Dance History Final Exam

Flashcard maker : Paula Corcoran
Athotus
An Egyptian God, the ancient egyptians believed that he was the creator of dance.
Elizabeth I
Was an accomplished dancer, and expected no less of her court. ladies were expected to sing and dance
Catherine de’ Medici
Brought the Italian ballet with her to France when she married the Duke of Orleans in and she became queen of France in 1547. During her reign, ballet de cour developed
King Louis XIV
Reigned from 1643 to 1715, was known as the sun god for his role as Le Roi Soleil. He established the Academie Royale de Musique, and commissioned more than 1,000 ballets
Pierre Beauchamps
A dancer in Louis XIV’s court, he clarified the 5 feet positions and developed a notation system. He was the first ballet master at the Academie Royale de la Musique.
Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx
Came to the French court as Catherine de’ Medici’s personal servant in 1555. In 1573 he arranged Le Ballet des Polonais, and in 1581 he arranged Le Ballet-Comique de la Reine
Maria Camargo
Has quick and complicated footwork, and she shortened the skirt to above the ankles and discarded her high heels for flat slippers
Enrico Cecchetti
He was a dancer, mime, and a teacher. He developed a logical progression of class exercises and components and balanced the adagio and allegro parts of the class
Filippo Taglioni
A ballet master who traveled all over Europe, in 1822 he created the ballet La Reception d’une jeune nymphe a la cour de Terpsichore. He often worked his daughter to exhaustion
Marie Taglioni
She became the embodiment of the spirit of Romanticism. She transformed ballets with the use of pointe shoes, and she danced in the ballets her father made for her
Carlotta Grisi
She danced the lead is Gliselle, and was believed to be the first ballerina to wear a blocked slipper to dance en pointe
Lucile Grahn
He was considered the greatest male dancer of the Romantic era, he created Ondine La Esmeralda, Pas de Quatre, Le jugement de Paris, and Faust
Jules Perrot
He was considered the greatest male dancer of the Romantic era, he created Ondine La Esmeralda, Pas de Quatre, Le jugement de Paris, and Faust
Jean Coralli
His ballet Giselle was produced with Perrot, and he choreographed La Diable Boiteux and La Peri
Salvatore Vigano
He produced Creatures of Prometheus. He became known as the Father of Italian Ballet. His ideas about staging the individual members of the corps de ballet resurfaced in the next century
Carlo Blasis
His contributions were as a teacher and his writings as a ballet theorist. He invented the attitude and distinguished three types of dancers; the serious, the demi-character, and the comic dancer. He is considered one of the most important teachers of the 19th century.
Marius Petipa
Made his fame in Russia, he created many ballets that are known as the classics of ballet; Don Quixote, La Bayadere, The Sleeping Beauty, CInderella, and Swan Lake. His standards for ballet started the classical era for ballets
P.I. Tchaikovsky
A composer who wrote music for Petipa
Pierina Legnani
Became famous for performing 32 fouettes en tournant in Cinderella in 1893. She was the only European dancer to be appointed Prima Ballerina assoluta in Russia.
William Henry Lane
One of the most influential performers of the 19th century American dance and the initiator of elements that were to become tap dance. He even performed at London’s Buckingham Palace and in New York.
Bert Williams
First African American to perform on broadway and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time.
George M. Cohan
In the decade before WWI he was known as the man who owned broadway, he wrote, composed, and performed in over 3 dozen broadway musicals
Serge Diaghilev
Him and his company had a long-term influence on 20th century ballet, dancers, and choreographers. He created productions that provided a total theatrical experience with scenery, costumes, music, and other arts.
Michel Fokine
He established ballet as a major dramatic form, creating Les Sylphides, Firebird, and Petrushka. He brought back the male dancer as the central figure in ballet, and his 5 principles transformed it into an expressive art.
Vaslav Nijinsky
Created Afternoon of a Faun, and always performed the part of the Faun. His choreographic contributions were bold extensions, and he created a new place for the male dancer that would equal that of the ballerina.
Igor Stravinsky
Composed music for many ballet scores. Worked with Fokine and Balanchine.
Ruth St. Denis
Known as \”The first lady of AMerican Modern Dance\”. She and her husband established the Denishawn school in Los Angeles, and later founded the Society of Spiritual Arts.
Ted Shawn
Established the Denishawn school, used free adaptations of ballet technique in his choreography. He focused on restoring the male as the lead role. He also started Jacob’s Pillow.
