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criminology w10-12 part1

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Week 10 Question Fifteenth and sixteenth century foreign mercenary troops looted and pillaged the English and French country sides because they felt such theft was ordered by their kings. not damaging to the rich, property-holding lords. a rightful part of their pay. amusing and thrilling.
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Answer ordered by their kings. not damaging to the rich, property-holding lords. **a rightful part of their pay. amusing and thrilling.
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Question During the eighteenth century _______ moved freely in sparsely populated areas and transported stolen goods, such as gems, gold, and spices, without paying tax or duty. Answer smugglers poachers skilled thieves crusaders
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**smugglers poachers skilled thieves crusaders
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Question In the 18th century skilled thieves found in larger cities, such as London and Paris, congregated in _____ – public meeting places, often taverns that served asgang headquarters. Answer “flash houses “union houses” “snitch houses” “thief houses”
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**”flash houses “union houses” “snitch houses” “thief houses”
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Question Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property and theft-related crimes that occur each year, most are committed by Answer professional criminals. specialized criminals. occasional criminals. naïve criminals.
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professional criminals. specialized criminals. **occasional criminals. naïve criminals.
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Question ______ thieves are opportunistic amateurs who steal because of situational inducements. Answer “Booster” Na├»ve Occasional Systematic
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“Booster” Na├»ve **Occasional Systematic
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Question Which theft offenders do not delude themselves by using elaborate rationalizations such as “shoplifting doesn’t really hurt anyone?” Answer professional thieves occasional thieves specialized thieves na├»ve thieves
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**professional thieves occasional thieves specialized thieves naïve thieves
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Question ______ criminals often deny their criminality. These offenders are most likely to respond to the general deterrent effect of the law. Answer Professional Specialized Occasional Systematic
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Professional Specialized **Occasional Systematic
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Question Cargo thieves are professionals who work in highly organized groups and employ specialists, such as ____, who physically move the goods and work with drivers to transport stolen merchandise from docks. Answer “Shoppers” “Lumpers” “Hubbers” “Payloaders”
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“Shoppers” **”Lumpers” “Hubbers” “Payloaders”
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Question A few professionals make a substantial living by passing bad checks. Lemert referred to these persons as Answer naïve forgers. systematic forgers. opportunistic forgers. methodical forgers
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naïve forgers. **systematic forgers. opportunistic forgers. methodical forgers.
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. Question The definition of larceny evolved with the growth of manufacturing and the development of Answer a global economy the free enterprise system nation-states international travel
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a global economy **the free enterprise system nation-states international travel
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Question The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report recorded 6.5 million acts of larceny in 2008, which reflects Answer a continued steep decline over the past decade. a continued sharp increase over the past decade. that the number of larcenies has stabilized over the past decade. that the number of larcenies has continued to fluctuate over the past decade.
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**a continued steep decline over the past decade. a continued sharp increase over the past decade. that the number of larcenies has stabilized over the past decade. that the number of larcenies has continued to fluctuate over the past decade
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Question English judges created the concept of constructive possession to get around the element of Answer deceit in the taking. intent in the taking. ownership in the taking. trespass in the taking.
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deceit in the taking. intent in the taking. ownership in the taking. ##trespass in the taking.
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Question How a larceny is committed can affect its definition. It is automatically considered grand larceny to Answer steal nonprescription drugs from a retail store or pharmacy. steal any item (money, food, clothing) from a homeless shelter or center. steal food from a grocery or retail store. steal a firearm from a home or car.
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steal nonprescription drugs from a retail store or pharmacy. steal any item (money, food, clothing) from a homeless shelter or center. steal food from a grocery or retail store. ##steal a firearm from a home or car.
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Question Sometimes adolescents are coerced into shoplifting by older peers. This type of shoplifter is termed a Answer surrogate shoplifter. chump shoplifter. proxy shoplifter. sucker shoplifter
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surrogate shoplifter. chump shoplifter. ##proxy shoplifter. sucker shoplifter
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Question In her classic study of shoplifters, Mary Owen Cameron found that about ______ percent of all shoplifters were professionals. Answer 5 10 20 40
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5 ##10 20 40
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Question Why have shoplifting incidents increased dramatically in the past twenty years? Answer Because the number of fences and other outlets for stolen goods have increased over the past twenty years. Because professional shoplifters are recruiting amateur shoplifters in an effort to develop shoplifting gangs. Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers. Because shoplifting is commonly committed by teenagers who have comprised an increasing percentage of the population over the past two decades.
