Developmental Psychology Flashcards

question

Ideal self is BEST defined as what a person
answer

what a person should be like
question

Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas for the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with her meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is BEST classified as
answer

easy
question

an overall evaluation of your own self-worth BEST defines your
answer

self-esteem
question

Which of Tela’s statements BEST exemplifies a narrative identity?
answer

i’m introverted
question

The fact that parents who are taught to interpret and respond more effectively to their child’s cues can produce calmer infants who cry less BEST illustrates the concept
answer

goodness of fit
question

Which statement indicates that Jade adheres to a collectivist culture philosophy?
answer

its not about me its about my country
question

Negative stereotypes concerning aging
answer

do more harm than good
question

The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment.
answer

dispositional traits
question

Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem?
answer

all in all, i am a owrthless individual
question

Which concept is BEST associated with an individual’s unique \”life story\”?
answer

narrative identity
question

Children’s initial recognition of themselves as physically separate from others corresponds with Erikson’s ____ psychosocial stage?
answer

trust vs mustrust
question

In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud.
answer

social influences on the development of the rational ego
question

Twenty-five-year-old Clint has gained enough confidence that he has decided to commit himself to a shared life with his girlfriend. Erikson would suggest that this indicates that Clint is most likely dealing with the conflict of
answer

intimy versus isolation
question

As a typical three-year-old, when asked about his self-concept, Talisker’s answer would typically focus on
answer

physical traits
question

The key characteristics of someone scoring high on the personality dimension of neuroticism would be
answer

hostile and anxious
question

both erickson and freud believe that
answer

people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development
question

Some of the Big Five traits first begin to show themselves in
answer

early childhood
question

The ____ identity status would BEST be described as \”crisis resolved and direction in life set.\”
answer

identity achievment
question

Which BEST summarizes the research on the \”midlife crisis\”?
answer

ost middle-age people experience some questioning of self during midlife, however few experience a true midlife crisis.
question

Research on successful aging has found
answer

more support for activity theory
question

Marsh and Kit-Tai Hua’s study on the \”big-fish-little-pond effect\” found that a student’s academic self-concept is less positive when students are
answer

in a school with a lot of high achievers
question

Ricardo is about to retire. In preparation he has begun to take up golf as a way to fill some of the time he would normally have been at work. Ricardo’s response BEST fits with the ____ theory concerning successful aging.
answer

activity
question

The most accurate description of a dispositional trait is that it is
answer

broad and relatively stable dimension of personality
question

The social learning perspective assumes that
answer

personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience
question

While she does not scream when her parents attempt to cuddle with her, Buffy does tend to look away and demonstrate some discomfort with this activity. With regard to temperament, Buffy is BEST classified as
answer

slow to warm
question

Margaret’s children are all in college. Margaret works as a legal secretary, and most of what she earns goes toward paying her children’s college tuition. Her own children lead busy lives, with friends and school activities occupying most of their time, so Margaret volunteers one evening each week at the Boys’ Home, reading bedtime stories to the young delinquents there. Margaret is BEST classified as fitting into Erikson’s stage of
answer

generavity versus stagnation
question

Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would MOST LIKELY be
answer

organized and self disciplined
question

What is the BEST advice concerning successful aging?
answer

Elderly people should be encouraged to find a good fit between their personality, preferences, and the environment in which they live.
question

The phrase, \”If only I had my life to live over again I would…\” is BEST associated with Erikson’s ____ psychosocial stage of development.
answer

integrity versus despair
question

According to Erikson, psychologically healthy middle-aged adults are MOST likely to
answer

develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations
question

Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson’s stage of
answer

generavity versus stagnation
question

Research on the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests that
answer

placing children with learning disabilities in a regular education room may negatively impact their self-esteem.
question

What is the developmental relationship between ideal self, present self, and future self?
answer

The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years.
question

The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period.
answer

moratoriam
question

People living in individualistic cultures tend to define themselves as
answer

individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society
question

Which is BEST described as the overall sense of who you are? Answer Selected Answer: c. identity
answer

question

At what age does personality tend to fully \”gel\” (i.e., begins to predict adult personality)? Answer Selected Answer: a. elementary school years
answer

question

Which is NOT one of McCrae and Costa’s traits? Answer Selected Answer: c. openness to experience Correct Answer: a. inferiority
answer

question

The debate concerning successful aging in old age involves the ____ debate. Answer Selected Answer: b. activity-disengagement Correct Answer: b. activity-disengagement
answer

question

The \”Big Five\” traits Answer Selected Answer: a. are genetically influenced Correct Answer: a. are genetically influenced
answer

question

Who would be MOST LIKELY to argue that the vast majority of personality is formed between birth and age 6? Answer Selected Answer: a. Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist Correct Answer: a. Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist Question 204 out of 4 points Correct Introversion-extraversion is best classified as a Answer Selected Answer: d. dispositional trait Correct Answer: d. dispositional trait
answer

question

The temperament dimension of ____ is defined as the tendency to be sad or easily frustrated. Answer Selected Answer: c. surgency Correct Answer: a. negative affectivity Question 224 out of 4 points Correct Research investigating Erikson’s claim that identity paves the way for the establishment of intimate relationships has revealed that Answer Selected Answer: a. the acquisition of a well-formed identity does appear to facilitate intimacy in relationships, but the impact may vary somewhat by sex and gender Correct Answer: a. the acquisition of a well-formed identity does appear to facilitate intimacy in relationships, but the impact may vary somewhat by sex and gender Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Slow-to-warm temperament is characterized by Answer Selected Answer: a. relative inactivity and mild reactions to change in routine Correct Answer: a. relative inactivity and mild reactions to change in routine Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Harter’s self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem Answer Selected Answer: d. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Correct Answer: d. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct About one year after she retired, Betty Joe suddenly became very unhappy and expressed the opinion that she now had nothing to do in her life. Atchley would argue that Betty Joe appears have entered the ____ phase of retirement. Answer Selected Answer: c. disenchantment Correct Answer: c. disenchantment
answer

