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Crim Exam 4

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sociological theories
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a group of perspectives that focus on the nature of the power relationships that exist between social groups and on the influences that various social phenomena bring to bear on the types of behaviors that tend to characterize groups of people
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social structure
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the stable pattern of social relationships that exists within a society
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social process
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the interaction between and among social institutions, individuals, and groups
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social life
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the ongoing and (typically) structured interaction that occurs between people in a society, including socialization and social behavior in general
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sociological, crime
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The end product of social processes, individuals location within structure of society, and class struggle are three key ____________ explanations for ______.
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sociological theories
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Analyze how social structure and social processes affect socialization and have an impact on social behavior (social life)
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sociological, crime
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individuals location/place in society, association with others, class struggle are three key _____ explanations for _____.
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major social structure principle, social
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Social groups (poor/wealthy), social institutions (schools), the arrangements of society (rich people run things), and social roles all provide the proper focus for criminological study according to the ________ _______ ______ _______ of ______.
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major social structure principle, groups
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Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus out of which crime develops according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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major social structure principle, structure
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The structure of society and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are important factors contributing to criminal behavior according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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major social structure principle, behavior
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Specific behavior of a given individual cannot be predicted, but statistical estimates of group characteristics and of the probability that a member of a given group will engage in a specific type of crime are possible according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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social structure
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according to a major _____ _____ principle, differences in groups cause crime.
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lower class
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Crime is seen largely as a ____ ______ phenomenon
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social disorganization theory
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what social structure theory is closely associated to the ecological school and says that community as a functional whole determines the quality of life for its members?
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Emile Durkheim
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20th century sociologist who developed and explored the idea of community directly determining quality of life for individuals, Believed that crime was a normal part of all societies and that law was a symbol of social solidarity
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Robert Park and Ernest Burgess
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_______________ and _________ developed social ecology.
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social ecology
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also called ecological school of criminology
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Social ecology movement
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movement concerned with how the structure of society adapts to the quality of natural resources and to the existence of other human groups
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Social Pathology
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Over time, this term came to to represent the idea that aspects of society may be somehow pathological, or “sick”, and may produce deviant behavior among individuals and groups who live under or are exposed to such social conditions
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concentric zones
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park and burgess viewed cities as these where each of these had its unique characteristics wherein unique populations and typical forms of behavior could be found
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central business district, transitional zone, working class zone, residential zone, commuter zone
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list the five concentric zones from innermost part of target to outermost
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transitional zone
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this concentric zone consists of recent immigrant groups, deteriorated housing, factories, and abandoned buildings, this zone was changing from residential to business uses
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working class zone
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this concentric zone consists of single family tenements
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residential zone
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this concentric zone consists of middle class citizens with single family homes, each with it’s own yard and garage
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commuter zone
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this is the outermost concentric zone that consists of suburbs
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central business district
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this concentric zone consists of retail businesses and light manufacturing
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central business district
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the loop is another name for this concentric zone
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Henry McKay and Clifford Shaw
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They conducted studies of juvenile arrest rates in Chicago during times with high rates of neighborhood transition and concluded that delinquency was caused by the nature of the environment in which immigrants lived rather than by some characteristic of the immigrant groups themselves
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Henry McKay and Clifford Shaw
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developed the idea of cultural transmission
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cultural transmission
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idea that delinquency was passed on through successive generations of the same zone in the same way that language, roles , and attitudes were communicated
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ecological theory
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a type of sociological approach that emphasizes demographics (the characteristics of population groups) and geography (the mapped location of such groups relative to one another)
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social structure theories
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theories that explain crime by reference to some aspect of the social fabric. these theories emphasize relationships among social institutions and describe the types of behavior that tend to characterize groups of people rather than individuals
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chicago school of criminology
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the name ________ ______ __ ___________ came from ecological theories that were developed based on “area studies” that tended to be based in this specific location
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ecological school
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Greatest contribution of the __________ ______was that society, in the form of the community, weilds a major influence on human behavior.
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environmental criminology
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criminology of place is also called __________ _______.
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criminology of place
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perspective that emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of victimization
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hot spots
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these neighborhoods, specific streets, and even individual houses an businesses where crime is geographically concentrated are called..?