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Because the number of fences and other outlets for stolen goods have increased over the past twenty years. Because professional shoplifters are recruiting amateur shoplifters in an effort to develop shoplifting gangs. ##Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers. Because shoplifting is commonly committed by teenagers who have comprised an increasing percentage of the population over the past two decades
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Question In thieves’ argot, amateur shoplifters are called Answer pilferers. snitches. boosters. heels.
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pilferers. ##snitches. boosters. heels.
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Question To promote the arrest of amateur and professional shoplifters, a number of states have passed _____ laws that are designed to protect retailers and their employees from lawsuits stemming from improper or false arrests of suspected shoplifters. Answer consumer privilege merchant privilege clerk privilege arrest privilege
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consumer privilege ##merchant privilege clerk privilege arrest privilege
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Question Embezzlement occurs when someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it. What do we know about embezzlement? Answer Embezzlement goes back to ancient Greece. The number of people arrested for embezzlement has decreased in the past decade. Moving property without an owner’s consent is legally defined as embezzlement. Third World countries are immune to embezzlement due to their poverty and lack of economy.
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???? Embezzlement goes back to ancient Greece. The number of people arrested for embezzlement has decreased in the past decade. Moving property without an owner’s consent is legally defined as embezzlement. Third World countries are immune to embezzlement due to their poverty and lack of economy.
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Question The “swoop and squat,” the drive down, the sideswipe, and the t-bone are forms of what type of crime? Answer embezzlement third party fraud auto theft confidence games
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embezzlement ##third party fraud auto theft confidence games
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Question False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because Answer false pretenses requires a “trespass in the taking.” the offender has lawful possession but not legal ownership of the possessions. the victims willingly give their possessions to the offender. false pretenses requires constructive intent.
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false pretenses requires a “trespass in the taking.” the offender has lawful possession but not legal ownership of the possessions. ##the victims willingly give their possessions to the offender. false pretenses requires constructive intent.
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Question An acquaintance stole a Dodge Charger and drove around for a few hours showing off the Charger and acting like its owner. What type of amateur auto theft did your acquaintance commit? Answer carjacking short-term transportation joyriding interim auto theft
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carjacking short-term transportation ##joyriding interim auto theft
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Question A new form of professional auto theft is called _____ and involves stealing VIN plates from a luxury auto on a dealer lot and placing the stolen VIN plate on an identical luxury vehicle stolen from a mall or parking lot. Answer vinning cloning tagging plating
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vinning ##cloning tagging plating
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Question Most states have changed the legal requirements for burglary, removing the element of “forced entry.” What is entry via deceit legally considered? Answer destructive breaking fraudulent breaking constructive breaking falsified breaking
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destructive breaking fraudulent breaking ##constructive breaking falsified breaking
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Question Why do most state jurisdictions punish burglary as a felony? Answer Because, historically, a “man’s home is his castle.” Because, legally, one’s home is afforded greater protection under the U.S. Constitution. Because, unlike an auto, an individual’s home is considered a permanent belonging. Because the potential for harm to the occupants is so significant.
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Because, historically, a “man’s home is his castle.” Because, legally, one’s home is afforded greater protection under the U.S. Constitution. Because, unlike an auto, an individual’s home is considered a permanent belonging. ##Because the potential for harm to the occupants is so significant.
