin K (Mephyton)
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Of the following drugs of abuse, which would be considered a stimulant?
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cocaine
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Many different medications have been used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Which of the following drugs could be used?
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Olanzapine (Zyprexa) Haloperidol (Haldol) Ziprasidone (Geodon)
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Depression is frequently treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Which of the following is in this class?
answer

Fluoxetine (Prozac)
question

Which of the following medications could be used for the treatment of insomnia?
answer

Zolpidem (Ambien)
question

Victims of abuse can include:
answer

men women children
question

Gentle cleansing, approximation and securing of the edges, debridement, suturing, sterile dressing application, and use of tissue glue are all methods to treat a:
answer

laceration
question

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a repetitive motion injury that involves the _______________ nerve.
answer

median nerve
question

An avulsion is a soft tissue injury where the:
answer

Skin, tissue, and bone are being pulled away from the body
question

An abrasion is a soft tissue injury where the:
answer

Outer layer of the skin has been scraped away
question

Heat stroke causes symptoms of red, hot, dry skin, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and a body temperature of:
answer

Over 105 degree F
question

Thoracic outlet syndrome involves compression of the ___________ nerve
answer

Brachial plexus
question

The percentage area of body burned is determined by using the rule of:
answer

nines
question

Bugs, insects, cereal, peas, beans, grapes, pebbles, and cotton are all foreign bodies sometimes found in a patient’s:
answer

ears
question

Treatment of frostbite includes:
answer

Deep re-warming supervision by health care professional
question

State laws vary, but most require reporting of suggested child abuse
answer

By health care workers By teachers
question

Parentage of a child is best determined by:
answer

DNA testing

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