Developmental Psych Test Answers – Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Oscar Hall


Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?


threshold effect


Which of the following is the correct pairing of the four bases that make up amino acids?


A-T, T-A, C-G, G-C

Genes are not destiny. They may develop normally until puberty

important to remember when considering that genes are a major influence on behaviors, disease, and disorders characteristic of children born with Klinefelter syndrome

When a sperm and ovum unite, what is formed

a zygote

Trisomy-21 is also called

Down syndrome

The third period of gestation is the

fetal period

The longest period of prenatal development is the

fetal period

The germinal period ends approximately

two weeks after conception

The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar

heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes

The first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the

cardiovascular system
XY; XX The chromosomal make-up of a normal male is ______; the chromosomal make-up of a normal female is ______
age of viability refers to the point when the preterm newborn can survive outside the uterus
Kyoto’s daughter is five days old. Kyoto is feeling sad and inadequate. She may be experiencing postpartum depression
Each gamete has how many chromosomes 23
20,000 Approximately how many genes are contained in the human genome
teratogen a substance or a condition that can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities
gene is recessive its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene
17+ hours Approximately how many hours per day do newborns spend sleeping
at birth At what point in development is the sense of hearing already quite acute
triple Brains ______ in size in the first two years of life
parents’ talking to him frequently. By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan’s rapid speech development mainly to his
use senses and motor skills to understand the world During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to
large movements Gross motor skills are defined by
the same motor skills in the same sequence Healthy infants usually develop
object permanence Hugh enjoys playing with your keys. When you take them away and place them in your pocket, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that Hugh does not understand
stage three n which of Piaget’s sensorimotor stages do infants become aware of things and respond to people and objects
refuse to cross over the visual cliff Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to
breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show that
prefrontal cortex The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the
1 year The average child can walk well independently at about
1 year The average newborn triples his weight by
vision The sense that is the least developed at birth is
reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words The usual order of the development of spoken language is
holophrase Using the word more to mean “I want another cookie” is a
rooting reflex When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, they are demonstrating the
An infant’s toes fan upward when her foot is stroked Which of the following demonstrates the Babinski reflex
nine months old Baby Erica met her grandfather’s big dog for the first time. She immediately cried and tried to move away from the dog. Erica is most likely at least
temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that
insecure-avoidant attachment Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby’s behavior is characteristic of:
8 months Attachment in infants is evident by what age
act anxious A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probably
responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver Basically, the Strange Situation measures how a child
pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year are
self-awareness If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old’s nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some
more playful Geoffrey enjoys spending time with his 1-year-old son. Compared with his wife, Geoffrey’s interaction with their son is likely to be
attachment “Proximity-seeking” and “contact-maintaining” behaviors are displays of
slow to warm up Which of the following is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal Study?
learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs In Erikson’s theory, the infant’s earliest task is described as that of:
gain awareness of other people The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first
social smile At 6 weeks, Jessica’s most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be
They want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies According to Erikson’s theory, which of the following is true of most toddlers
B. over-regularization “I catched two mices in a trap” is an example of
learns some words after a single exposure to them Because of fast-mapping, a preschooler
4½; 3 Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about ______ pounds and grow about ______ inches per year
not mastered the concept of conservation Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, John, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin “pancake.” When Daryl asks John if there is now more Silly Putty, John replies, “Yes.” Piaget would say that John has
Vygotsky Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan’s father
through a combination of brain maturation and practice Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent
animism Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of which of the following
growth of the corpus callosum Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to
has demonstrated irreversible thinking Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
75 The 2-year-old human brain weighs ______ percent of the adult brain.
egocentrism The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is:
frightening nightmares The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience
centration To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all others is called
4 years What is the youngest age at which most children begin to develop theories of mind
social activities guided by others Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to
scaffolding Miriam helps her son Ben make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon
fine motor skill; gross motor skill Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______
authoritarian A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is
emotional regulation An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed
parallel play Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this
4 By age ______, children are convinced certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.
use the discipline technique of time-out most often to deal with a child’s misbehavior Compared with other cultures, North American families of preschool children
initiative versus guilt Erikson’s stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called
internalizing problems Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following
prosocial behavior Beth feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick
authoritative Janelle’s usual bedtime is 8:30 P.M., and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9 P.M. She asks her parents if she can stay up this one night to watch the end of the program. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which type of parenting style are Janelle’s parents demonstrating
mostly extrinsic Jaspreet frequently plays the piano whenever her family has guests because she enjoys the praise and attention that she receives. When alone, however, Jaspreet rarely plays. Jaspreet’s motivation to play the piano
sociodramatic play Sara, Molly, and Shy are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in
Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control The child most likely to have permissive parents is
expectations for maturity The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and
relational aggression Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. They are demonstrating
reactive Which type of aggression tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds
logic According to Piaget, which of the following abilities do children gain during middle childhood
virtually limitless By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is
selective attention Growth in brain sophistication during middle childhood allows the child to direct his focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others. This ability is known as
concrete operational thought In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of
understand jokes and metaphors Increased cognitive flexibility, linguistic ability, and social awareness make it possible for school-age children to
pragmatics of his language John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers when called on in class. This is because John understands the
automatization One of the major differences in brain development that distinguishes middle childhood is the development of
seriation Seven-year-old Hannah can arrange 10 buttons in order from smallest to largest. Her understanding of which of the following concepts allows her to accomplish this
WISC The IQ test specifically designed for school-age children is the
immersion approach The approach to second-language learning in which children spend the entire school day instructed in the second language is referred to as the
She has made a language shift Thuy, from Cambodia, has become fluent in English but has difficulty speaking her native language. Which of the following is true of Thuy
middle childhood, about age 7 To teach a child a second language through explicit instruction, the most effective approach is to start during
can apply their reasoning to real situations. When capable of concrete operational thought, children
children grow more slowly than they did in early childhood When you look at the rate of growth for children from ages 7 to 11, you see that
information processing You are a professor who believes that our brains work very much like a computer in terms of learning, storing, and retrieving information. With which of the following theories would you most likely agree
flexibility The average school-age girl is superior to the average school-age boy in
all of the above During the school-years there is improvement in gross motor skills. This improvement reflects gains in
great; fine motor During the school years we see ___ improvements in ___ skills such as drawing, painting, playing musical instruments
cross-sequential design follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time.
help out with the dishes himself A father wants his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. According to social learning theory, the father should
life-span perspective A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the
cross-sequential research A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the
an experiment A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children’s behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was
observable behavior Behaviorism focuses on which of the following
development of thought processes and their effect on behavior, attitudes, and beliefs Cognitive theories emphasize the
longitudinal research If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of
watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could
providing details of the study which will allow for replication In order to prevent a researcher’s bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the following is an important part of the research process
informed consent In seeking participants for research studies, researchers must explain the purposes and procedures of the study in advance, obtain written permission, and allow participants to stop at any time. This process is known as
the study of individuals behaving as they normally do Scientific observation permits
psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are best known for their contributions to ______ theory
longitudinal research To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is
ecological-systems approach To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated a(n)
Cohort differences—that is, differences in background variables Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research
personal interviews Which of the following is an example of a survey method
It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research
cohort you and your high school classmates are part of the same
microsystem According the the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David’s family on his development is part of his
epigenetic What term refers to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual’s or species’ genetic inheritance
a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence In operant conditioning, an organism learns that
viewing of the violent film A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children’s behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the


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