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Question __________ are behaviors outlawed because they are a threat to the general well-being of society and challenge accepted moral principles. Answer Moral order crimes Civic deviances Public order crimes Ethical deviances
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Moral order crimes Civic deviances ##Public order crimes Ethical deviances
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Question According to legal scholar, Morris, Cohen, why should victimless crimes be criminally prohibited? Answer Because then moral crusaders would not get to define the law. Because victimless crimes are highly immoral just like “street crimes.” Because one of the functions of criminal law is to express the public’s shared sense of morality. Because victimless crimes cause social harm and all acts that cause social harm are criminally prohibited
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Because then moral crusaders would not get to define the law. Because victimless crimes are highly immoral just like “street crimes.” ##Because one of the functions of criminal law is to express the public’s shared sense of morality. Because victimless crimes cause social harm and all acts that cause social harm are criminally prohibited
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Question According to the theory of social harm, immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the ____they cause. Answer social outrage injury financial loss depravity
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social outrage ##injury financial loss depravity
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Question According to the theory of social harm, immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the ____they cause. Answer social outrage injury financial loss depravity
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social outrage ##injury financial loss depravity
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Question People who seek to control or criminalize deviant behaviors in accordance with their own way of thinking are called Answer moralists. moral entrepreneurs. power seekers. social activists.
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moralists. ##moral entrepreneurs. power seekers. social activists.
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Question The movement to ban gay marriage in California that led to the passage of Proposition 8 is an example of a
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an Answer moral crusade. religious policy. ethical mandate. social campaign.
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##moral crusade. religious policy. ethical mandate. social campaign.
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Question Which of the following statements is accurate? Answer Societies usually encourage behaviors that lawmakers consider dangerous. The line between behaviors that are immoral and those that are criminal are often blurred. People with religious beliefs rarely engage in moral crusades. Most behaviors are declared criminal before they are deemed immoral.
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Societies usually encourage behaviors that lawmakers consider dangerous. ##The line between behaviors that are immoral and those that are criminal are often blurred. People with religious beliefs rarely engage in moral crusades. Most behaviors are declared criminal before they are deemed immoral
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Question __________ refers to the rubbing against or touching of a non-consenting adult in a crowd. Answer Exhibitionism Frotteurism Pedophilia Voyeurism
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Exhibitionism ##Frotteurism Pedophilia Voyeurism
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Question Of all the commonly practiced paraphilias, which causes the general public the most concern? Answer pedophilia frotteurism sadomasochism exhibitionism
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##pedophilia frotteurism sadomasochism exhibitionism
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Question Your neighbor obtains sexual pleasure from spying on strangers while they disrobe. This neighbor is a
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an Answer exhibitionist. frotteurist. pedophile. Voyeur
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exhibitionist. frotteurist. pedophile. ##Voyeur
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Question Attaining sexual pleasure through sexual activity with prepubescent children is referred to as Answer frotteurism. pedophilia. voyeurism. sadomasochism.
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frotteurism. ##pedophilia. voyeurism. sadomasochism.
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Question _________is a disturbing behavior whereby men travel overseas to places such as Thailand in order to engage in illicit sexual behavior with young girls who have been sold into prostitution. Answer Pedophilia tourism Pedophilia trafficking Sex tourism Sex trafficking
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Pedophilia tourism Pedophilia trafficking ##Sex tourism Sex trafficking
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Question Modern commercial sex appears to have its roots in ancient _____ where Solon established licensed brothels in 500 BC. Answer Rome Greece Mesopotamia Persia
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Rome ##Greece Mesopotamia Persia
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Question Which of the following is NOT a condition present in a commercial sexual transaction? Answer activity that has sexual significance for the customer economic transaction felonious violence emotional indifference
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activity that has sexual significance for the customer economic transaction ##felonious violence emotional indifference
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Question Which category of prostitute is believed to be responsible for the recent upsurge in prostitution? Answer bar girls skeezers call girls ehookers
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bar girls skeezers call girls ##ehookers
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Question The arrest rate for prostitution reveals that the gender ratio is __________ female to male. Answer 1:1 1:2 2:1 3:1
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1:1 1:2 ##2:1 3:1