Isadora Duncan
Her style of dance created a unique choreographic statement that was accepted by some and rejected by others, she used Greek themes a lot and focused on moving the body with emotion. She used an empty stage space with free-flowing costumes and bare feet.
George Balanchine
He focused on abstract ballet and neoclassical style, ans collaborated with Stravinsky. He formed Les Ballets in 1933, and choreographed for the Metropolitan Opera. Created over 426 ballets, known as the Father of American Ballet.
Lincoln Kirsten
Was devoted to creating an American Ballet, he was instrumental in organizing Ballet Caravan, and he became the Director of Ballet Society.
Agnes de Mille
In the 1930s, she performed in London at the Ballet Club. She created Rodeo in 1943, and choreographed Oklahoma! in 1943. In 1974 she established the Agnes de Mille Heritage Dance Theatre at North Carolina School of the Arts.
Katherine Dunham
A dancer, choreographer, anthropologist, teacher, and writer who founded Ballet Negre at the University of Chicago in 1931. She opened the Dunham school of dance in 1945. She influenced many artists, and choreographed over 90 dances.
Martha Graham
In 1927 she established a company and school in New York, but she left the stage in 1972. She has very expressive, codified movement that is based on contraction and release. She has over 181 dances
Hanya Holm
One of the four major influences of modern dance, she focused on movement in relation to space and on emotion as the basis for creating movement. Her generic dance technique became the basis for modern dance courses taught in colleges.
Doris Humphrey
In 1927 she established a company and school in New York, but she left the stage for health reasons in 1945. She explored the conflict of man with his environment, and explored movement. She wrote The Art of Making Dances in 1959, about the craft of choreography.
Charles Weidman
At 19 he began to study at Denishawn, after 8 years he went to establish his own company, the Humphrey-Weidman studio and company. It dissolved in 1945. His choreography was a blend of dance with mime, comedy, and wit
John Martin
The first drama critic for the New York Times. He wrote The Modern Dance and Introduction to Dance and World Book of Modern Dance.
Jerome Robbins
Established the Jerome Robbins Film Archives. Split his time between ballet and Broadway, made famous for West Side Story and Fiddler of the Roof.
Pearl Primus
Her work combined Afro-Caribbean movements with jazz, and she created dances based on African American literary and musical works. Established the African Performing Arts Center and he Primus-Borde School of Primal Dance in New York.
Lester Horton
His choreography was often related to social activism, and he relied on costuming, decor, and theatricality to create a sense of a total theater experience. His technique expands the body’s movement range and builds a strong versatile dancer.
Jose Limon
Formed the Jose Limon Dance Company in 1946, was a strong role model for men in modern dance, with his works normally being based on a literary theme. Two of his most famous were The Moor’s Pavane and There Is a Time.
Mikhail Baryshnikov
He was short, but his technical virtuosity made him danseur noble material. He did classical ballet and modern dance, and also expanded his performance into film and TV acting.
Rudolf Nureyev
One of the foremost male dancers of the 20th century, he became the director of the Paris Opera Ballet in 1983, restoring the company to world class status. His passion, charisma, and beauty made him an icon in the ballet world.
Alvin Ailey
Known as the first chronicler of the black experience, he studied under Lester Horton and founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in 1958 in New York. He used Afro-American energy in modern jazzy choreography.
John Cage
Considered the principal theorist of new music, and his collaborations with Cunningham were groundbreaking for dance, so that the movement came from the dancers, not the music.
Merce Cunningham
He staged events at museums, outdoors, and in gyms. His choreography was concerned with space and time, and he rehearsed his dancers without music. Was responsible for chance operations in modern dance.
Steve Paxton
Contact Improvisation was one of his major innovations, he was also involved in the formation of the Judson Dance Theater.
Yvonne Rainer
A founding member of New York’s Judson Dance Theater, and she started the Grand Union. Rainer’s work emphasized the human interaction between performer and audience.
Twyla Tharp
She choreographed films, and other works. She was known for her layered movement phrases and asks the dancers to figure out how to make them work, relying on relationships within a group, and not on counts.
Trisha Brown
She became one of the founding members of the Judson Dance theater. She explores movement, unaccented phrases, body weight, and the idea of falling. Her dances are very connected to the floor.