question

____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual’s unique attributes, motives, and behaviors. Answer Selected Answer: b. Personality Correct Answer: b. Personality Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning vocational development in adolescence is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: b. Minority status may lead one to lower or compromise one’s career plans. Correct Answer: b. Minority status may lead one to lower or compromise one’s career plans. Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Children who are high in self-esteem have parents who Answer Selected Answer: b. have a \”warm\” and democratic parenting style Correct Answer: b. have a \”warm\” and democratic parenting style Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem? Answer Selected Answer: a. \”All-in-all, I am a worthless individual.\” Correct Answer: a. \”All-in-all, I am a worthless individual.\” Question 5 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Research has indicated that as individuals move from adolescence to middle-age they would be most likely to experience a modest increase in Answer Selected Answer: c. openness to new experience Correct Answer: a. conscientiousness Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Harter’s self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem Answer Selected Answer: b. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Correct Answer: b. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Jimmy’s mother paints his face like a clown for Halloween and holds him up to look at himself in the mirror. Jimmy laughs, and rubs his hands all over his own cheeks making a mess of the paint job! Given his behavior, the YOUNGEST you should expect Jimmy to be is Answer Selected Answer: c. 18 months Correct Answer: c. 18 months Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct When Joe looks in a mirror and remarks, \”Hey, that’s me!\” he is demonstrating Answer Selected Answer: d. self-recognition Correct Answer: d. self-recognition Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Temperament is BEST described as Answer Selected Answer: d. a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy Correct Answer: d. a genetically based tendency to respond in a predictable way that is first seen in early infancy Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct A positive sense of ethnic identity Answer Selected Answer: d. can protect an adolescent from damaging effects of racial discrimination Correct Answer: d. can protect an adolescent from damaging effects of racial discrimination Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud. Answer Selected Answer: b. social influences on the development of the rational ego Correct Answer: b. social influences on the development of the rational ego Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Cleo has received a high score on the conscientiousness scale of a personality test. This indicates that she would MOST LIKELY be Answer Selected Answer: d. well organized and highly self-disciplined Correct Answer: d. well organized and highly self-disciplined Question 13 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is ____ rooted. Answer Selected Answer: b. socially Correct Answer: a. subconsciously Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on early temperament and later development suggests that Answer Selected Answer: c. there is a meaningful relationship between early temperament and adult personality Correct Answer: c. there is a meaningful relationship between early temperament and adult personality Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Twenty-five-year-old Clint has gained enough confidence that he has decided to commit himself to a shared life with his girlfriend. Erikson would suggest that this indicates that Clint is most likely dealing with the conflict of Answer Selected Answer: c. intimacy versus isolation Correct Answer: c. intimacy versus isolation Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct The social learning perspective assumes that Answer Selected Answer: b. personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience Correct Answer: b. personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement indicates that Jade adheres to a collectivist culture philosophy? Answer Selected Answer: d. \”It’s not about me, it’s about my country.\” Correct Answer: d. \”It’s not about me, it’s about my country.\” Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Fonzie’s statement, \”I am a fairly incompetent motorcycle rider\” provides a good example of his Answer Selected Answer: c. self-concept Correct Answer: c. self-concept Question 19 0 out of 4 points Incorrect One-year-old Barker has some trouble dealing with new situations. In addition, he tends to be relatively inactive and moody. With regard to temperament, Barker is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: c. difficult Correct Answer: b. slow-to-warm Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that Answer Selected Answer: a. choices become more realistic Correct Answer: a. choices become more realistic Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is BEST described as the overall sense of who you are? Answer Selected Answer: a. identity Correct Answer: a. identity Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Margaret’s children are all in college. Margaret works as a legal secretary, and most of what she earns goes toward paying her children’s college tuition. Her own children lead busy lives, with friends and school activities occupying most of their time, so Margaret volunteers one evening each week at the Boys’ Home, reading bedtime stories to the young delinquents there. Margaret is BEST classified as fitting into Erikson’s stage of Answer Selected Answer: d. generativity versus stagnation Correct Answer: d. generativity versus stagnation Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson’s stage of Answer Selected Answer: b. generativity versus stagnation Correct Answer: b. generativity versus stagnation Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct The ____ identity status would BEST be described as \”active exploration of options.\” Answer Selected Answer: c. moratorium Correct Answer: c. moratorium Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct According to Erikson, psychologically healthy middle-aged adults are MOST likely to Answer Selected Answer: b. develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations Correct Answer: b. develop a deep concern with making a contribution to society and passing on something of value to younger generations
answer

question

Which statement regarding the achievement of identity status is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: d. The rate of identify achievement differs across domains of identity. Correct Answer: c. By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status. Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Rave is a blast at parties. She seems to love the spotlight and craves excitement. A psychometric theorist would MOST LIKELY describe Rave as being Answer Selected Answer: b. extraverted Correct Answer: b. extraverted Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Five-month-old Ruby is beginning to recognize that her mother, Opal, does not tend to come to feed her when she is hungry. According to Erikson, Ruby is currently involved in a psychosocial crisis of Answer Selected Answer: d. trust versus mistrust Correct Answer: d. trust versus mistrust Question 4 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Self-esteem rating tends to be highest in people in their Answer Selected Answer: c. thirties Correct Answer: a. sixties Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Research has indicated that as individuals move from adolescence to middle-age they would be most likely to experience a modest increase in Answer Selected Answer: d. conscientiousness Correct Answer: d. conscientiousness Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Children who are behaviorally inhibited are Answer Selected Answer: c. high in neuroticism and low in extraversion Correct Answer: c. high in neuroticism and low in extraversion Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning career issues is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: d. Gender-role expectations have little impact on one’s career. Correct Answer: d. Gender-role expectations have little impact on one’s career. Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct In comparing the views of Freud and Erikson with regard to personality development, it is MOST ACCURATE to say that Erikson placed MORE emphasis on ____ than did Freud. Answer Selected Answer: b. social influences on the development of the rational ego Correct Answer: b. social influences on the development of the rational ego Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct People living in individualistic cultures tend to define themselves as Answer Selected Answer: d. individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society Correct Answer: d. individuals, and put their own good ahead of that of society Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct A significant change in self-description that appears at about age eight is a shift from descriptions focusing on Answer Selected Answer: b. physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities Correct Answer: b. physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect With regard to personality development, what belief is shared by Albert Bandura and Erik Erikson? Answer Selected Answer: b. There are universal, age-related changes in personality development. Correct Answer: c. Personality has the potential to change during adulthood. Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Negative stereotypes concerning aging Answer Selected Answer: a. do more harm than good Correct Answer: a. do more harm than good Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct ____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual’s unique attributes, motives, and behaviors. Answer Selected Answer: b. Personality Correct Answer: b. Personality Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Vicki was reserved as a baby, shy as a child, and shy as an adult. Social learning theorists would say that Vicki Answer Selected Answer: b. is a product of environments that consistently fostered the same personality trait Correct Answer: b. is a product of environments that consistently fostered the same personality trait Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is likely to contribute MOST to change in personality across the life-span? Answer Selected Answer: a. poor person-environment fit Correct Answer: a. poor person-environment fit Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Rose is 16 years old and her sister Blossom is 9 years old. In terms of their self-perceptions, research would suggest that Answer Selected Answer: a. Rose would be more self-aware than Blossom. Correct Answer: a. Rose would be more self-aware than Blossom. Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment. Answer Selected Answer: c. dispositional traits Correct Answer: c. dispositional traits Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Harter’s self-perception research with children indicated that self-esteem Answer Selected Answer: b. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Correct Answer: b. is multidimensional, consisting of several distinct components Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement BEST exemplifies the concept of self-esteem? Answer Selected Answer: b. \”All-in-all, I am a worthless individual.\” Correct Answer: b. \”All-in-all, I am a worthless individual.\” Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is TRUE regarding personality during adulthood? Answer Selected Answer: d. Broad personality dimensions, such as extroversion and neuroticism, are fairly stable across adulthood. Correct Answer: d. Broad personality dimensions, such as extroversion and neuroticism, are fairly stable across adulthood. Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct While normally calm, 10-year-old Gretta becomes very shy and highly distressed when she is in an unfamiliar setting with people she does not know. Gretta would BEST be categorized as Answer Selected Answer: b. behaviorally inhibited Correct Answer: b. behaviorally inhibited Question 22 0 out of 4 points Incorrect When Carmello is playing basketball he is very aggressive. When he is playing at his house with his young daughter he is very passive. These situations BEST exemplify the concept of Answer Selected Answer: d. different context, same personality Correct Answer: a. different context, different personality Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Both Freud and Erikson believed that Answer Selected Answer: c. people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development Correct Answer: c. people in every culture progress through the same stages of personality development Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct A person high in negative affectivity would MOST LIKELY be described as Answer Selected Answer: a. irritable Correct Answer: a. irritable Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct One-year-old Markus loves interacting with his peers. A developmental theorist would MOST LIKELY describe Markus as being high on the ____ dimension of temperament. Answer Selected Answer: a. surgency Correct Answer: a. surgency
answer