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place-based crime prevention
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__________ is a effective crime reduction strategy used by police to reducing crime and disorder problems
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broken windows thesis
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this is central to criminology of place, idea that physical deterioration of an area leads to physical safety concerns among residents, thus leading tohigher crime rates in that area
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broken windows thesis
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according to this thesis, this will attract offender’s from other area’s as they recognize the vulnerability of this area, only further increasing crime rates in that area
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false
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true or false: the ecological approach is an adequate explanation to all crime
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strain theory
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a sociological approach that posits a disjuncture between socially and subculturally sanctioned means and goals as the cause of criminal behavior,
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strain
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the pressure that people feel to reach socially determined goals
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Ernest Burgess
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came up with Differential Association Reinforcement Theory
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robert merton
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this man developed the strain theory
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anomie
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merton suggested that this involved the disjunction between egitimate goals, which everyone desires, and socially approved means to success which are not equally available to all of society…. this led to the creation of the strain theory
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conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion
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list the five goals that society holds according to merton’s deviance typology
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merton’s deviance typology
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a man diagrammed possible combinations of goals and means referring to each combination as a mode of adaptation to signify the acceptance of goals that society holds as legitimate for everyone with ready availability of the means approved for achieving those goals
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conformity
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part of merton’s deviance typology; form of adaptation where you accept the goals of society and accept the normal means of achieving them
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innovation
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part of merton’s deviance typology; form of adaptation that results when acceptance of legitimate goals is combined with a lack of access to approved means.
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ritualism
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part of merton’s deviance typology; form of behavior that arises when results when people participate in socially desirable means but lack interest in achieving goals.
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retreatism
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part of merton’s deviance typology; describes the form of behavior of those who reject both the socially approved goals and the socially approved means to achieve them
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rebellion
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part of merton’s deviance typology; form of adaptation that occurs when people who wish to replace socially approved goals and means with an alternative system
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conformists
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people who have the means to go on the institutionalized route will end up doing so… they are considered ________.
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conformity
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Video of people working in an office and guy starts attacking someone across the desks would be an example of rebellion against what part of merton’s deviance typology?
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innovation
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people who want to achieve traditional success symbols, but do not have the institutionalized means to achieve them so they go beyond those means to still achieve their goal of gaining traditional success symbols would fall under what category of mertons’ typology?
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innovation
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Mark Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, Steve Jobbs are examples of people who would fall under what category of mertons’ typology?
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ritualist
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a ________ may get a good education, work everyday in acceptable occupation, and appear outwardly to lead a middle-class lifestyle, yet that person may care less about achieving the traditional symbols of success according to merton’s deviance typology
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retreatists
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drug abusers, homeless people, and high school dropouts can be considered _________ .
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conformity, retreatism
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According to Merton, ________ is the most common mode of adaptation, and ______ is the least common.
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relative deprivation
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this term refers to the economic and social gap that exists between rich and poor people who live in close proximity to one another
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relative deprivation, messner, rosenfeld
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___________ is a contemporary version of merton’s anomie theory that was proposed by _________ and _____.
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relative deprivation, messner, rosenfeld
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under their ______ theory, ______ and ______ suggest that inconsistencies in the ability to achieve the American Dream are to be blamed for most criminal activity
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strain, crime
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Failture to achieve positively valued goals, Removal of positively valued stimuli, and Presentation of noxious stimuli lead to ______, which ultimately leads to _____.
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Judith and Peter Blau
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these two people believe that people asses their position in life by comparing themselves with things and people they already know
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relative deprivation
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inner-city residents develop an increased sense of _________________________ due to growing up with an impoverished lifestyle while witnessing well-to-do lifestyles in nearby neighborhoods
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distributive justice
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according to __________________ even wealthy and socially privileged people may feel shortchanged if they feel inadequately reward for their behavior and accomplishment
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distributive justice
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refers to an individual’s perception of his or her rightful place in the reward structure of society
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general strain theory
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This theory suggests that delinquent behavior is a coping measure that helps those who engage in delinquency to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relations (i.e., lack of support, personal values that favor crime, regular association with criminals)
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robert agnew
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who developed the general strain theory in 1992?
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culture conflict theory
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a theory that suggests that the root cause of crime can be found in a clash of norms between different social groups is explained by this theory
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secondary conflict
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Arises when smaller cultures within the primary one clashed
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secondary and primary conflict
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what are the two types of culture conflict?