Mark Morris
Established the Lark Morris Dance Group in 1980. His musicality, eclectic music, and complex rhythms created a strong underpinning for dances with wit, themes of community, and contrasting views of emotions.
Jiri Kylian
A well known contemporary dancer who choreographed Petit Mort.
Bob Fosse
Major influence on jazz dance, he used jazz hands and inverted leg positions, which differed from other dancers of the time.
Eugene \”Luigi\” Facciuto
Considered the father of jazz dance
Rudolf von Laban
Developed Labanotation, a system for notating dance and movement.
Afternoon of a Faun
Choreographed by Nijinsky, a very sexual dance involving nymphs.
Appalachian Spring
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a young couple celebrates the building of their new home.
Ballet Comique de la Reine
Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx, the first ballet in Europe.
Chicago
Choreographed by Bob Fosse
Fancy Free
Choreographed by Robbins, captured the American spirit of the 1940’s.
Firebird
Choreographed by Fokine, based off of a Russian fairy tale.
Giselle
Choreographed by Jules Perrot
Hair
Choreography and music by James Rado and Gerome Ragni
Jewels
Choreographed by George Balanchine, based on Jewels and the different feelings they evoked.
Lamentation
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a solo dancer covered in fabric sits on a bench, shows grief.
La Sylphide
Choreographed by Filippo Taglioni in 1832, it was a love story based on a story by Charles Nodier.
Oklahoma!
Choreographed by Agnes de Mille, the dream sequence was the most popular scene
Pas de Quatre
Choreographed by Jules Perrot, a plotless ballet in 1845 that brought together Marie Taglioni, Fanny Cerrito, Carlotta Grisi, and Lucile Grahn.
Petit Mort
Choreographed by Jiri Kylian
Petrouchka
Choreographed by Michel Fokine, three puppets danced in a love story
Push Comes to Shove
Choreographed by Twyla Tharp, considered the most successful American since work since Fancy Free.
Roof Piece
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, involving dancers on rooftops who sent movement messages from one to the next
Revelations
Choreographed by Alvin Ailey, his signature piece consisting of spirituals and gospel songs.
Serenade
Choreographed by George Balanchine with music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
Swan Lake
Re-created by Petipa in 1895, a four act ballet that tells the story of Princess Odette. It is considered the prototype of Classical ballet
The Hard Nut
Choreographed by Mark Morris, a spoof of the Nutcracker.
The Nutcracker
Petipa, little of the original ballet is left today other than the grande pas de deux
The Moor’s Pavane
Jose Limon, based off of Shakespeare’s Othello.
The Pajama Game
Choreographed by Bob Fosse.
Trio A
Choreographed by Yvonne Rainer, a 5 minute performance where three dancers performed their own works simultaneously.
Walking on Walls
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, dancers in harnesses walked down walls of the Whitney Museum
West Side Story
Choreographed by Jerome Williams, a famous musical.
Afternoon of a Faun
Choreographed by Nijinsky, a very sexual dance involving nymphs.
Appalachian Spring
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a young couple celebrates the building of their new home.
Ballet Comique de la Reine
For the court of Catherine de’ Medici, the first ballet in Europe.
Chicago
Choreographed by Bob Fosse
Fancy Free
Choreographed by Robbins, captured the American spirit of the 1940’s.
Firebird
Choreographed by Fokine, based off of a Russian fairy tale.
Giselle
Choreographed by Jules Perrot
Hair
Choreography and music by James Rado and Gerome Ragni
Jewels
Choreographed by George Balanchine, based on Jewels and the different feelings they evoked.
Lamentation
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a solo dancer covered in fabric sits on a bench, shows grief.
La Sylphide
Choreographed by Filippo Taglioni in 1832, it was a love story based on a story by Charles Nodier.
Pas de Quatre
Choreographed by Jules Perrot, a plotless ballet in 1845 that brought together Marie Taglioni, Fanny Cerrito, Carlotta Grisi, and Lucile Grahn.
Petit Mort
Choreographed by Jiri Kylian
Petrouchka
Choreographed by Michel Fokine, three puppets danced in a love story
Push Comes to Shove
Choreographed by Twyla Tharp, considered the most successful American since work since Fancy Free.
Roof Piece
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, involving dancers on rooftops who sent movement messages from one to the next
Revelations
Choreographed by Alvin Ailey, his signature piece consisting of spirituals and gospel songs.