question

Self-esteem rating tends to be highest in people in their Answer Selected Answer: b. sixties Correct Answer: b. sixties Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is ____ rooted. Answer Selected Answer: d. subconsciously Correct Answer: d. subconsciously Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Ricardo is about to retire. In preparation he has begun to take up golf as a way to fill some of the time he would normally have been at work. Ricardo’s response BEST fits with the ____ theory concerning successful aging. Answer Selected Answer: b. activity Correct Answer: b. activity Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Children who are behaviorally inhibited are Answer Selected Answer: a. high in neuroticism and low in extraversion Correct Answer: a. high in neuroticism and low in extraversion Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Some of the Big Five traits first begin to show themselves in Answer Selected Answer: d. early childhood Correct Answer: d. early childhood Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Winona’s mother and father are both professional singers, as are her two older sisters. Winona is in college, enrolled in a music curriculum. When asked about her career goals, Winona states \”I’ll be a singer, of course. Everyone in my family is a singer. I’ve never thought of being anything else.\” Winona ‘s identity status is BEST described in terms of Answer Selected Answer: c. identity achievement Correct Answer: d. foreclosure Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Five-month-old Ruby is beginning to recognize that her mother, Opal, does not tend to come to feed her when she is hungry. According to Erikson, Ruby is currently involved in a psychosocial crisis of Answer Selected Answer: c. trust versus mistrust Correct Answer: c. trust versus mistrust Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct The personality principle of ____ concerns situation-specific ways in which people adapt to their environment. Answer Selected Answer: d. dispositional traits Correct Answer: d. dispositional traits Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct The social learning perspective assumes that Answer Selected Answer: b. personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience Correct Answer: b. personality development is highly influenced by environmental experience Question 10 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Wanda is a college student who is currently experiencing a moratorium period. This means that she is MOST LIKELY Answer Selected Answer: b. experiencing a crisis of trust Correct Answer: d. relatively free of responsibilities Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct Sixty-year-old Irene has been a secretary for 30 years. Despite her advancing age, her typing skills remain excellent. This is in most part due to the fact that Irene continues to practice her typing every day. The Baltes’ would suggest that the process of ____ is MOST responsible for Irene’s continued high level of performance. Answer Selected Answer: c. optimization Correct Answer: c. optimization Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Which of the following utterances clearly demonstrates the development of a categorical sense of self? Answer Selected Answer: b. \”I big girl\” Correct Answer: b. \”I big girl\” Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement would indicate that an individual has a high level of surgency? Answer Selected Answer: d. \”I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people.\” Correct Answer: d. \”I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people.\” Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct With regard to personality development during adulthood, which is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: b. There is generally more change in personality between adolescence and middle age than there is between middle age and old age. Correct Answer: b. There is generally more change in personality between adolescence and middle age than there is between middle age and old age. Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period. Answer Selected Answer: b. moratorium Correct Answer: b. moratorium Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement regarding the achievement of identity status is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status. Correct Answer: b. By age 20, most individuals have reached complete identity achievement status. Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct What is the developmental relationship between ideal self, present self, and future self? Answer Selected Answer: a. The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years. Correct Answer: a. The three aspects of self are most similar in the elderly adult years. Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct When considering himself, Shaggy thinks, \”While I am not any of these things, I should be smart, I should be nice, I should be good at sports.\” These thoughts BEST represent Shaggy’s Answer Selected Answer: a. ideal self Correct Answer: a. ideal self Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct About one year after she retired, Betty Joe suddenly became very unhappy and expressed the opinion that she now had nothing to do in her life. Atchley would argue that Betty Joe appears have entered the ____ phase of retirement. Answer Selected Answer: d. disenchantment Correct Answer: d. disenchantment Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct Using a life story approach McLean and Pratt (2006) found that the more the sophisticated the \”meaning making\” in an adolescent’s life narrative the Answer Selected Answer: d. less likely they would be in a state of foreclosure Correct Answer: d. less likely they would be in a state of foreclosure Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct The key characteristics of someone scoring high on the personality dimension of neuroticism would be Answer Selected Answer: d. hostile and anxious Correct Answer: d. hostile and anxious Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct The fact that parents who are taught to interpret and respond more effectively to their child’s cues can produce calmer infants who cry less BEST illustrates the concept of Answer Selected Answer: a. goodness of fit Correct Answer: a. goodness of fit Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality Answer Selected Answer: b. is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits Correct Answer: b. is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Who would be MOST LIKELY to argue that the vast majority of personality is formed between birth and age 6? Answer Selected Answer: d. Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist Correct Answer: d. Fred, who is a psychodynamic theorist Question 25 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Who is MOST LIKELY to experience a decrease in self-esteem in early adolescence? Answer Selected Answer: b. a Latino female Correct Answer: a. a white female
answer

question

Which statement would indicate that an individual has a high level of surgency? Answer Selected Answer: d. \”I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people.\” Correct Answer: d. \”I am always excited, in a good way, to meet people.\” Question 24 out of 4 points Correct After months of consideration, college sophomore Burrhus has just come to the conclusion that a career in psychology is the right thing for him. As a result he has just switched to a psychology major and has signed up for several psychology courses for the next semester. Concerning his career plans, Burrhus appears to be in the ____ status stage. Answer Selected Answer: b. identity achievement Correct Answer: b. identity achievement Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct With regard to personality development, what belief is shared by Albert Bandura and Erik Erikson? Answer Selected Answer: c. Personality has the potential to change during adulthood. Correct Answer: c. Personality has the potential to change during adulthood. Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is NOT one of McCrae and Costa’s traits? Answer Selected Answer: b. inferiority Correct Answer: b. inferiority Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct A significant change in self-description that appears at about age eight is a shift from descriptions focusing on Answer Selected Answer: c. physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities Correct Answer: c. physical characteristics to descriptions focusing on social qualities Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct The average newborn appears to have Answer Selected Answer: c. no sense of self Correct Answer: c. no sense of self Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on successful aging has found Answer Selected Answer: d. more support for activity theory Correct Answer: d. more support for activity theory Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Who is MOST LIKELY to experience a decrease in self-esteem in early adolescence? Answer Selected Answer: d. a white female Correct Answer: d. a white female Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Three-month-old Gerber is eating strained peas for the very first time. Despite the fact that this is a new experience, Gerber appears quite happy with her meal. With regard to temperament, Gerber is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: b. easy Correct Answer: b. easy Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Easy temperament is characterized by Answer Selected Answer: d. happiness and openness to new experience Correct Answer: d. happiness and openness to new experience Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct The \”Big Five\” traits Answer Selected Answer: b. are genetically influenced Correct Answer: b. are genetically influenced Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct The main development trend concerning vocational identity in late adolescence is that Answer Selected Answer: d. choices become more realistic Correct Answer: d. choices become more realistic Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Harrison believes that Erikson’s theory of personality development is very accurate. Thus, Harrison would MOST LIKELY believe that his 17-year-old son, Ford, would currently be experiencing the psychosocial conflict involving Answer Selected Answer: d. identity and role confusion Correct Answer: d. identity and role confusion Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Forty-year-old Zelda is proud of the tutoring she is doing at school with kids who have learning problems, and feels that she is doing something positive for future generations. It is MOST LIKELY that Zelda is in Erikson’s stage of Answer Selected Answer: d. generativity versus stagnation Correct Answer: d. generativity versus stagnation Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Fonzie’s statement, \”I am a fairly incompetent motorcycle rider\” provides a good example of his Answer Selected Answer: a. self-concept Correct Answer: a. self-concept Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct ____ is defined as an organized combination of an individual’s unique attributes, motives, and behaviors. Answer Selected Answer: d. Personality Correct Answer: d. Personality Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct The period of experimenting with different roles that is so common during adolescence is referred to as the ____ period. Answer Selected Answer: b. moratorium Correct Answer: b. moratorium Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Children first begin to define themselves as part of a group around ____ years of age. Answer Selected Answer: b. 2 Correct Answer: a. 8 Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct Children’s initial recognition of themselves as physically separate from others corresponds with Erikson’s ____ psychosocial stage? Answer Selected Answer: c. trust versus mistrust Correct Answer: c. trust versus mistrust Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct In most settings, an easy temperament is associated with more positive adaptation. However, in times of famine, infants with \”difficult\” temperaments in the Masai tribe have been known to outlive babies with \”easy\” temperaments. This finding is used to illustrate the important effect that ____ has on developmental outcome. Answer Selected Answer: d. goodness-of-fit Correct Answer: d. goodness-of-fit Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct As a typical three-year-old, when asked about his self-concept, Talisker’s answer would typically focus on Answer Selected Answer: b. physical traits Correct Answer: b. physical traits Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Ideal self is BEST defined as what a person Answer Selected Answer: c. should be like Correct Answer: c. should be like Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct We all share the same Answer Selected Answer: b. human nature Correct Answer: b. human nature Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct The psychometric approach to personality has led researchers to believe that personality Answer Selected Answer: a. is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits Correct Answer: a. is best thought of in terms of a set of stable traits Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct The ____ identity status would BEST be described as \”no conflict, no crisis, and no clue.\” Answer Selected Answer: d. diffusion Correct Answer: d. diffusion
answer