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Question International trafficking in prostitution flourishes. Hundreds of thousands of children and women, primarily from _________, are abducted or lured by the promise of good jobs and, instead, end up in the sex trade in industrialized countries including the United States. Answer Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe Western Europe and South Africa South Africa and Southeast Asia Eastern Europe and South Africa
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##Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe Western Europe and South Africa South Africa and Southeast Asia Eastern Europe and South Africa
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Question The aristocrats of prostitution are _____ who charge customers thousands of dollars per night and who may net over $200,000 per year. Answer Streetwalkers circuit travelers Ehookers call girls
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Streetwalkers circuit travelers Ehookers ##call girls
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Question Which category of prostitute is considered the least attractive, lowest paid, and most vulnerable, regardless of whether the prostitute is male or female? Answer brothel prostitutes streetwalkers escorts circuit travellers
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brothel prostitutes ##streetwalkers escorts circuit travellers
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Question After World War I, prostitution became associated with ____, and the desire to protect young servicemen from harm helped to end all experiments with legalization in the United States. Answer organized crime immorality violence disease
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organized crime immorality violence ##disease
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Question Prostitution is illegal in all states except Nevada where licensed and highly regulated brothels can operate as business enterprises in Answer rural counties hotel casinos Las Vegas and Reno private residences
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##rural counties hotel casinos Las Vegas and Reno private residences
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Question What does research indicate about the effects of legalizing prostitution? Answer Legalization leads to zoned areas where prostitution is cordoned off from suburban neighborhoods. Legalization results in lower pay but increased freedom for prostitutes. Legalization protects women from violence, verbal abuse, and physical injuries. Legalization leads to massive expansion of the trade, both legal and illegal.
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Legalization leads to zoned areas where prostitution is cordoned off from suburban neighborhoods. Legalization results in lower pay but increased freedom for prostitutes. Legalization protects women from violence, verbal abuse, and physical injuries. ##Legalization leads to massive expansion of the trade, both legal and illegal.
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Question Feminists’ sexual equality view considers the prostitute a victim of Answer child sexual abuse economic circumstances male dominance personal choices
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child sexual abuse economic circumstances ##male dominance personal choices
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Question Which of the following is a contention of opponents of pornography? Answer Pornography has increased racism in the United States. Pornography is allowable if sold only in adult book stores. Pornography serves to encourage women to enter pornographic industries. Pornography degrades both the people who are participants and the public who are sometimes forced to see it.
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Pornography has increased racism in the United States. Pornography is allowable if sold only in adult book stores. Pornography serves to encourage women to enter pornographic industries. ##Pornography degrades both the people who are participants and the public who are sometimes forced to see it.
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Question Obscenity is derived from the Latin word caenum that means Answer perversion. filth. illegal. twisted.
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perversion. ##filth. illegal. twisted.
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Question The __________ Amendment right to free speech makes legal control of pornography quite difficult. Answer First Second Fourth Sixth
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##First Second Fourth Sixth
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Question Crimes of the marketplace are referred to as _____ crime and include white-collar crime, cyber crime and organized crime. Answer venture enterprise business industry
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venture ##enterprise business industry
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Question In the late 1930s, the distinguished criminologist __________ first used the phrase “white-collar crime” to describe the criminal activities of the rich and powerful. Answer Cesare Lombroso Emile Durkheim Edwin Lemert Edwin Sutherland
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Cesare Lombroso Emile Durkheim Edwin Lemert ##Edwin Sutherland
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Question __________ involves illegal activities of people and institutions whose acknowledged purpose is profit through legitimate business transactions. Answer Organized crime Enterprise crime White-collar crime Cyber crime
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Organized crime Enterprise crime ##White-collar crime Cyber crime
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Question White-collar crime, cyber crime, and organized crime are linked because they involve Answer twisting the legal rules of commercial enterprise for criminal purposes. traditional racketeering practices. investigation and control by federal enforcement agencies. recruiting new members via legitimate employment agencies.
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##twisting the legal rules of commercial enterprise for criminal purposes. traditional racketeering practices. investigation and control by federal enforcement agencies. recruiting new members via legitimate employment agencies
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Question A pyramid scheme is one type of ______ whereby people use their institutional or business position to trick others out of their money. Answer corporate crime white-collar fraud financial chiseling employee fraud
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corporate crime ##white-collar fraud financial chiseling employee fraud