Serenade
Choreographed by George Balanchine with music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
Swan Lake
Re-created by Petipa in 1895, a four act ballet that tells the story of Princess Odette. It is considered the prototype of Classical ballet
The Hard Nut
Choreographed by Mark Morris, a spoof of the Nutcracker.
The Nutcracker
First produced in 1892 at the Maryinsky theater, little of the original ballet is left today other than the grande pas de deux
The Moor’s Pavane
Jose Limon, based off of Shakespeare’s Othello.
The Pajama Game
Choreographed by Bob Fosse.
Trio A
Choreographed by Yvonne Rainer, a 5 minute performance where three dancers performed their own works simultaneously.
Walking on Walls
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, dancers in harnesses walked down walls of the Whitney Museum
West Side Story
Choreographed by Jerome Williams, a famous musical.
Afternoon of a Faun
Choreographed by Nijinsky, a very sexual dance involving nymphs.
Appalachian Spring
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a young couple celebrates the building of their new home.
Ballet Comique de la Reine
For the court of Catherine de’ Medici, the first ballet in Europe.
Chicago
Choreographed by Bob Fosse
Fancy Free
Choreographed by Robbins, captured the American spirit of the 1940’s.
Firebird
Choreographed by Fokine, based off of a Russian fairy tale.
Giselle
Choreographed by Jules Perrot
Hair
Choreography and music by James Rado and Gerome Ragni
Jewels
Choreographed by George Balanchine, based on Jewels and the different feelings they evoked.
Lamentation
Choreographed by Martha Graham, a solo dancer covered in fabric sits on a bench, shows grief.
La Sylphide
Choreographed by Filippo Taglioni in 1832, it was a love story based on a story by Charles Nodier.
Oklahoma!
Pas de Quatre
Choreographed by Jules Perrot, a plotless ballet in 1845 that brought together Marie Taglioni, Fanny Cerrito, Carlotta Grisi, and Lucile Grahn.
Petit Mort
Choreographed by Jiri Kylian
Petrouchka
Choreographed by Michel Fokine, three puppets danced in a love story
Push Comes to Shove
Choreographed by Twyla Tharp, considered the most successful American since work since Fancy Free.
Roof Piece
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, involving dancers on rooftops who sent movement messages from one to the next
Revelations
Choreographed by Alvin Ailey, his signature piece consisting of spirituals and gospel songs.
Serenade
Choreographed by George Balanchine with music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
Swan Lake
Re-created by Petipa in 1895, a four act ballet that tells the story of Princess Odette. It is considered the prototype of Classical ballet
The Hard Nut
Choreographed by Mark Morris, a spoof of the Nutcracker.
The Nutcracker
First produced in 1892 at the Maryinsky theater, little of the original ballet is left today other than the grande pas de deux
The Moor’s Pavane
Jose Limon, based off of Shakespeare’s Othello.
The Pajama Game
Choreographed by Bob Fosse.
Trio A
Choreographed by Yvonne Rainer, a 5 minute performance where three dancers performed their own works simultaneously.
Walking on Walls
Choreographed by Trisha Brown, dancers in harnesses walked down walls of the Whitney Museum
West Side Story
Choreographed by Jerome Robbins, a famous musical.
Denishawn School and Company
Started by Ted Shawn and Ruth St. Denis, it was the highest paid and most noteworthy dance company in the United States from 1921 to 1925.
Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo
Originated in St. petersburg, Russia. Diaghilev started it.
Grand Union
A group of artists who worked without a leader, including Yvonne Rainer, Steve Paxton, Douglas Dunn, and Trisha Brown. Their performances included jokes, stories, and songs. They were around from 1962 to 1964.
Judson Dance Theater
Housed in the 19th century Judson Memorial Church, and it was a spawning ground for dance in the 1960s and 1970s.
American Ballet Theatre
One of the major dance companies in the 1960s and 1970s in America, they brought new works into the repertory and recycled the classics. They also toured the United States and are still popular today.
New York City Ballet
An outgrowth of Ballet Society, opened at the New York City Center of Music and Drama in 1948. In the 1950s NYCB began to tour major American cities and abroad. In 1964 it moved to the New York State Theater at Lincoln Center. One of the most famous companies of the time period.
Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo
An all male dance group who dance in drag and on pointe and perform classical ballets with a humorous interpretation.