question

In general, young adolescents Answer Selected Answer: a. are more accepting of peers’ cross-sex interests than they are likely to be as adults Correct Answer: c. view gender-role violations as a sign of psychological abnormality Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Renaldo (a male) is extremely affectionate, gentle, and understanding. Given these traits, he is MOST LIKELY to be classified as ____ if he were to take a gender role test. Answer Selected Answer: b. feminine sex-typed Correct Answer: b. feminine sex-typed Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Males out-perform females on tests of mental rotation Answer Selected Answer: c. throughout the life span Correct Answer: c. throughout the life span Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that Answer Selected Answer: b. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Correct Answer: b. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the BEST example of an in-group/out-group gender schema? Answer Selected Answer: b. Boys can fight but girls should play nice. Correct Answer: b. Boys can fight but girls should play nice. Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: d. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Correct Answer: d. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct RuPaul has just come to realize that when a boy dresses like a girl they do not actually become a girl. In cognitive developmental theory, RuPaul appears to have just acquired Answer Selected Answer: c. gender consistency Correct Answer: c. gender consistency Question 8 0 out of 4 points Incorrect \”I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do.\” This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development? Answer Selected Answer: a. biosocial theory Correct Answer: c. cognitive-developmental theory Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation. Answer Selected Answer: d. hormonal Correct Answer: d. hormonal Question 10 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: a. Men and women tend to develop more similar gender roles after their children have \”left the nest.\” Correct Answer: c. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to Answer Selected Answer: a. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Correct Answer: a. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Question 12 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles (e.g., a boy wearing nail polish)? Answer Selected Answer: c. a seven-year-old and a nine-year-old Correct Answer: d. a five-year-old and a 13-year-old Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true? Answer Selected Answer: d. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Correct Answer: d. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Question 14 0 out of 4 points Incorrect With regard to children’s views of gender stereotypes, research has indicated that Answer Selected Answer: a. nine-year-olds are more bothered than five-year-olds when kids engage in activities that violate gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: c. five-year-olds are more upset by violations of gender-role stereotypes than are nine-year-olds Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: c. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: c. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: b. boy is to girl Correct Answer: b. boy is to girl Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a Answer Selected Answer: d. frequent, long-term event involving a close relative Correct Answer: d. frequent, long-term event involving a close relative Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which of the following is TRUE regarding children’s knowledge of sex and reproduction? Answer Selected Answer: a. Children tend to rely on adult explanations for reproduction, rather than constructing their own form of understanding. Correct Answer: b. Children’s level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development. Question 19 0 out of 4 points Incorrect When asked if it is OK for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, \”Absolutely not, it’s a rule that only girls can play with dolls.\” Based on Damon’s research on gender-roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery MOST LIKELY to be? Answer Selected Answer: a. eight-years-old Correct Answer: c. six-years-old Question 20 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The most common criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that Answer Selected Answer: b. there is no evidence that the development of cognitive skills is related to the acquisition of gender typing Correct Answer: d. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Question 21 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which two groups view violations of gender roles most negatively? Answer Selected Answer: b. preschoolers and elementary school-age children Correct Answer: a. kindergartners and adolescents Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Through her mother’s efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive’s mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: a. gender typing Correct Answer: a. gender typing Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: d. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Correct Answer: d. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Question 24 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is Answer Selected Answer: a. The Oedipus complex Correct Answer: c. identification Question 25 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Baron-Cohen claims that a man’s tendency to systemize is the result of Answer Selected Answer: b. a double standard Correct Answer: a. having a male brain
answer

question

RuPaul has just come to realize that when a boy dresses like a girl they do not actually become a girl. In cognitive developmental theory, RuPaul appears to have just acquired Answer Selected Answer: a. gender consistency Correct Answer: a. gender consistency Question 24 out of 4 points Correct The establishment of primarily same-sexed friendships is first apparent by around age Answer Selected Answer: d. 30 months Correct Answer: d. 30 months Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Which BEST illustrates gender segregation? Answer Selected Answer: b. seeing one group consisting of all girls playing at one end of a gym and an all-boy group playing at the other end Correct Answer: b. seeing one group consisting of all girls playing at one end of a gym and an all-boy group playing at the other end Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Each society generally has a set of expectations regarding the behaviors and traits that are considered appropriate for males as compared to females. These sets of expectations are Answer Selected Answer: b. gender roles Correct Answer: b. gender roles Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning current teen sexuality is the United States is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: a. Teens tend to view oral sex as significantly more \”intimate\” than did their parents’ generation. Correct Answer: a. Teens tend to view oral sex as significantly more \”intimate\” than did their parents’ generation. Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability? Answer Selected Answer: b. Tom, who says \”Once a boy always a boy.\” Correct Answer: b. Tom, who says \”Once a boy always a boy.\” Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Five-year-old Emeril loves watching cooking shows on television. Emeril’s dad is very concerned that by watching these shows, Emeril will become feminine. Which type of theorist would be MOST LIKELY to agree with Emeril’s dad’s concern over the impact of television on gender role development? Answer Selected Answer: d. a social learning theorist Correct Answer: d. a social learning theorist Question 8 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Regarding sexuality during old age Answer Selected Answer: d. only a very small minority (less than 5 percent) of people over age 70 continue to engage in sexual intercourse Correct Answer: b. sexual activity is most common when a person is married (versus divorced) Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Which trait is BEST associated with the tendency to systemize? Answer Selected Answer: b. exploration of how things work Correct Answer: b. exploration of how things work Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct \”Agency\” is defined as the Answer Selected Answer: c. central aspect of the masculine gender role Correct Answer: c. central aspect of the masculine gender role Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect In general, gender roles Answer Selected Answer: a. tend to remain constant across the adult years Correct Answer: b. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Question 12 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Gender instrumentality is to expressivity as Answer Selected Answer: a. analytical is to companionate Correct Answer: d. assertive is to affectionate Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Through her mother’s efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive’s mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: a. gender typing Correct Answer: a. gender typing Question 14 0 out of 4 points Incorrect In psychoanalytic theory, the process in which a child resolves the biologically based love for the parent of the opposite sex by emulating their behavior and attitudes is called Answer Selected Answer: a. reaction formation Correct Answer: b. identification Question 15 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The goal of the gender role aspect called \”agency\” is to prepare a person for Answer Selected Answer: a. the onset of sexual urges in puberty Correct Answer: d. individual achievement Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of Answer Selected Answer: c. children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents Correct Answer: c. children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: b. boy is to girl Correct Answer: b. boy is to girl Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research? Answer Selected Answer: a. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Correct Answer: a. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Question 19 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency. Answer Selected Answer: b. formal operational thought Correct Answer: c. concrete operational thought Question 20 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender typing suggests all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: a. early biological developments influence how parents label and treat a child at birth Correct Answer: c. fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior Question 21 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women? Answer Selected Answer: c. a physiological incapacity to engage in intercourse Correct Answer: d. lack of a partner Question 22 0 out of 4 points Incorrect ____ females have external genitalia that resemble those of a boy. Answer Selected Answer: b. Androgynous Correct Answer: d. Androgenized Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are Answer Selected Answer: d. more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers Correct Answer: d. more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to Answer Selected Answer: c. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Correct Answer: c. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Question 25 0 out of 4 points Incorrect While Charlotte is growing up she is socialized into believing that a woman should stay home and take care of the children while men go off to work and \”bring home the bacon.\” This message BEST reflects what your text refers to as a Answer Selected Answer: b. gender-role stereotype Correct Answer: c. gender-role norm
answer

