Developmental Psychology Chapter 1

People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share the same language and religion are called a(n):
ethnic group
Bettie belongs to one cohort; Zahara belongs to another. The only DEFINITE difference between these two women is
generation
A study of African-American 11-year-old males in Georgia (Brody et al., 2009) found that those with the short version of a gene called 5-HTTLPR were:
the most at risk of engaging in potentially destructive behaviors if they did not receive family training.
When biological change is dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of:
discontinuity.
IRB stands for:
Institutional Review Board.
Research data that can be categorized, ranked, or numbered is:
quantitative
The people in which group are DEFINITELY members of the same cohort?
current middle school students
The final step in the scientific method is to:
report the results
The approach to cognitive development that describes cognition with details instead of stages is called _____ theory
information processing
A good example of a sensitive period is a time when:
a child learns language easily
The causes of depression do NOT include:
ethnicity
The realization that genes alone do not determine development and that environmental forces also shape development led to the concept that many human characteristics are:
epigenetic
Some social scientists believe that using a term such as _____ exaggerates minor differences between people
white
What is the only research method that can establish a cause-and-effect relationship?
an experiment
Replication is important in scientific research because it:
verifies evidence using different participants
The first step in the scientific method involves:
posing a question
According to most developmental psychologists, the greatest influence on human development comes from:
environment and heredity combined
When doing research with anyone under the age of 18, which of the following must be obtained?
the parents informed consent
An example of the “difference-equals-deficit” is:
assuming that children who are deaf cannot communicate as well as children who can hear.
Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics of study that:
are of major importance to society.
____________ permits science to advance by allowing old findings to be refined, refuted, and replicated.
replication
Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of:
both nature and nurture
The distinctive characteristic of development that says that change does not always occur in a straight line is known as:
multidirectional
Which of the following is an example of an exosystem?
church
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share a language and a religion are called:
an ethnic group
Marie smokes cigarettes and bites her nails. According to Freud, she is unconsciously stuck in which stage?
oral
The behaviorist most associated with operant conditioning is:
Skinner
When a new experience conflicts with a person’s current understanding, the person tends to
experience:
cognitive disequilibrium.
In order to establish what causes a behavior, what research method must be used?
an experiment
Which of the following research methods is the QUICKEST way of studying
how relationships with our peers change with age?
cross-sectional
Cross-sequential research is a combination of which two research techniques?
cross-sectional and longitudinal
Lorena is collecting data on the frequency of automobile accidents at a particular
intersection. The data she is collecting is:
quantitative
What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables?
there is a relationship between the two variables
Which is an example of a participant’s rights in a research study?
to opt out of the study
Which step of the scientific method involves making a specific prediction?
developing a hypothesis
In the science of human development, “nurture” refers to:
environmental influences
A group of people born within a few years of one another is called a:
cohort
According to the text, parental choice for a child’s first name reveals:
cohort effects
Freud believed that sexual needs are quiet and psychic energy is put into schoolwork and sports during the:
latency stage
In what way do the theories of Freud and Erikson differ?
Erikson emphasized family and culture, and Freud did not.
According to Piaget’s cognitive theory, intellectual advancement occurs because humans seek a state of mental balance called:
cognitive equilibrium
Which research method’s primary data source is information gained from interviews and
questionnaires?
survey
A researcher has just completed a study on a serial killer, including his family history, life
experiences, and feelings about the crimes he committed. This is an example of a:
case study
Which research method involves collecting data repeatedly on the same person as he or she
ages?
longitudinal
Developmental researchers are required to follow ________ that protect(s) the integrity of
research.
code of ethics
Unlike Freud, Erikson:
emphasized family and culture in his stages
Dr. Kilbey is studying the impact of exosystems on human development. Which of these would she be MOST interested in examining?
internet influences and health care systems
If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:
scientific observation
After posing a question, a researcher using the scientific method:
develops a hypothesis
The study of human development is conducted in a scientific manner because:
scientists want to move from opinion to proof
Which type of research design is the most complex and beneficial way to study change over time?
cross-sectional
Socioeconomic status refers to an individual’s:
social class
Experiments allow researchers to:
determine a cause and effect relationship
One historical example of the “different-equals-deficit error” is:
the pioneers viewing American Indians as savages.
Social learning theory was first described by:
Bandura
A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable is related to a change in the other variable. What type of research did this person conduct?
correlational
What is one danger in asking people to reveal their race?
stereotyping people unlike ourselves
The idea that human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the body, mind, and every aspect of the environment is known as the:
dynamic systems theory
Dr. Kong does a study in which he finds that smoking is correlated to an increased risk of high blood pressure. He publishes his results. Then Dr. Meco does the same study using different participants in another city. Dr. Meco’s work is an example of:
replication
Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his:
socioeconomic status
What is one of the biggest drawbacks to the survey method?
lack of accuracy
According to Piaget, when old ideas are restructured to include new experiences it is called:
accommodation
According to Abraham Maslow, all people:
have the same basic needs and drives