Cleveland and San Jose joint company
Two cities shared funding and dancers, the first of it’s kind. It was a joint company to save money due to lack of funding.
Break Dance
Originated in the Bronx in the 1970s, became popular in the 1980s. It began as dance battles to substitute for violence.
Characters identified in the romantic era of ballet
Filippo Taglioni, Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Fanny Cerrito, Lucile Grahn, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot, Jean Coralli, and August Bournonville.
Charleston dance
Popular in America popular during the 1920s, could be done as a single, partner, or group dance.
Contact Improvisation
It expanded dance, and was based on the physical space and the use of floors, walls, chairs, props, or people in initiating weight transfers, counterbalance and trust exercises, rolling, falling, and lifting.
Contradance
Has roots in the late Renaissance, it followed the minuet and a suite of court dances. It was performed with couples in two straight lines, and each couple took turns being the head couple.
Difference between classical and romantic ballet
Romanticism began as a literary movement in Germany in the second half of the 18th century. It was a revolt against reason, science, authority, and tradition. It was a spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings. They featured females as the leading characters and stars of the dance, with audiences being transported to faraway fantasy lands. Classical ballet was taken from romantic ballet with added plot lines, pointe work, and partnering. Ballet became more technical, with dramatic storylines and mime scenes.
Earliest dance artifacts
Painting on walls, pottery.
Elements of the minstrel shows
Early 19th century American entertainment, Mr. Interlocutor was the man in the middle of the half-circle of performers, he was the straight man for the jokes between Tambo and Bones, who sat at opposite sides of the half-circle. The olio was the beginning of the specialty act in vaudeville, and a band played for the show.
Emphasis of the visual arts during the golden age of Greece
The Greeks strove for an unrealistic form of ideal beauty in their art, and they emphasized form, proportion, balance, and realism. They made three dimensional sculptures.
Expansion of the arts in early America
Much was due to the railroad expanding to the west, which made it easier for ideas and people to spread.
Forms of dance entertainment in early America
Most of early dance entertainment were tours from those outside of the United States, and they performed in theaters, Vauxhalls, museums, and traveling circuses.
Grand Pas de Deux
Developed from the pas de deux in romantic ballets, has four parts. The first part is an adagio where the dancers begin with grandiose bows, the second is the male variation, the third is the female variation, and the fourth is the finale or coda with an allegro tempo.
Hustle
Made popular by the movie Saturday Night Fever
Jacob’s Pillow
Started by Ted Shawn, a summer destination for students of modern dance, where they learned from artists who were developing the direction of 20th century dance.
Main theoretical principles of Graham technique
contractions and releases
Major influences on Roman theatre
The biggest influence in the ROman theater came from the Greeks.
Most respected art form in the 18th and 19th century
The Opera
Oldest group form of dance design
circle dances
Pantomime
Rome is credited with the contribution of this, and it is a dance-drama without words.
Pavane
The pavane was a ceremonial dance performed by the nobility to display their attitude, meaning the peacock. It was a slow dance performed in 4/4 time, where couples executed simple forward and backwards steps as they moved around the hall.
Prehistoric dance themes
plant, human, and animal fertility
life span celebrations-birth, initiations, marriage, funeral
weapon and was dances-preparing for war, mourning dead
medicine or healing dances
supernatural, spiritual, and religious dances
Prehistory of dance
the period before writing.
Shamans
The physician, religions leader, and lead dancer who possessed magical powers. They taught dances and rituals to the tribe, and performed all the tribal dances. They also had specific jobs like reading weather signs, directing the planting, determining water and fire control, predicting the future, and diagnosing illnesses. They have power to get into a trance and dance-known as ecstatic dance.
Spectacle of court dance
Entertainment for the nobility and their friends, the dancers were the aristocracy and the courtiers. They distracted the aristocracy and the court from the ruler’s political ills. Three parts, there was an entry dance, a basse danse, and the last was a spectacle for entertainment.
Tarantella
The most famous dance associated with the dance epidemics. Supposedly someone bitten by a tarantula would dance until exhausted to rid the body of poison. Several variations developed in Europe.
War dance formations
They were performed either as choral dances (using opposing group movements to simulate battles) or chain dances (from warriors attacked and the rear defended). There were sword dances, and the typical war dance had three part, the before, during, and after the battle.
What did Ruth Denis and Ted Shawn do with the costumes after the Denishawn school shut down?
They burned them

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