question

Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: d. boy is to girl Correct Answer: d. boy is to girl Question 24 out of 4 points Correct The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that Answer Selected Answer: c. match their own-sex schemata Correct Answer: c. match their own-sex schemata Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male? Answer Selected Answer: b. XY Correct Answer: b. XY Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct With regard to gender-role development, social learning theorists have been criticized for Answer Selected Answer: a. portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process Correct Answer: a. portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Correct Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: c. Actual sex differences are large and they make a major difference in a society. Correct Answer: a. Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society. Question 7 0 out of 4 points Incorrect According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development Answer Selected Answer: d. is highly dependent on the successful mastery of the Oedipus or Electra complex Correct Answer: c. depends on stagelike changes in thinking Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Gender schemata Answer Selected Answer: a. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Correct Answer: a. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy? Answer Selected Answer: a. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Correct Answer: a. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Carl Jung’s notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of Answer Selected Answer: d. androgyny shift Correct Answer: d. androgyny shift Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect A baby with an XY chromosome pattern Answer Selected Answer: b. can develop the internal system of a male or female, but can only develop the external genitalia of a male Correct Answer: d. can develop the internal or external sex and reproductive system of either sex Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called Answer Selected Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Question 13 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Androgyny refers to individuals who are Answer Selected Answer: b. low in masculine traits and low in feminine traits Correct Answer: d. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct According to Freudians, identification is MOST LIKELY to be used to resolve anxiety due to Answer Selected Answer: d. incestuous desire Correct Answer: d. incestuous desire Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society? Answer Selected Answer: d. caring for a sick child Correct Answer: d. caring for a sick child Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct The theory that becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” is referred to as the Answer Selected Answer: d. parental imperative Correct Answer: d. parental imperative Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The social-role hypothesis predicts that Answer Selected Answer: a. gender differences are fairly universal because they originate in biological differences Correct Answer: c. gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is Answer Selected Answer: d. identification Correct Answer: d. identification Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as Answer Selected Answer: d. gender identity Correct Answer: d. gender identity Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct The most common criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that Answer Selected Answer: b. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Correct Answer: b. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the \”parental imperative\” what would you expect to happen to Ward and June’s gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally? Answer Selected Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Correct Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women? Answer Selected Answer: d. lack of a partner Correct Answer: d. lack of a partner Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research? Answer Selected Answer: c. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Correct Answer: c. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true? Answer Selected Answer: a. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Correct Answer: a. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: d. boy is to girl Correct Answer: d. boy is to girl Question 2 4 out of 4 points Correct The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that Answer Selected Answer: c. match their own-sex schemata Correct Answer: c. match their own-sex schemata Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male? Answer Selected Answer: b. XY Correct Answer: b. XY Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct With regard to gender-role development, social learning theorists have been criticized for Answer Selected Answer: a. portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process Correct Answer: a. portraying children as passive participants in the developmental process Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Correct Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: c. Actual sex differences are large and they make a major difference in a society. Correct Answer: a. Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society. Question 7 0 out of 4 points Incorrect According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development Answer Selected Answer: d. is highly dependent on the successful mastery of the Oedipus or Electra complex Correct Answer: c. depends on stagelike changes in thinking Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Gender schemata Answer Selected Answer: a. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Correct Answer: a. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy? Answer Selected Answer: a. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Correct Answer: a. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Carl Jung’s notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of Answer Selected Answer: d. androgyny shift Correct Answer: d. androgyny shift Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect A baby with an XY chromosome pattern Answer Selected Answer: b. can develop the internal system of a male or female, but can only develop the external genitalia of a male Correct Answer: d. can develop the internal or external sex and reproductive system of either sex Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called Answer Selected Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Question 13 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Androgyny refers to individuals who are Answer Selected Answer: b. low in masculine traits and low in feminine traits Correct Answer: d. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct According to Freudians, identification is MOST LIKELY to be used to resolve anxiety due to Answer Selected Answer: d. incestuous desire Correct Answer: d. incestuous desire Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society? Answer Selected Answer: d. caring for a sick child Correct Answer: d. caring for a sick child Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct The theory that becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” is referred to as the Answer Selected Answer: d. parental imperative Correct Answer: d. parental imperative Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The social-role hypothesis predicts that Answer Selected Answer: a. gender differences are fairly universal because they originate in biological differences Correct Answer: c. gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is Answer Selected Answer: d. identification Correct Answer: d. identification Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as Answer Selected Answer: d. gender identity Correct Answer: d. gender identity Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct The most common criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that Answer Selected Answer: b. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Correct Answer: b. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the \”parental imperative\” what would you expect to happen to Ward and June’s gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally? Answer Selected Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Correct Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women? Answer Selected Answer: d. lack of a partner Correct Answer: d. lack of a partner Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Regarding the Freudian perspective on sex-role development, which of the following has NOT been supported by research? Answer Selected Answer: c. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Correct Answer: c. Boys identify with fathers primarily out of fear. Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true? Answer Selected Answer: a. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Correct Answer: a. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
answer

question

Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes Answer Selected Answer: d. are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves Correct Answer: d. are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: d. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Correct Answer: d. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Question 3 0 out of 4 points Incorrect On which of the following points do ALL the theories of gender-role development agree? Answer Selected Answer: d. Gender roles depend on acquiring a certain level of cognitive development. Correct Answer: a. Gender roles that children develop depend on what their society offers in terms of gender models. Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Gutmann’s hypothesis regarding the \”parental imperative\” suggests that Answer Selected Answer: b. becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” Correct Answer: b. becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” Question 5 0 out of 4 points Incorrect A major difference between Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory and Martin and Halverson’s gender-schema theory is that gender-typing in the gender-schema theory Answer Selected Answer: c. does not begin to develop until after children have developed gender stability and gender consistency Correct Answer: a. begins as soon as children acquire gender identity at around two to three years of age Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect In what area of mathematics do females show a slight edge? Answer Selected Answer: a. problem-solving skills Correct Answer: c. grades in math class Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct According to the concept of androgyny shift, Answer Selected Answer: a. during midlife people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with the opposite sex Correct Answer: a. during midlife people begin to adopt some of the gender traits associated with the opposite sex Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: b. boy is to girl Correct Answer: b. boy is to girl Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning sex differences is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: a. Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society. Correct Answer: a. Although actual sex differences are small, they make a major difference in a society. Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct For the first time in her life, little Glenda looks at her mom and says, \”Glenda is a girl.\” This statement indicates that Glenda has just achieved Answer Selected Answer: c. gender identity Correct Answer: c. gender identity Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: a. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Correct Answer: a. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Twin studies on sexual orientation show that Answer Selected Answer: b. genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation Correct Answer: b. genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Correct Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Boys go through a phase where they adore their mothers and resent, even fear, their fathers. Freud referred to this phase as involving a(n) ____ complex. Answer Selected Answer: d. Oedipus Correct Answer: d. Oedipus Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, \”The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt.\” Hef’s comments best exemplify the concept of Answer Selected Answer: a. the double standard Correct Answer: a. the double standard Question 17 0 out of 4 points Incorrect In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has Answer Selected Answer: d. joint attention Correct Answer: c. gender roles Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Most children clearly demonstrate basic gender identity by Answer Selected Answer: d. 2? to 3 years of age Correct Answer: d. 2? to 3 years of age Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that Answer Selected Answer: b. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Correct Answer: b. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicates that Answer Selected Answer: c. fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys Correct Answer: c. fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys Question 21 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be Answer Selected Answer: a. achievement oriented Correct Answer: d. sensitive Question 22 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which statement concerning toddlers’ understanding of gender roles is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: a. Females and males appear to understand gender-based activities at the same age. Correct Answer: c. Females appear to understand gender-based activities earlier than males. Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct The social-role hypothesis predicts that Answer Selected Answer: a. gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society Correct Answer: a. gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Recent research by Morrongiello and Hogg found that when asked to imagine their children misbehaving, moms reported that they felt ____ toward their sons and ____ toward their daughters. Answer Selected Answer: c. anger; disappointment Correct Answer: c. anger; disappointment Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true? Answer Selected Answer: d. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Correct Answer: d. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex.
answer