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primary conflict
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Arises when fundamental clash of cultures occurs
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secondary conflict
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Criminal laws are based on middle-class values; therefore, crime may occur when inner-city and lower class norms differ….. what type of culture conflict is this?
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secondary conflict
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gambling and prostitution around the 1930’s and drug abuse/use today are good examples of crimes due to what??
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subcultural theory
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the idea that smaller groups within a more dominant group hold different values than the rest of society resulting in crime
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culture
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a collection of values, ideas, beliefs, and traits that characterize a human group
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subculture
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a smaller group that holds a collection of values that differ from the collection of values of the larger, more dominant group
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counterculture
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reject and invert the values of their surrounding culture
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focal concerns
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Miller’s key values of delinquent subcultures are called…
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lower-class culture
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according to miller, a long established, distinctively patterned tradition with integrity of its own
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Walter Miller
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attempted to detail the values that drive members of the lower working-class by outlying their deviant subcultural values as “focal concerns”
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trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy
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list Walter Miller’s six focal concerns
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walter miller, subcultural
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According to _____________’s __________ theory, subcultural crime/deviance emanate from specific values characteristic of such subcultures (not lack of opportunity to crime)
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trouble
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) involved with dealing with men’s fighting/sexual adventures while drinking or women’s sexual involvement with disadvantageous consequences
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toughness
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) that involves an obsessive concern with masculinity as a reaction to the perceived threat of over identification with female role models
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excitement
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) that involves a search for thrills to overcome the boredom inherent in lower-class lifestyles
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fate
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) related to the quest for excitement and to the concept of luck or of being lucky
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smartness
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) involved with the capacity to outsmart, or outwit people in order to achieve a valued identity (material goods, personal status) through mental agility, rather than physical effort
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autonomy
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one of miller’s focal concerns (dominant feature of lower-class culture) involves a type of independence like “no one’s going to push me around” or ” i can take care of myself”
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Techniques of neutralization
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culturally available ways that criminals can justify their criminal behavior to deny responsibility for what they did
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sykes and matza
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these two men suggested that offenders and deliquents are aware of conventional values, understand that their offending is wrong, but overcome feelings of responsibility through techniques of naturalization
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denying responsibility., denying injury, denying the victim, condemning the condemners, appealing to higher loyalties
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list the 5 techniques of neutralization used by criminal offenders
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appealing to higher loyalties, subcultures
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a techniques of naturalization where offender is justifying their behavior as a defense to one’s ____________ values (family, honor, gang, etc., “we have to protect ourselves”) ….. (technique, ____)
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denying responsibility
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a techniques of naturalization where offender is justifying their behavior by saying i had a bad childhood with lack of opportunity so it’s not my fault
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denying injury
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a techniques of naturalization where offender is justifying their behavior by saying, They have so much stuff, they won’t even know I stole it, Insurance companies will cover the losses
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denying the victim
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a techniques of naturalization where offender is justifying the harm they caused to the victim in some way, “I only beat up drunks”
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condemning the comdemners
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a techniques of naturalization where offender is justifying their behavior by saying that the authorities are corrupt/ responsible for their own victimization, Society made me who I am today, “They’re worse than we are”
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differential opportunity theory
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similar to strain theory; idea that the gap between the goals and means of achieving those goals lead factors that lead to subcultures
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legitimate opportunities
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things that are generally available to people born into middle-class culture; however, lower-class subcultures are often denied access to these things
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illegitimate opportunity structure
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this describes preexisting subcultural paths to success that are not approved of by the wider culture
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Cloward and ohlin
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these two men created the differential opportunity theory
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criminal, conflict, retreatist
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list the three types of delinquent subcultures created by coward and ohlin
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criminal subcultures
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures; criminal role models are readily available for adoption by those being socialized into the subculture
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conflict subcultures
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures; in which participants seek status through violence
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retreatist subcultures
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures; where drug use and withdrawal from the wider society predominate
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albert cohen
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argued that young people from all backgrounds are generally held accountable to a “middle-class measuring rod” of expectations but not all young people are born into environments where they can effectively meet such expectations
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reaction formation
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the process by which a person openly rejects that which he or she wants or aspires to but cannot obtain or achieve
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delinquent subcultures
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according to albert cohen, ______________ are formed as the collective solution to the problem of status.
