Cybercrime

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Law enforcement has been threatened and weakened by the advent of the Internet and has not been able to benefit from it.
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False
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Increasing dependence on cyber information is one of the disadvantages of the Internet.
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true
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Much computer-related crime involves specialist users.
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False
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The lack of physical boundaries and the removal of traditional jurisdictional demarcations allow perpetrators to commit multinational crime with little fear of judicial sanctions.
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true
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Electronic purses come in two primary types: limited or closed, and multipurpose or open.
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false
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Which of the following is true of the Digital Revolution?
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) It has created a new forum for both terrorist activity and criminal behavior.
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has traditionally encompassed abuses and misuses of computer systems or computers connected to the Internet, resulting in direct and concomitant losses.
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Cybercrime
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includes any criminal activity which involves the unauthorized access, dissemination, manipulation, destruction, or corruption of electronically stored data.
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Digital crime
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Which of the following allows perpetrators to commit multinational cybercrime with little fear of judicial sanctions?
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B) The lack of physical boundaries
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what according to a study conducted by the Department of Justice, were perceived as the number one target for computer crime?
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C) businesses
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Which of the following is NOT a problem in the investigation of cybercrime?
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D) a widespread perception of cybercrime as worse than “traditional” crime
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Which of the following is NOT a reason why many businesses and corporations underreport computer crimes?
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A) consumers don’t care about confidentiality
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Which of the following is a valid reason why a corporation might welcome federal assistance to help catch a cyber criminal?
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) Criminals access different services to disguise their location.
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Corporations and private entities that offer discounts on software or training to law enforcement agencies are called ________.
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C) friendly vendors
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Expenditures on which area represent a nonrecurring expense for a computer crime unit?
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D) establishing a computer laboratory
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Traditionally, trial and appellate courts evaluated the constitutionality of computer crime statutes, searches, and investigations through the lens of the ________.
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A) First and Fourth Amendments
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What did the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals rule in U.S. v. Finley?
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B) The post-arrest search of a suspect’s cell phone was constitutional.
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Which of the following is an example of computer-initiated criminal activity?
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C) wire transfers
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All the following are categories into which computer crimes are traditionally divided EXCEPT ________.
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D) computer as a weapon
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One of the earliest examples of computer crime is ________, which consists of an activity in which telecommunications systems are manipulated and ultimately compromised.
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A) phreaking
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Which of the following involves payments that rely on a bank account and a web-based transfer of funds to or from an established financial account?
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C) Internet payment services
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Which of the following characteristics of new payment methods has facilitated money laundering and terrorist financing?
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A) anonymity in transactions
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Closed system cards and open system cards are two primary types of ________.
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B) prepaid cards
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Which of the following e-payment methods stores funds on an integrated circuit chip in the card?
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C) stored value card
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Which payment method is typically associated with a card payment network such as Visa or MasterCard?
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D) prepaid card
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For users, 24-hour accessibility equates to 24-hour vulnerability.
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A) True
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One of the earliest computers developed by Charles Babbage was created to tabulate the 1880 U.S. census.
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B) False
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The smallest piece of data is called a bit.
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A) True
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Operating systems may be either single-user or multiple-user.
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A) True
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Intranets are small local networks connecting computers within one organization, controlled by a common system administrator.
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A) True
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For what purpose did British scientists build Colossus I?
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D) cryptanalysis
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What is the term used to describe the final destination of discarded, lost, or destroyed data?
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…C) bit bucket
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What is the most important component of a computer?
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… C) motherboard
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Which of the following tells the computer in which order to access drives?
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… A) boot sequence
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What is the purpose of random access memory in the computer system?
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… D) to temporarily store information
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Which Windows operating system paved the way for the development of peer-to-peer networks?
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… A) Windows NT 3.1
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Which of the following is a self-contained program that may spread functional copies of itself to other computer systems?
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… C) worm
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What is Gopher?
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… A) an information retrieval tool
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What is a collection of hyperlinked pages of information distributed over the Internet via a network protocol?
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… C) World Wide Web
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Which of the following is NOT a reason for the popularity of bulletin boards among subversive organizations?
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… B) perception of Second Amendment protection
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Which of the following refers to the unauthorized attempt to gain access to information about a system?
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… D) probe
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How are websites identified?
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… C) through uniform resource locator
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Which of the following is structured to allow users to participate in real-time conversations?