question

Carl Jung’s notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of Answer Selected Answer: c. androgyny shift Correct Answer: c. androgyny shift Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Correct Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Which type of theorist would be most likely to argue that watching videos in which males are rewarded for sexual violence would directly lead to them engaging in violent sex acts in order to be manly? Answer Selected Answer: b. a social learning theorist Correct Answer: b. a social learning theorist Question 4 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The BEST summary concerning differences in verbal abilities is that Answer Selected Answer: b. females appear to have a large advantage Correct Answer: c. females appear to have a small advantage Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation. Answer Selected Answer: c. hormonal Correct Answer: c. hormonal Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Some individuals inherit an XX chromosome pattern but are exposed prenatally to drugs that are converted to male hormones once in the body. These individuals are likely to Answer Selected Answer: c. have masculinized genitalia and behave in more \”masculine ways\” Correct Answer: c. have masculinized genitalia and behave in more \”masculine ways\” Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: a. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct \”I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do.\” This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development? Answer Selected Answer: b. cognitive-developmental theory Correct Answer: b. cognitive-developmental theory Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct What is the MOST LIKELY behavioral outcome of exposing a female rhesus monkey to testosterone during its prenatal time of development? Answer Selected Answer: b. It will attempt to sexually \”mount\” male partners when it reaches sexual maturity. Correct Answer: b. It will attempt to sexually \”mount\” male partners when it reaches sexual maturity. Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct In general, gender roles Answer Selected Answer: b. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Correct Answer: b. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct Which of the following tends to be found at higher levels in males? Answer Selected Answer: b. confidence in use of computers Correct Answer: b. confidence in use of computers Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender typing, gender-role development Answer Selected Answer: d. depends on stagelike changes in thinking Correct Answer: d. depends on stagelike changes in thinking Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because Answer Selected Answer: b. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Correct Answer: b. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct The basic premise of gender schema theory is that children actively seek objects and/or activities that Answer Selected Answer: b. match their own-sex schemata Correct Answer: b. match their own-sex schemata Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender typing suggests all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: c. fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior Correct Answer: c. fetal chromosomal differences (e.g., XX versus XY) are the most important factors in determining gender-role behavior Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Gutmann’s hypothesis regarding the \”parental imperative\” suggests that Answer Selected Answer: a. becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” Correct Answer: a. becoming parents pressures males to be more \”masculine\” and females to be more \”feminine\” Question 17 0 out of 4 points Incorrect According to Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender-role development, Answer Selected Answer: c. Children begin acting like boys or girls once they acquire gender identity and constancy. Correct Answer: a. Several critical biological events set the stage for different social reactions to males and females. Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: d. androgynous sex-typed Correct Answer: b. undifferentiated Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct What childhood behavior did the authors of the text use as an analogy for the decline in sexual activity in old age? Answer Selected Answer: a. riding a bike Correct Answer: a. riding a bike Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct Twin studies on sexual orientation show that Answer Selected Answer: a. genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation Correct Answer: a. genetic and environmental influences appear about equally responsible for sexual orientation Question 21 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Adults are asked to interact with an unknown infant. Half of the adults are told that the infant is \”Steve\” and the other half of the adults are told that the infant is \”Stacy.\” What are you likely to observe of these interactions? Answer Selected Answer: d. At such a young age, there are not likely to be any differences in how adults treat the infant in the two conditions. Correct Answer: c. Adults are likely to rate \”Steve\” as strong and brave and \”Stacy\” as soft and cuddly. Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Androgyny refers to individuals who are Answer Selected Answer: c. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Correct Answer: c. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Question 23 0 out of 4 points Incorrect With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. Hormones influence the development of the testes and ovaries. Correct Answer: d. External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception. Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Five-year-old Emeril loves watching cooking shows on television. Emeril’s dad is very concerned that by watching these shows, Emeril will become feminine. Which type of theorist would be MOST LIKELY to agree with Emeril’s dad’s concern over the impact of television on gender role development? Answer Selected Answer: a. a social learning theorist Correct Answer: a. a social learning theorist Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called Answer Selected Answer: a. gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: a. gender-role stereotypes
answer

question

Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because Answer Selected Answer: d. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Correct Answer: d. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Question 24 out of 4 points Correct Adults are asked to interact with an unknown infant. Half of the adults are told that the infant is \”Steve\” and the other half of the adults are told that the infant is \”Stacy.\” What are you likely to observe of these interactions? Answer Selected Answer: d. Adults are likely to rate \”Steve\” as strong and brave and \”Stacy\” as soft and cuddly. Correct Answer: d. Adults are likely to rate \”Steve\” as strong and brave and \”Stacy\” as soft and cuddly. Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on reinforcement of sex-appropriate behavior indicates that Answer Selected Answer: d. fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys Correct Answer: d. fathers are more likely than mothers to discourage youngsters for playing with gender-inappropriate toys Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct \”Agency\” is defined as the Answer Selected Answer: d. central aspect of the masculine gender role Correct Answer: d. central aspect of the masculine gender role Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: c. undifferentiated Correct Answer: c. undifferentiated Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be Answer Selected Answer: a. sensitive Correct Answer: a. sensitive Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes Answer Selected Answer: c. are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves Correct Answer: c. are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: c. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Correct Answer: c. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct From the time they are born, twins Johnny (a boy) and Joannie (a girl) are treated diversely. For example, whenever Johnny plays with a truck his parents praise his behavior. Whenever Joannie shows an interest in a doll her parents praise her actions. A social learning theorist would likely argue that this ____ will likely lead to distinct gender roles for Johnny and Joannie. Answer Selected Answer: a. differential reinforcement Correct Answer: a. differential reinforcement Question 10 0 out of 4 points Incorrect According to cognitive developmental theory, the initial phase of gender identity is established around age two or three, when a child Answer Selected Answer: a. first begins to use the terms \”boy\” and \”girl\” Correct Answer: c. recognizes that they are a male or female Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which is the BEST example of an agency aspect of gender? Answer Selected Answer: d. emotionality Correct Answer: b. dominance Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a male? Answer Selected Answer: d. XY Correct Answer: d. XY Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Some individuals inherit an XX chromosome pattern but are exposed prenatally to drugs that are converted to male hormones once in the body. These individuals are likely to Answer Selected Answer: c. have masculinized genitalia and behave in more \”masculine ways\” Correct Answer: c. have masculinized genitalia and behave in more \”masculine ways\” Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Carl Jung’s notion that during middle age, men and women both begin to express both their feminine and masculine sides is BEST associated with the concept of Answer Selected Answer: c. androgyny shift Correct Answer: c. androgyny shift Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct Based on research by Stoddart and Turiel, which two people would you expect to hold the most negative attitudes concerning the violation of gender roles (e.g., a boy wearing nail polish)? Answer Selected Answer: c. a five-year-old and a 13-year-old Correct Answer: c. a five-year-old and a 13-year-old Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Whose statement indicates an understanding of gender stability? Answer Selected Answer: b. Tom, who says \”Once a boy always a boy.\” Correct Answer: b. Tom, who says \”Once a boy always a boy.\” Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a female? Answer Selected Answer: c. XX Correct Answer: c. XX Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Jack and Jill. They make no bones about telling Jack that he should be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jill should be a nurse, since women are good at taking care of other people. Given the fact that male-female differences in math and nurturing are questionable, the Hill’s message BEST reflects what your text calls a(n) Answer Selected Answer: b. sex difference Correct Answer: c. gender-role stereotype Question 19 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now Answer Selected Answer: c. more likely to be homosexual Correct Answer: b. more likely to engage in sexual intercourse Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the BEST example of an in-group/out-group gender schema? Answer Selected Answer: b. Boys can fight but girls should play nice. Correct Answer: b. Boys can fight but girls should play nice. Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: c. External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception. Correct Answer: c. External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception. Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct Oedipus is to Electra as Answer Selected Answer: c. boy is to girl Correct Answer: c. boy is to girl Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Research supports all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: a. self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children Correct Answer: a. self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Audrey grows up in a family in which her father provides at-home day care and her mother is a construction worker. A social learning theorist would be MOST LIKELY to explain Audrey’s unusual attitudes (i.e., she loves trucks and hates dolls) in terms of Answer Selected Answer: c. observational learning Correct Answer: c. observational learning Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women? Answer Selected Answer: c. lack of a partner Correct Answer: c. lack of a partner
answer