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reaction formation
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When children from deprived backgrounds experience frustration due to the “middle class expectations” that they are judged and judged based on, even though it is nearly impossible for these children to achieve this, they may overcome anxiety by resorting to _______________.
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the code of the street
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the major aspect of some African-American neighborhood’s subculture is that the amount of respect that a man commands from others (you get from others) determines the amount of manhood that you are recognized to have… this is called what?
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working-class
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_______________ African-Americans place high value on the man as the head of the household as a provider and a strict disciplinarian
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social development theories
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theories that tend to offer an integrated perspective and place a greater emphasis on changes in offending over time than social process theories do
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social process theories, interactionist perspectives
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theories that suggest that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others and that socialization and learning processes occur as a result of group membership and relationships. What are these theories called and what is another name for these theories?
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interactionist perspectives
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theories depend on the process of interaction between individuals and society for their explanatory power, which is why social process theories are also called this.
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learning theory
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this theory says that all behavior is learned in much the same way and that crime, like other forms of behavior, is also learned…. according to this theory, criminal behavior is not a product of an innate characteristic.
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Edwin Sutherland
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man who advanced the learning theory by developing the differential association theory as an explanation for crime.
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differential association theory
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who people associate with (individuals) dictate whether or not they will commit crime
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edwin sutherland
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this man was the first criminologist to suggest that all significant human behavior is learned and that crime is not substantively different that other learned behaviors
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social control theories
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theories under this category seek to identify those features of the personality and the environment that keep people from committing crimes
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social control
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The extent of a person’s association with positive social institutions and significant others. ___________ ________ theorists focus on the process through which social integration develops
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Howard Kaplan, self-esteem
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___________proposed a perspective on social control in the 1970’s which was that people who are ridiculed by their peers suffer a loss of ____-_____, assess themselves poorly, thus resulting in abandoning the motivation to conform, fostering delinquent behavior
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low self-esteem
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a reduced sense of self-worth that can be associated with delinquency
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hirschi and gottfredson
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In 1990, _________ and _________ proposed the general theory of crime.
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Travis Hirschi
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who created the social bond theory?
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social bond theory
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this theory, which is a part of the control theory, argues that when the bond between individuals and the social group that is formed through successful socialization is broken or weakened, deviance and crime may result
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commitment, attachment, involvement, belief
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list the four components of the social bond
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individual, group characteristics, member, group
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Specific behavior of a given __________ cannot be predicted, but statistical estimates of ________ ______________ and of the probability that a _______ of a given ______ will engage in a specific type of crime are possible.
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false
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true or false: Specific behavior of a given individual can be predicted.
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central business district
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this concentric zone typically consists of skyscrapers, business buildings, nicer and more expensive
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transitional
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the most crime takes place in the _________ concentric zone.
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strain theory
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Merton suggested that anomie involved a disjunction between legitimate goals, which everyone desires, and socially approved means to success, which are not equally available to all members of society.
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crime and deviance
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_________ and ___________ are alternative means to success when individuals feel the strain of being pressed to succeed in socially approved ways when they lack the tools necessary for such success.
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merton
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who created the five modes of adaptation?
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CIRRR
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list pneumonic device for merton’s five modes of adaptation
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CABI
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list pneumonic device for hirschi’s four component of social bond
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can’t take what riches can (CTWRC)
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list pneumonic device for park and burgess’s concentric zones
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innovation
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this mode of merton’s mode of adaptations is the most associated in crime
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rebellion
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political radicals and revolutionaries are examples of people who utilize this mode of adaptation in response to excess strain
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general strain theory
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a major aspect of this theory refers to events and conditions disliked by individuals and includes three types of strain in which individuals may (a) lose something they value, (b) be treated in an aversive or negative manner by others, and (c) be unable to achieve their goals.
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central proposition of GST
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Strains increase the likelihood of particular crimes primarily through their impact on a range of negative emotional states.
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central proposition of GST
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Crime can be reduced by reducing individuals’ exposure to strains conducive to crime and by reducing individuals’ likelihood of responding to strains with crime .
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general strain, traditional strain
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The _________ ________ theorysignificantly widens the focus of the ___________ _______ theory to include all types of negative relations between an individual and others.
