Culture and Social Structure Unit 2

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Culture
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knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are passed from generation to generation among members of a group
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society
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a specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture
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instincts
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innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior
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reflex
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automatic reaction to physical stimulus
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drives
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impulse to reduce discomfort
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sociobiology
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the study of the biological basis of human behavior
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symbols
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a thing that stands for or represents something else
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Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity
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theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language
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Norms
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rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
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Folkways
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norms that lack moral significance
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Mores
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norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
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taboo
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a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
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law
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a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
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sanctions
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rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms
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formal sanctions
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sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
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informal sanctions
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rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
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values
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broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
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non-material culture
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ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people’s behavior
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beliefs
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ideas about the nature of reality
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material culture
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the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
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ideal culture
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cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
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real culture
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actual behavior patterns of members of a group
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social categories
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groupings of persons who share a social characteristic
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subculture
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a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
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counterculture
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a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture.
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ethnocentrism
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judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards
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cultural universals
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general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
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cultural particulars
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the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits
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socialization
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the process of learning to participate in a group
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self-concept
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an image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people
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looking-glass self
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an image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you
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significant others
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those people whose reactions are most important to your self-concept
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role taking
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assuming the viewpoint of another person and suing that view-point to shape the self-concept
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imitation stage
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mead’s first stage in the development of role taking; children begin to imitate behaviors without understanding why
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play stage
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Mead’s second stage in the development of role taking; children act in ways they imagine other people would
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game stage
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Mead’s third stage in the development of role taking; children anticipate the actions of others based on social rules
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generalized other
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integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society
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\”me\”
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the part of the self formed through socialization
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\”I\”
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the part of the self that accounts for unlearned spontaneous acts
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hidden curriculum
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the informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in school
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Peer group
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set of individuals of roughly the same age and interests
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mass media
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means of communication designed to reach the general population
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total institutions
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places in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by officials in charge
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desocialization
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the process of giving up old norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
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resocialization
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the process of adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
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anticipatory socialization
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the voluntary process of preparing to accept new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
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reference group
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group whose norms and values are used to guide behavior; group with whom you identify
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social structure
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the underlying patterns of relationships in a group
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status
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a position a person occupies within a social structure
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ascribed status
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a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned
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achieved status
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a position that is earned or chosen
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status set
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all of the statuses that a person occupies at any particular time
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master status
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a position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life
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role
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an expected behavior associated with a particular status
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rights
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a behavior that individuals can expect from others
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obligations
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a behavior that individuals are expected to perform toward others
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role performance
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the actual behavior of an individual in a role
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social interaction
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the process of influencing each other as people relate
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role conflict
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condition in which the performance of a role in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status
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role strain
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condition in which the roles of a single status are inconsistent or conflicting
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society
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people living within defined territorial borders and sharing a common culture
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hunting and gathering society
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a society that survives by hunting animals and gathering edible plants
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horticultural society
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a society that survives primarily through the growing of plants.
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pastoral societies
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a society in which food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals
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agricultural society
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a society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food
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industrial society
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a society that depends on science and technology to produce its basic goods and services
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mechanization
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the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power
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urbanization
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the shifting of population from farms and villages to large cities
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gemeinschaft
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pre industrial society based on tradition, kinship, and close social ties
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gesellschaft
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industrial society characterized by weak family ties, competition, and impersonal social relationships
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social solidarity
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the degree to which a society is unified
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mechanical solidarity
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a type of social unity achieved by people doing the same type of work and holding similar values
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organic solidarity
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a type of social unity in which members’ interdependence is based on specialized functions and statuses
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postindustrial society
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a society in which the economic emphasis is on providing services and information
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group
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at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and behaving
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social category
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people who share a social characteristic
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social aggregate
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people temporarily in the same place at the same time
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primary group
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people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company
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primary relationships
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interactions that are intimate, personal, caring and fulfilling
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secondary group
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people who share only part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task
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secondary relationships
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impersonal interactions involving limited parts of personalities
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reference group
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group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms
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in-group
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exclusive group demanding intense loyalty
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out-group
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group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition.
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social network
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a web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups
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cooperation
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interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach a goal
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conflict
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interaction aimed at defeating an opponent
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social exchange
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a voluntary action performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return
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coercion
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interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way
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conformity
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behavior that matches group expectations
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groupthink
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self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs and created by group pressure to conform
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formal organization
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a group deliberately created to achieve one or more long term goals
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bureaucracy
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a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency
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power
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the ability to control the behavior of others
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authority
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the legitimate or socially approved use of power
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rationalization
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the mind set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning
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informal organization
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groups within a formal organization in which personal relationships are guided by norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization
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iron law of oligarchy
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theory that power increasinly becomes concentrated in the hands of a few members of any organization
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deviance
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behavior that departs from societal or group norms
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negative deviance
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involves behavior that underconforms to accepted norms
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positive deviance
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involves behavior that overconforms to social expectations
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deviant
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a person who breaks significant societal or group norms
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social control
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ways to encourage conformity to society’s norms
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social sanctions
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rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms
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anomie
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A social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict
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strain theory
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theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means
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control theory
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theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society
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differential association theory
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theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to number of deviant acts they are exposed to
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labeling theory
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theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
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Primary deviance
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deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person’s lifestyle or self-concept
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secondary deviance
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deviance in which an individual’s life and identity are organized around breaking society’s norms
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stigma
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an undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize an individual
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victim discounting
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process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status
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white-collar crime
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job-related crimes committed by high-status people
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crime
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an act committed in violation of the law
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criminal justice system
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system comprising institutions and processes resonsible for enforcing criminal statutes
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deterrence
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discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment
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retribution
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punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts
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incarceration
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a method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prisons
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rehabilitation
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process of changin gor reforming a criminal through socialization
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recidivism
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a repetition of or return to criminal behavior

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