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… A) chat rooms
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Who developed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)?
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… C) John W. Mauchly and John Presper Eckert
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In which Mac OS did Apple introduce its first Unix-based operating system?
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… A) Mac OS X
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Which of the following interprets program instructions and processes data in the computer?
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… B) central processing unit
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What is the term used to refer to the method of cracking passwords by manually entering all possible key combinations?
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… B) brute force
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Which of the following devices introduces commands and information to the computer?
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… D) keyboard
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What does the term wetware refer to?
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… A) humans operating computers
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Who was the first person to successfully introduce a device exclusively designed for data processing?
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… B) Herman Hollerith
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Like traditional communication carriers, Internet service providers are required to maintain transmission records.
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… B) False
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The issue of vicinage has been simplified by the lack of international guidelines for cyberactivity.
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… B) False
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Not all crimes involving computers can be characterized as “computer crime.”
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…A) True
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Blue boxes were extremely popular among college dorms and were widely considered harmless by users.
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… A) True
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Traditional hacker culture was characterized by an antiestablishment rhetoric.
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… A) True
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What can the exponential increase in online harassment, stock manipulation, and child pornography be attributed to?
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… D) the increase in anonymous e-mail accounts and remailers
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Which of the following is a factor that leads many individual users of the Internet to assume that their identities are safely protected?
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… A) the dearth of interjurisdictional communications
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________ are designed to strip the source-address information from e-mail messages.
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… B) Anonymizers
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Which of the following is NOT a general category of computer crime?
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… C) vicinage
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Which was the first event to signal the potential of computer crime?
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… C) the hacking of the MILNET system
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________ hat hackers are individuals who identify and exploit system vulnerabilities for nefarious purposes.
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… D) Black
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Which of the following hacking-related developments occurred after the year 2000?
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… D) the emergence of identity theft as an issue for consumers
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What was the Illuminati?
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…A) a board owned and operated by Steve Jackson Games
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Which of the following hacking-related developments occurred during the 1990s?
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… B) Commercially available security products are introduced.
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________ was the most infamous of all hackers and has been the subject of numerous books and movies.
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… A) Kevin Mitnick
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Which of the following is true of the infamous hacking board Plovernet?
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…B) It was a breeding ground for hacking groups like LoD.
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Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the Secret Service actions that prompted the seminal court case Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. U.S. Secret Service et al.?
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… A) The Secret Service used a DDoS attack to infiltrate and sabotage the company’s operations.
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Which of the following qualifies as social engineering?
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… C) befriending a company’s cleaning crew to gain access to rooms and buildings
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Which of the following is the least destructive category of hackers?
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… C) informational voyeurs
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Which of the following is NOT one of the primary motivations for computer intrusion in contemporary society?
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… C) to benefit others
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What motivates pure hackers to steal information?
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… B) intellectual challenge
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______ are the least sophisticated of all cybercriminals.
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… A) Script kiddies
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The theft and resale of which computer component has proven to be the most lucrative?
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… A) CPUs
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________ can be defined as the reproduction, distribution, and use of software without the permission or authorization of the owner of copyright.
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… C) Data piracy
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Which of the following groups does NOT figure in the multilateral film privacy strategy of the Chinese Triads?
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… B) hacktivits
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At the dawn of the computer age, the term “computer crime” usually referred to the theft of computers or computer components.
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…A) True
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Spamming refers to the abuse of electronic messaging systems to randomly or indiscriminately send unsolicited bulk messages.
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…A) True
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Recent studies indicate that the emergence of cloud computing and removable media has effectively decreased theft of information or breaches in digital security.
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…B) False
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According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), almost all possessors of child pornography are black males who are under the age of 25. B
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…) False
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Vengeance or terrorist stalkers are motivated by either economic gain or revenge.
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…A) True
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Cybervandalism and cyberterrorism are examples of which category of online crime?
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…B) interference with lawful use of computers
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Which of the following refers to a computer that has been compromised by some form of malware, enabling the criminal to remotely control that computer?
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…C) zombie
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refers to a software program or hardware device that records everything you type into a compromised computer?
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…A) keyloggers
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Which of the following refers to two distinct methods of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks?
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…B) smurfing and fraggling
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Which of the following refers to a malware program that encrypts or otherwise renders computer or digital resources inoperable or inaccessible in furtherance of the illegal compulsion of an action or exchange?