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general strain, traditional strain
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The ________ _________ theory maintains the idea from the ____________ _______ theory that over time, ________ may have a cumulative effect on delinquency after reaching a certain threshold.
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crime
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the general strain theory expands the traditional strain theory by stating that strain leads to ______.
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general strain, traditional strain
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The ________ _______ theory provides a more comprehensive account than the______ _____ theory of the various adaptations to strain.
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FATSET
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list the pneumonic device for walter miller’s focal concerns
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males
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under culture conflict theory perspective, _______ play an important role in lower class culture.
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DDDCA
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list the pneumonic device for the sykes and matza’s 5 techniques of neutralization
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differential opportunity
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the code of the streets studied by anderson helps to further support the __________ ___________ theory.
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gentrification
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this is a process of redevelopment where richer people start moving into poorer areas to make it nicer
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gentrification
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________________ may have a backfiring effect because of things like rent control, and differences in salaries for the same exact job in two different locations.
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differential association, communication
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One of Sutherland’s principles of _______ _______ theory is that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others in a process of ________.
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excess definitions, unfavorable
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One of Sutherland’s principles of differential association theory is that a person becomes delinquent because of _______ _____________ of law being ________: peers say “don’t worry about drug laws, they don’t matter”.
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intimate groups
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Learning of criminal behavior occurs in ________ _______, usually your peers.
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differential identification, Glaser
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___________ _____________ is an explanation for crime proposed by ________ that suggests that those who engage in crime, have intimate interactions with people who commit crime
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differential identification
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According to this explanation for crime, someone will engage in crime if we have a strong connection or relationship to potential criminals.
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differential identification, non-criminals
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The _____________ ___________ theory suggests that identification with _______________ may assist in rehabilitation.
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differential association reinforcement
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differential association + operant conditioning = __________ __________ ___________.
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differential association + operant conditioning
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___________ + _______________ = differential association reinforcement
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social learning theory
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differential association reinforcement + modeling/imitation = ______ _________ ______.
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differential association reinforcement + modeling/imitation
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___________ + _______________ = social learning theory
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differential association, social learning
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The differential association theory advanced to the ________ ___________ reinforcement theory which advanced to the _________ _______ theory.
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formal and informal sanctions
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__________ and __________ __________ cause people to not commit crime.
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formal sanctions
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Laws cause people to resist engaging in criminal behavior. They are called what?
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informal sanctions, not engage
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Negative reactions from people for doing something that is socially unacceptable due to social norms. These cause people to _____________ in criminal behavior
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tagging
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a term that explains what happens to offenders following arrest, conviction, and sentencing. the community believes that “the individual who used to do bad and mischievous things becomes a bad and unredeemable human being”
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moral enterprise
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the efforts of a group seeking to support their own interests with the weight of law…
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moral entrepreneurs
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individuals or groups engaged in the process of moral enterprise
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primary deviance
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initial deviance often undertaken to deal with transient problems in living
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secondary deviance
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deviant behavior that results from official labeling and from association with others who have been so labeled
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moral enterprise
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NORML (the national organization for the reform of marijuana laws) says that its mission is to “move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults is no longer subject to penalty”…… NORML is a modern example of what????
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moral enterprise
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groups who are effective in obtaining_______ ________ happen to just be better at maneuvering through the law system, and therefore succeed in gaining support of their interest through the weight of law system…. they don’t just succeed because they have a popular POV (a lot of times POV isn’t even popular!)
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labeling
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stereotyping all individuals in a community to have a similar trait/characteristic which may ultimately lead to _____________.
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delinquent
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labeling a person an outcast is just as bad as labeling a person as a ____________.
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rehabilitation, changed
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Focus on juvenile system is ____________; the goal is to say that these are people that can be ________.
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social process, money, fewer
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Crime Prevention programs to enhance self control/build social bonds (ie: big brother, big sister) is a policy implication of ____________ theories. This policy implication will allow society to save _______ in the long run because it leads to ________ people in the criminal justice system
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informal sanctions, formal and informal
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Social control theorists argue that people don’t commit crimes due to _________________; not a mixture of __________ and ________.
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containment
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________ occurs when the pushes and pulls toward crime aren’t strong enough for one to engage in criminal behavior OR when the pushes and pulls are so strong that one does engage in criminal behavior.
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internal containment
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Morals, “I shouldn’t commit crime because its bad” are what form _______________.