question

Observations of infants and infant sexuality suggest all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: c. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Correct Answer: c. they actively seek sexual contact with other infants Question 24 out of 4 points Correct The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency. Answer Selected Answer: a. concrete operational thought Correct Answer: a. concrete operational thought Question 3 0 out of 4 points Incorrect In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has Answer Selected Answer: b. androgyny Correct Answer: c. gender roles Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, \”The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt.\” Hef’s comments best exemplify the concept of Answer Selected Answer: c. the double standard Correct Answer: c. the double standard Question 5 0 out of 4 points Incorrect According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of Answer Selected Answer: c. observational learning Correct Answer: b. children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Gender schemata Answer Selected Answer: c. involve behaviors, not expectations Correct Answer: d. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Question 7 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Compared to 50 years ago, adolescents in the United States are now Answer Selected Answer: a. more likely to be homosexual Correct Answer: d. more likely to engage in sexual intercourse Question 8 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Research on children who are victims of sexual abuse has indicated that Answer Selected Answer: a. over 75 percent of victims engage in \”sexualized behaviors\” including public masturbation and extreme promiscuity Correct Answer: c. victims can experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder Question 9 0 out of 4 points Incorrect With regard to biological differentiation of the sexes, which is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: a. It is possible for a male (XY) fetus to develop a female internal reproductive system. Correct Answer: d. External genitalia are fully differentiated by the fourth week after conception. Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Communality roles are designed to prepare someone to be Answer Selected Answer: d. sensitive Correct Answer: d. sensitive Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct The process by which children become aware of the fact that they are either male or female and that there are different cultural expectations concerning the pattern of behavior for the two sexes is called Answer Selected Answer: a. gender typing Correct Answer: a. gender typing Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Baron-Cohen claims that a man’s tendency to systemize is the result of Answer Selected Answer: b. having a male brain Correct Answer: b. having a male brain Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because Answer Selected Answer: a. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Correct Answer: a. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: d. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: d. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 15 0 out of 4 points Incorrect When asked if it is OK for a boy to play with dolls, Geoffery says, \”Absolutely not, it’s a rule that only girls can play with dolls.\” Based on Damon’s research on gender-roles and stereotypes, what age is Geoffery MOST LIKELY to be? Answer Selected Answer: b. eight-years-old Correct Answer: a. six-years-old Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the BEST example of a communality role in American society? Answer Selected Answer: b. caring for a sick child Correct Answer: b. caring for a sick child Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Women Answer Selected Answer: a. tend to have a shorter sexual refractory period than men Correct Answer: a. tend to have a shorter sexual refractory period than men Question 18 0 out of 4 points Incorrect \”Agency\” is defined as the Answer Selected Answer: a. desire for a sexual relationship with a parent Correct Answer: b. central aspect of the masculine gender role Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as Answer Selected Answer: a. gender identity Correct Answer: a. gender identity Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct The most common criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental explanation of gender-typing is that Answer Selected Answer: a. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Correct Answer: a. children often acquire gender-typed behaviors and preferences before they acquire gender stability and consistency Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning gender roles in adulthood is FALSE? Answer Selected Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Correct Answer: b. In families where both parents work, the division of housework is 50-50. Question 22 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Through her mother’s efforts, Olive has just come to realize that she is a girl. In the near future, Olive’s mother will teach Olive about the kinds of behaviors expected of girls. This instruction is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: b. gender-role stereotyping Correct Answer: c. gender typing Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Which of the following is TRUE regarding children’s knowledge of sex and reproduction? Answer Selected Answer: b. Children’s level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development. Correct Answer: b. Children’s level of understanding is linked to their cognitive development. Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation. Answer Selected Answer: c. hormonal Correct Answer: c. hormonal Question 25 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Research on individuals from the Dominican Republic who are raised as girls (due to the ambiguous genitalia), but become males following puberty has challenged the Money and Ehrhardt argument that Answer Selected Answer: a. genes play a key role in gender development Correct Answer: d. socialization during the first three years of life is critical
answer

