Thinking of hate crime, one thing that comes into mind is a crime against individuals based on the color of their skin. Often, this may be between white and black people. However, there are many factors that can lead to being victims of hate crimes. This essay will purpose to highlight some of these factors for an explicit group naming examples of a hate crime, restorative justice model that can be applied to the group, explain the benefits and challenges of using that particular restorative model, along with a modern-day research method that can be used to measure the victimization of this specific group. The essay will also connect the victimization of this group with the criminology theories that are currently being studied.
A group of people who often face hate crimes is Muslims, although not as widespread as some other forms of hate crime that are common in news stations and newspapers. Since all forms of discrimination, hatred and prejudice are usually directed against people from races considered substandard, racism serves as the foundation for victimization. One of the main aspects that have put the Muslim community in the first line of hate crime is the event that happened in 2001 where the leaders and perpetrators of the attack were Muslims.
An example of a crime against the Muslims is that of Mark Stroman in 2001 where he walked into a gas station, which he believed was owned by Muslims and opened fire. He killed two people and left others seriously injured. He was, however sentenced to death by a Texas court after admitting his crim...
e. Another example of hate crimes against Muslim was the attack of Bashir Ahmad who was stabbed by unknown assailant.
The assailant attacked him outside a mosque in New York where he suffered multiple stab wounds in the attack. Despite the attacks, both victims have stayed dedicated and true to their religion. They both admit that their religion has been put in the gunfire line by the activities of some believers in the religion, which is not a true exemplification of what religion is about (Awan & Zempi 2016).
The purpose of restorative justice is to give the victims a voice to stop future acts of crimes from being committed. The source of problem must be identified to address the issue of hate crime. Thinking on restorative justice to be applied on this particular group, one would have to focus on education, recognition, assisting the victims and advocate for community. These are some of the ways that have been put forward for restoration justices by the Angeles County Commission.
As with any other model, there will be benefits and challenges. A lot of people will benefit because this model is dominant and the victim selects what category of approach they want to participate in, be it restorative conference or negotiation. They can also think about whether they would choose direct compensation from the offender or if compensation should be made to the wider community.
Victims are also able to move forward without anxiety and this can improve their physical well-being (William & Tregidga 2014). This shows that victims favor
restorative approach, and giving them the freedom to choose the type also increases their contentment. Restorative justice also has some challenges. One major challenge of using this approach is the discrepancy where too much emphasizes is laid on victims.
Some meetings are focused on ways of helping the wrongdoer. The restorative approach is not normally used in more serious crimes despite being shown to be more effective in this area. Victims should be safe in a restorative plans and programs should be given sufficient funding to be facilitated (Walters 2014).
A contemporary research instrument that I can choose to measure the victimization of this group is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) which measures crimes alleged by victims to be stirred by an offender’s prejudice against them for being connected with a group mostly acknowledged by these personalities.
For a crime to be categorized as a hate crime in the NCVS the victims must account one of three types of proof that the act was inspired by hate; the wrongdoer used hate language, left behind hate signs, or police detectives established that the event was a hate misconduct. Statistics indicates that around 180 Muslims were ill-treated in hate crimes each year amid 2012 and 2014. When questioned anonymously in a 2012 survey if they had been endangered or confronted in the earlier years, 8% of Muslims confirmed they had.
Various theories have been linked to the victimization of this group. One of the theories that used to elucidate hate crime in the Muslim community is the conflict theory. This theory is based on the fact that individuals are more probable to have relations with other individuals holding related beliefs for the rationale of comfort, simplicity, and sociability, which leads to the development of in-groups and out-groups.
In-groups and out-group conflict powerfully aid in group consistency, distinctiveness and association. In addition, such conflict enhances out-group rejections. The in-group is viewed as influential, superior and sacred as vindicated in its outlook and actions towards other while out-groups are often dehumanized, stereotyped and alleged as malevolent or fraudulent
Another theory that is linked to victimization of hate crimes in the Muslim community is the social control theory. Understanding the crime is one of the main viewpoints in contemporary criminology. Control theorists deem that socialization determines compliance to the rules and sustained by ties to citizens and institutions. The first mission of the control theorists is to recognize the significant elements of the bond to the general public.
The second mission is to declare what is meant by the public to position the people and institutions imperative in the control of antisocial and criminal behaviors (McGuire & Salter 2014). Crime result when the persons bond to the civilization is either weak or broken as this was the case with the Muslims. As societal bond increase in power, the pace of crime to the individuals reduces as well.