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…C) ransomware
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Which of the following best defines shoulder surfing?
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…D) literally watching someone from behind, as he or she inputs a password
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A deliberate, politically or religiously motivated attack against data compilations, computer programs, and/or information systems that is intended to disrupt and/or deny service or acquire information that disrupts the social, physical, or political infrastructure of a target, is known as ________.
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…A) cyberterrorism
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According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), almost all possessors of child pornography are ________.
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…D) white males who are older than 25
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Which of the following is NOT a primary motivation for the possession of child pornography?
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…A) fight for legalizing man/boy sexual relationship
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Which of the following launched the first online casino in 1995 with 18 games?
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…C) Internet Casinos, Inc.
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The individuals who seek to re-establish a relationship with an unwilling partner and are considered the most dangerous of stalkers are known as ________.
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…A) obsessional stalkers
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Which of the following refers to stalkers who are delusional and believe that their victim is in love with them or has had a previous relationship with them?
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…C) erotomaniacs
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Which of the following statements regarding online gaming is untrue?
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…D) Minors accessibility to online gaming is restricted, as age verification is mandatory.
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Which of the following types of fraud occurs when a fraudster adds hidden charges to the advertised price, perhaps in shipping or handling?
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…A) fee stacking
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To steal credit card information by installing devices on card readers located in ATMs, gas pumps, restaurants, grocery stores, retail establishments, or any other area where magnetic strip card readers are employed is known as ________.
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…B) skimming
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Which of the following refers to the deliberate manipulation of an existing program to redirect or reroute data representing monies or economic exchanges?
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…C) data diddling
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Which of the following refers to the sale of stolen goods through technological means?
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…C) e-Fencing
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Which of the following refers to redirecting thin slices of accounts into a designated location?
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…A) salami technique
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Which of the following refers to a seller in an auction driving up the cost of his or her own item by bidding on it?
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…B) shill bidding
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________ involves the use of radio waves to facilitate the transfer of information between an electronic tag (or label) and a reader.
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…A) RFID
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Identity fraud is committed when a credible identity is created by accessing others’ credit cards, financial or employment records, or computer system.
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… A) True
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An individual who creates a false virtual identity has automatically crossed the line into illegal activity.
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…B) False
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An individual who has been a victim of reverse criminal record identity theft does not face legal obstacles to his or her identity rehabilitation.
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… B) False
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A full accounting of the prevalence of identity theft has been confounded by the lack of mandatory reporting and inconsistent application by federal agencies.
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… A) True
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To safeguard belongings and identity from dedicated criminals, it is important to develop alternate means of identity authentication.
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… A) True
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Which of the following best distinguishes identity theft?
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… A) Identity theft is the illegal use or transfer of a third party’s personal identification information with unlawful intent.
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Which of the following is the most general problem faced by American law enforcement and government officials who want to eradicate identity fraud/theft?
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… D) the boundless nature of the Internet
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Which of the following statements correctly distinguishes between identity theft and identity fraud?
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… B) Identity fraud may involve the fabrication of identity information based on a fictitious person.
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Which of the following types of identity theft/fraud is a person engaged in if he created a fictitious profile on a social networking site so as to facilitate an extramarital affair?
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… D) virtual identity theft/fraud
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Which of the following types of identity theft/fraud is defined as the use of stolen personal and financial information to facilitate the creation of fraudulent accounts?
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… D) credit identity theft/fraud
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If someone found a lost driver’s license and then used it to open multiple bank accounts and commit tax-related fraud, which type of identity theft/fraud was committed?
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… D) credit identity theft/fraud
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Which of the following types of identity theft/fraud is by far the most common and also the most feared by the American public?
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… A) credit identity theft/fraud
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An upstanding citizen with no police record, Jonathan discovers that a past acquaintance who’s now a career criminal is claiming Jonathan’s identity. What form of identity theft/threat is Jonathan a victim of?
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… C) reverse criminal record identity theft
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Paper shredders and disk-wiping software are means to avoid which of the following physical methods of identity theft?
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… D) dumpster diving
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“Popcorning” is a technique used in which of the following physical methods of identity theft? B
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…) mail theft
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physical methods of identity theft involves the surreptitious entry into hotel rooms to steal, photograph, or photocopy documents?
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… A) bag operations
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What is true regarding the theft of computers as a physical method of identity theft?
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… C) Areas particularly vulnerable to theft of computers include private residences and recreation centers.