question

Cyndi has just found out the results from a gender role test. According to the test, she has few female traits and few male traits. Given this score, Cyndi is BEST classified as Answer Selected Answer: c. androgynous sex-typed Correct Answer: b. undifferentiated Question 24 out of 4 points Correct When discussing sex with his buddies, Hef says, \”The key is to understand that normal guys want and need sex, whereas girls who want sex are immoral and corrupt.\” Hef’s comments best exemplify the concept of Answer Selected Answer: b. the double standard Correct Answer: b. the double standard Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct The initial awareness that you are either a boy or girl is referred to as Answer Selected Answer: c. gender identity Correct Answer: c. gender identity Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Prior to the birth of their first child Ward and June have very strong gender role orientation. Ward, the father, is extremely masculine while June, the mother, is extremely feminine. According to the \”parental imperative\” what would you expect to happen to Ward and June’s gender roles following the birth of their first son, Wally? Answer Selected Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Correct Answer: b. There will be little change in their gender roles. Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Which would BEST fit with the theory that differential treatment by parents negatively influences math skills in the child through the creation of self-fulfilling prophecy? Answer Selected Answer: d. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Correct Answer: d. Parents attribute their daughter’s math success to hard work (not skill), and the daughter becomes convinced that she is no good at math. Question 6 0 out of 4 points Incorrect While Charlotte is growing up she is socialized into believing that a woman should stay home and take care of the children while men go off to work and \”bring home the bacon.\” This message BEST reflects what your text refers to as a Answer Selected Answer: c. gender-role stereotype Correct Answer: d. gender-role norm Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct \”I am a boy. Therefore I want to do the things boys do.\” This statement is reflective of which theoretical perspective regarding gender-role development? Answer Selected Answer: b. cognitive-developmental theory Correct Answer: b. cognitive-developmental theory Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct According to psychoanalytic theory, gender-role development occurs primarily as a result of Answer Selected Answer: d. children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents Correct Answer: d. children patterning themselves after their same-sex parents Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct Each society generally has a set of expectations regarding the behaviors and traits that are considered appropriate for males as compared to females. These sets of expectations are Answer Selected Answer: d. gender roles Correct Answer: d. gender roles Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Which of the following tends to be found at higher levels in males? Answer Selected Answer: d. confidence in use of computers Correct Answer: d. confidence in use of computers Question 11 4 out of 4 points Correct Most children clearly demonstrate basic gender identity by Answer Selected Answer: a. 2? to 3 years of age Correct Answer: a. 2? to 3 years of age Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on sexual orientation indicates that Answer Selected Answer: a. consistent, strong cross-sex interests in late childhood may predict later homosexual or bisexual orientation Correct Answer: a. consistent, strong cross-sex interests in late childhood may predict later homosexual or bisexual orientation Question 13 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are Answer Selected Answer: c. more compliant than boys in all situations Correct Answer: d. more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct In general, gender roles Answer Selected Answer: d. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Correct Answer: d. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct According to the cognitive-developmental perspective of gender typing, which is the most mature understanding? Answer Selected Answer: c. understanding that gender is stable across situations Correct Answer: c. understanding that gender is stable across situations Question 16 0 out of 4 points Incorrect The key element of gender-role norms is that within a society they are viewed as Answer Selected Answer: a. stereotypes Correct Answer: b. desirable characteristics Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Barry is a father who displays a sense of weak masculinity to his four-year-old son Gary. According to Freud, the MOST LIKELY impact of Barry’s actions on Gary would be that Gary would Answer Selected Answer: c. show similar patterns of weak masculinity in later life Correct Answer: c. show similar patterns of weak masculinity in later life Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called Answer Selected Answer: d. gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: d. gender-role stereotypes Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct Recent research by Morrongiello and Hogg found that when asked to imagine their children misbehaving, moms reported that they felt ____ toward their sons and ____ toward their daughters. Answer Selected Answer: b. anger; disappointment Correct Answer: b. anger; disappointment Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct One promising theory is that ____ influences during prenatal development are responsible for determining your sexual orientation. Answer Selected Answer: c. hormonal Correct Answer: c. hormonal Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct ____ females have external genitalia that resemble those of a boy. Answer Selected Answer: b. Androgenized Correct Answer: b. Androgenized Question 22 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which biological event directly results in the growth of a penis in a male fetus? Answer Selected Answer: c. receiving a Y chromosome at conception Correct Answer: b. secretion of testosterone by the testes Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Which appears to contribute MOST to the lack of sexual activity among old women? Answer Selected Answer: b. lack of a partner Correct Answer: b. lack of a partner Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct In families where parents show clear patterns of differential reinforcement concerning sex-appropriate behavior, children tend to Answer Selected Answer: d. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Correct Answer: d. develop strong sex-appropriate toy preferences Question 25 4 out of 4 points Correct Maccoby proposed that young children segregate themselves into same-sex peer groups because Answer Selected Answer: a. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together Correct Answer: a. their play styles are different from one another, making it difficult for the two groups to play together
answer

question

Gender schemata Answer Selected Answer: b. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Correct Answer: b. influence what people pay attention to and remember regarding gender Question 24 out of 4 points Correct The Freudian concept that is MOST closely related to observational learning is Answer Selected Answer: b. identification Correct Answer: b. identification Question 3 4 out of 4 points Correct \”Agency\” is defined as the Answer Selected Answer: b. central aspect of the masculine gender role Correct Answer: b. central aspect of the masculine gender role Question 4 4 out of 4 points Correct Spanky, Alfalfa, and the rest of the boys in the first grade class have decided that from now on boys will only play with boys and never with girls. This decision provides a nice example of the concept of Answer Selected Answer: a. gender segregation Correct Answer: a. gender segregation Question 5 4 out of 4 points Correct Androgyny refers to individuals who are Answer Selected Answer: c. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Correct Answer: c. high in masculine traits and high in feminine traits Question 6 4 out of 4 points Correct Research supports all of the following EXCEPT Answer Selected Answer: d. self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children Correct Answer: d. self-stimulation (including masturbation) is very uncommon in school-age children Question 7 4 out of 4 points Correct Gender stability is defined as understanding that Answer Selected Answer: a. gender is stable across time Correct Answer: a. gender is stable across time Question 8 4 out of 4 points Correct Which BEST summarizes current research on androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: d. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Correct Answer: d. Being androgynous does not appear to have any damaging effects. Question 9 4 out of 4 points Correct In the hypothetical country called Ozland, females drive trucks and males drive cars. This indicates that Ozland has Answer Selected Answer: b. gender roles Correct Answer: b. gender roles Question 10 4 out of 4 points Correct Which type of theorist would be most likely to argue that watching videos in which males are rewarded for sexual violence would directly lead to them engaging in violent sex acts in order to be manly? Answer Selected Answer: c. a social learning theorist Correct Answer: c. a social learning theorist Question 11 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Which statement concerning toddlers’ understanding of gender roles is TRUE? Answer Selected Answer: b. Females and males appear to understand gender-based activities at the same age. Correct Answer: c. Females appear to understand gender-based activities earlier than males. Question 12 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on individuals from the Dominican Republic who are raised as girls (due to the ambiguous genitalia), but become males following puberty has challenged the Money and Ehrhardt argument that Answer Selected Answer: b. socialization during the first three years of life is critical Correct Answer: b. socialization during the first three years of life is critical Question 13 4 out of 4 points Correct The Piagetian concept of ____ appears to be MOST directly linked to the acquisition of gender consistency. Answer Selected Answer: d. concrete operational thought Correct Answer: d. concrete operational thought Question 14 4 out of 4 points Correct Which statement concerning the development of genitalia and internal reproductive structures is true? Answer Selected Answer: c. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Correct Answer: c. A fertilized egg can acquire the anatomical and physiological features of either sex. Question 15 4 out of 4 points Correct The defining element of gender-role stereotypes is that they are Answer Selected Answer: c. largely inaccurate Correct Answer: c. largely inaccurate Question 16 4 out of 4 points Correct If American children Nicholas (a boy) and Alexandra (a girl) are typical of other members of their sex, then you would predict that Answer Selected Answer: d. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Correct Answer: d. Alexandra would show more interest in caring for an infant. Question 17 4 out of 4 points Correct Recent research on sex differences suggests that girls are Answer Selected Answer: a. more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers Correct Answer: a. more compliant than boys with authority figures but not with peers Question 18 4 out of 4 points Correct Overgeneralizations about attributes for each sex are called Answer Selected Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Correct Answer: b. gender-role stereotypes Question 19 4 out of 4 points Correct The impact of sexual abuse appears to be MOST severe when the abuse was a Answer Selected Answer: b. frequent, long-term event involving a close relative Correct Answer: b. frequent, long-term event involving a close relative Question 20 4 out of 4 points Correct How would you demonstrate androgyny? Answer Selected Answer: c. Be both assertive and compassionate. Correct Answer: c. Be both assertive and compassionate. Question 21 4 out of 4 points Correct What childhood behavior did the authors of the text use as an analogy for the decline in sexual activity in old age? Answer Selected Answer: d. riding a bike Correct Answer: d. riding a bike Question 22 4 out of 4 points Correct In general, gender roles Answer Selected Answer: b. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Correct Answer: b. become more differentiated in a married couple following the birth of a child Question 23 4 out of 4 points Correct Research on gender-role stereotypes has shown that in the United States during the past few decades gender-role stereotypes have Answer Selected Answer: d. changed slightly Correct Answer: d. changed slightly Question 24 4 out of 4 points Correct Which is the MOST common chromosome pattern for a female? Answer Selected Answer: b. XX Correct Answer: b. XX Question 25 0 out of 4 points Incorrect Eagly argues that gender role stereotypes Answer Selected Answer: b. result from biological differences between males and females Correct Answer: d. are driven by the social context in which males and females find themselves
answer

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member