Development Test 3 Essay

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Accepting responsibility for oneself, making independent decisions, becoming financially independent
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Three criteria for an emerging adult
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Obesity
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Linked to lifestyle behaviors rather than knowledge
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Young adults
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Accidents are the leading cause of death in this age group
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Social integration
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Active engagement in a broad range of social relationships, activities and roles
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Social support
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Material, informational, and psychological resources derived from the the social network, which a person can rely on for help in coping with stress
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Reflective thinking
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Logical thinking involving continuous, active evaluation of information and beliefs in the light of evidence and implications
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Postformal thought
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Mature thinking that relies on subjective experience and intuition as well as logic and allows room for ambiguity, uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, and compromise
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Emotional intelligence
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The ability to perceive, use, and understand, and regulate emotions
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MSCEIT
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Emotional intelligence test
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emerging adulthood
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proposed transitional period between adolescence and adulthood commonly found in industrialized countries
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risky drinking
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consuming more than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks on any single day for men, and more than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks on any single day for women
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alcoholism
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chronic disease involving dependence on use of alcohol, causing interference with normal functioning and fulfillment of obligations
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premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
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disorder producing symptoms of physical discomfort and emotional tension for up to 2 weeks before a menstrual period
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infertility
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inability to conceive a child after 12 months of sexual intercourse without the use of birth control
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substantive complexity
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degree to which a person’s work requires thought and independent judgement
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spillover hypothesis
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hypothesis that there is a carryover of cognitive gains from work to leisure that explains the positive relationship between activities in the quality of intellectual functioning
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recentering
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process that underlies the shift to an adult identity
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normative-stage models
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theoretical models that describe psychosocial development in terms of a definite sequence of age-related changes
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intimacy vs isolation
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erikson’s sixth stage of psychosocial development, in which young adults either form strong, long-lasting bonds with friends and romantic partners or face a possible sense of isolation and self-absorption
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life structure
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in levinson’s theory, the underlying patterns of a person’s life at a given time, built on whatever aspects of life the person finds most important
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development tasks
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in normative-stage theories, typical challenges that need to be mastered for successful adaptation to each stage of life
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timing-of-events model
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theoretical model of personality development that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events
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normative life events
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in the timing-of-events model, commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times
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social clock
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set of cultural norms or expectations for the times of life when certain important events, such as marriage, parenthood, entry into work, and retirement, should occur
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trait models
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theoretical models of personality development that focus on mental, emotional temperament, and behavioral traits, or attributes
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five-factor model
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theoretical model of personality, developed and tested by costa and mccrae, based on the “big five” factors underlying clusters of related personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness
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typological approach
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theoretical approach that identifies broad personality types, or styles
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ego-resiliency
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dynamic capacity to modify one’s level of ego-control in response to environmental and contextual influences
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ego-control
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self-control and the self-regulation of impulses
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fictive kin
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friends who are considered and behave like family members
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triangular theory of love
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stern berg’s theory that patterns of love hinge on the balance among three elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment
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presbyopia
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age-related, progressive loss of the eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects due to loss of elasticity in the lens
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myopia
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nearsightedness
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presbycusis
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age-related, gradual loss of hearing, which accelerates after age 55, especially with regard to sounds at higher frequencies
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basal metabolism
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use of energy to maintain vital functions
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vital capacity
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amount of air that can be drawn in with a deep breath and expelled
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menopause
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cessation of menstruation and of ability to bear children
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perimenopause
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period of several years during which a woman experiences physiological changes of menopause; includes first year after end of menstruation; also called climacteric
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erectile dysfunction
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inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erect penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance
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hypertension
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chronically high blood pressure
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diabetes
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disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that converts sugar, starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life
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osteoporosis
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condition in which the bones become thin and brittle as a result of rapid calcium depletion
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mammography
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diagnostic x-ray examination of the breasts
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hormone therapy
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treatment with artificial estrogen, sometimes in combination with the hormone progesterone, to relieve or prevent symptoms caused by decline in estrogen levels after menopause
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stress
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response to physical or psychological demands
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stressors
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perceived environmental demands that may produce stress
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fluid intelligence
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type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, that is applied to novel problems and its relatively independent of educational and cultural influences
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crystallized intelligence
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type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, involving the ability to remember and use learned information; it is largely dependent on education and culture
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encapsulation
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in Hoyer’s terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specific knowledge systems, making knowledge more readily accessible
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literacy
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in an adult, ability to use printed and written information to function in society, achieve goals, and develop knowledge and potential
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individuation
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jung’s term for emergence of the true self through balancing or integration of conflicting parts of the personality
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generativity vs stagnation
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erikson’s seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing he next generation or else experiences stagnation (inactivity or lifelessness)
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generativity
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erikson’s term for concern of mature adults for establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation
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interiority
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Neugarten’s term for a concern with inner life (introversion or introspection), which usually appears in middle age
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midlife crisis