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Which of the following is true regarding bag operations as a physical method of identity theft?
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… B) They are typically conducted by the host government’s security or intelligence services.
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Which of the following is NOT a category of phishing attacks?
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… C) botnets
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Which of the following is an example of a bag operation?
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… A) A person surreptitiously enters a suspect’s hotel room to download information from the suspect’s laptop computer.
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Which of the following would NOT be classified under insurance and loan fraud?
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… B) creating multiple accounts with a bank to commit-tax related fraud
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Today an identity thief is often remote from the victim. How does this pose a special problem to law enforcement?
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… B) Jurisdictional questions often confound local authorities.
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What are most often used fraudulently to obtain immigration benefits?
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… C) documentation of residency
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The Visa Waiver Pilot Program (VWPP) caused the most recent surge in which of the following fraudulent activities?
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… B) immigration benefit fraud
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Theorists argue that terrorism may be characterized as theater in which the audience is far more important than the actors.
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… A) True
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According to Tsfati and Weimann, a resurgence in terrorist rhetoric in Europe has led to a marked increase in both the development of European-based terrorist groups and their presence on the Web.
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… A) True
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One drawback to the use of dead drops is that communications are not anonymous.
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… B) False
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Directing conventional weapons against a computer facility is an example of a physical attack
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… A) True
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A critical data threat involves the compromise of a critical computer system to alter, manipulate, or destroy critical data with the potential of death, destruction, and/or economic turmoil.
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… A) True
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Who define(s) terrorism as an attempt to communicate messages through the use of orchestrated violence?
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… C) Tsfati and Weimann
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What was the basis of the wide acceptance of tyrannicide during the Age of Absolutism?
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… A) the writings of Juan de Mariana
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Which of the following types of justification is employed by terrorists who superficially proclaim an abhorrence of violence and stress the urgency for a diplomatic settlement?
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… B) peaceful, nonviolent rhetoric
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What types of terrorists often openly embrace and promote human suffering, and glorify violence as divine ordination?
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… D) religious terrorists
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Which of the following facilitated Muhammad Siddique Khan’s coordination of the 2005 London bombings?
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… B) electronic dead drops
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Which social network has become a popular site for online communities of al Qaeda sympathizers?
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… D) Orkut
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What did a Western intelligence service seize from Kamel Daoudi, an al Qaeda computer engineer, during his arrest?
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… A) a codebook to decrypt e-mails and telephone conversations
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Which of the following attacks involve directing conventional weapons against a computer facility for its transmission lines?
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… C) physical attacks
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Which of the following was NOT a factor that made Estonia particularly vulnerable to a cyberattack in 2007? C
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…) The nation’s nuclear facilities were run on a Windows operating system that was uniquely vulnerable to Stuxnet.
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Which of the following has been described as a “military-grade cybermissle”?
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… D) Stuxnet
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Which federal agencies and offices holds the database of information on potential terrorists and people suspected of narcotics trafficking or other law enforcement violations?
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Immigration and Customs Enforcement—Border Inspection System
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Which of the following groups serve as the basis of the formation of organized crime groups?
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… B) criminal gangs
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An early evaluation of criminal gangs in New York determined that groups coming together for the sole purpose of committing criminal activity didn’t last long if they lacked what?
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… D) ethnic solidarity
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Which of the following factors plays a role in the solidification of norms and expectations of the members of an organized crime group?
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… A) culture and tradition
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refers to the illegal duplication of credit cards achieved by running the card through a reader that captures information stored in the magnetic strip on the back?
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… A) skimming
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In which of the following points does a strong dissimilarity between terrorism and organized crime manifest?
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… B) beliefs and motivation
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What is the nature of the criminal activity undertaken by groups such as Darkprofits and Shadowcrew?
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… A) selling or sharing information about stolen credit cards and bank account numbers
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Which of the following refers to scams designed to delude a victim into thinking that he or she had been singled out to be the beneficiary of millions of dollars being given away by a company or government agency?
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… D) 4-1-9
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________ is defined as the introduction of illegally obtained funds into the legitimate financial marketplace.
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… D) Money laundering
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Which of the following, according to a recent report to Congress, has now surpassed international drug trafficking as a terrorist financing enterprise?
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… B) cybercrime
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Which of the following is true regarding keyloggers?
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A) They are designed to capture passwords and other private information.

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