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in some normative-crisis models, stressful life period precipitated by the review and reevaluation of one’s past, typically occurring in the early middle forties
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turning point
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psychological transitions that involve significant change or transformation in the perceived meaning, purpose, or direction of a person’s life
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midlife review
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introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal and revision of values and priorities
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ego-resiliency
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the ability to adapt flexibly an resourcefully to potential sources of stress
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identity process theory
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whitbourne’s theory of identity development based on processes of assimilation and accommodation
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identity schemas
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accumulated perceptions of the self shaped by incoming information from intimate relationships, work-related situations, and community and other experiences
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identity assimilation
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whitbourne’s term for effort to fit new experience into an existing self-concept
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identity accommodation
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whitbourne’s term for adjusting the self-concept to fit new experience
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identity balance
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whitbourne’s term for a tendency to balance assimilation and accommodation
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gender crossover
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gutmann’s term for reversal of gender roles after the end of active parenting
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social convoy theory
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theory, proposed by kahn and antonucci, that people move through life surrounded by concentric circles of intimate relationships on which they rely for assistance, well-being, and social support
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socioemotional selectivity theory
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theory, proposed by carstensen, that people select social contacts on the basis of the changing relative importance of social interaction as source of information, as an aid in developing and maintaining a self-concept, and as a source of emotional well-being
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marital capital
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financial and emotional benefits built up during a long-standing marriage, which tend to hold a couple together
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empty nest
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transitional phase of parenting following the last child’s leaving the parents’ home
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revolving door syndrome
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tendency for young adults who have left home to return to their parents’ household in times of financial, marital, or other trouble
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filial maturity
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stage of life, proposed by Marcoen and others, in which middle-aged children, as the outcome of a filial crisis, learn to accept and meet their parents’ need to depend on them
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filial crisis
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in Marcoen’s terminology, normative development of middle age, which adults learn to balance love and duty to their parents with autonomy within a two-way relationship
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sandwich generation
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middle-aged adults squeezed by competing needs to raise or launch children and to care for elderly parents
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caregiver burnout
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condition of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion affecting adults who provide continuous care for sick or aged persons
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kinship care
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care of children living without parents in the home of grandparents or other relatives, with or without a change of legal custody
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ageism
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prejudice or discrimination against a person (most commonly an older person) based on age
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primary aging
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gradual, inevitable process of bodily deterioration throughout the life span
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secondary aging
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aging processes that result from disease and bodily abuse and disuse and are often preventable
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activities of daily living
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essential activities that support survival, such as eating, dressing, bathing, and getting around the house
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functional age
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measure of a person’s ability to function effectively in his or her physical and social environment in comparison with others of the same chronological age
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gerontology
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study of the aged and the process of aging
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geriatrics
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branch of medicine concerned with processes of aging and medical conditions associated with old age
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life expectancy
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age to which a person in a particular cohort is statistically likely to live (given his or her current age and health status), on the basis of average longevity of a population
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longevity
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length of an individual’s life
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life span
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the longest period that members of a species can live
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senescence
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period of the life span marked by declines in physical functioning usually associated with aging; begins at different ages for different people
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genetic-programming theories
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theories that explain biological agin as resulting from a genetically determined developmental timetable
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variable-rate theories
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theories that explain biological aging as a result of process that vary from person to person and are influenced by both the internal and the external environment; sometimes called error theories
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cataracts
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cloudy or opaque areas in the lens of the eye, which cause blurred vision
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age-related macular degeneration
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condition in which the center of the retina gradually loses its ability to discern fine details; leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in older adults
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glaucoma
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irreversible damage to the optic nerve caused by increased pressure in the eye
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dementia
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deterioration in cognitive and behavioral functioning due to physiological causes
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alzheimer’s disease
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progressive, irreversible, degenerative brain disorder characterized by cognitive deterioration and loss of control of bodily functions, leading to death
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parkinson’s disease
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progressive, irreversible degenerative neurological disorder, characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowed movement, and unstable posture
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sensory memory
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initial, breig, temporary storage of sensory information
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working memory
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short-term storage of information being actively processed
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episodic memory
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long-term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place
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semantic memory
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long-term memory of general factual knowledge, social customs, and language
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procedural memory
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long-term memory of motor skills, habits, and ways of doing things, which can be recalled without conscious effort; implicit memory
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ego integrity vs despair
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erikson’s eighth and final stage of psychosocial development, in which people in late adulthood either achieve a sense of integrity of the self by accepting the lives they have lived, and thus accept death, or yield to despair that their lives cannot be relived
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coping
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adaptive thinking or behavior aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions
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problem-focused coping
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in the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation
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emotion-focused coping
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coping strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so as to lessen its physical or psychological impact
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disengagement theory
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holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal of the older person and society
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activity theory
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holds that in order to age successfully a person must remain as active as possible
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continuity theory
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holds that in order to age successfully people must maintain balance of continuity and change in both the internal and external structures of their lives
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family-focused lifestyle
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pattern of retirement activity that revolves around family, home, and companions
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balanced investment
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pattern of retirement activity allocated among family, work, and leisure
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aging in place
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remaining in one’s own home, with or without assistance, in later life

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