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external containment
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Police, Your family monitoring you, etc. Make you not commit crime. These are forms of ____________________.
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pushes
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The containment theory suggests that the_______ toward crime consist of money, power, desire to succeed.
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pulls
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The containment theory suggests that the_______ toward crime consist of the people around you.
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life-course perspective
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According to the social development theory, this perspective suggests that keeping people in jail for life isn’t working and it is too expensive since criminal behavior follows a distinct course throughout the course of life.
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human development
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the relationship between the maturing individual and his or her changing environment, as well as the social processes that the relationship entails
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social development perspective
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an integrated view of human development and place a greater emphasis on changes in offending over time
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criminal career
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defined by the NAS panel report in 1986 as “the longitudinal sequence of crimes committed by and invidividual offender”
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NAS panel report
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roots of life course criminology come from this report, noted that criminal careers can be described in terms of four dimensions
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participation, frequency, duration, seriousness
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list NAS panel report’s four dimensions of criminal careers
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participation
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one of NAS panel report’s four dimensions of criminal careers that refers to the fraction of a population that is criminally active, depends on the scope of criminal acts considered and the length of the observation period
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frequency
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one of NAS panel report’s four dimensions of criminal careers that refers to the number of crimes committed by an individual offender per unit of time
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duration
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one of NAS panel report’s four dimensions of criminal careers that refers to the length of the criminal career
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seriousness
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one of NAS panel report’s four dimensions of criminal careers that refers to the level of ________ of crimes… petty crimes to ____ crimes
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life course criminology
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given its name by Robert Sampson and John H. Laub
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Glen H. Elder Jr.
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who created the 4 principles that provide a concise summary of life course theory?
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historical time and place, timing in lives, linked lives, human agency
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list Glen H. Elder Jr.’s 4 principles that sum up life course theory…. the principle of……..
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the principle of historical time and place
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Children born in the US during the great depression or children born in Nazi Germany during WWII were no doubt strongly influenced by the condition around them….this is an example of one of the Glen H. Elder Jr.’s 4 principles of life course theory
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the principle of timing in lives
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Early marriage or childbearing at an early age cant significantly influence the course of people’s lives through the long-term consequences of such events….this is an example of one of the Glen H. Elder Jr.’s 4 principles of life course theory
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the principle of linked lives
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If a child or a spouse develops a serious illness, the lives of other family members are likely to be affected… this is an example of one of the Glen H. Elder Jr.’s 4 principles of life course theory
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the principle of human agency
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hard pressed depression-era parents moved to cheaper residences and sought alternative forms of income… this is an example of one of the Glen H. Elder Jr.’s 4 principles of life course theory
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Sheldon and Eleanor Gleuck
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these two people studied delinquent boys in the 1930s and concluded that family dynamic play an especially significant role in criminality, the deeper the roots in childhood maladjustment, the stronger the chance that their delinquent careers would carry over into adulthood
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laub and sampson’s age-graded theory
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two researches came up with this theory after reexamining Gleuck’s data; found that although delinquency is more likely to occur when bond to society is broken, marriage and job stability play an important role in reducing the frequency of offending later on in life and explain the variations in crime that may not be explained by childhood deviance
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frontal, impulse
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according to the psychological perspective of the social development theory, the _______ lobe development handles _______ control.
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puberty, puberty, spike
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social development theory also notes that biologically, until _______ girls and boys have same testosterone levels. With______, there is a ______ in testosterone levels and crime.
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family/interpersonal, stronger
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_________/____________ relationships become more important as you get older; therefore, ties to society become ________.
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dependent variable
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according to laub and sampson’s age-graded theory, adult criminal behavior is the _____________ _________.
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marriage and employment
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according to laub and sampson’s age-graded theory, ________ and ________ in adult life make people less likely to engage in crime.
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life-course persistent offenders and adolescence-limited offenders
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according to moffitt’s dual taxonomic theory there are two types of people who commit crime. these are ________ and _______.
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life-course persistent offenders
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according to moffitt’s dual taxonomic theory, this is one of the types of people who commit crime. the combination of chemical imbalances/early brain damage and poverty/family dysfunction cause some people to commit crime whole life starting at young age, antisocial conduct in childhood, serious delinquency in adolescence, continued crime in adulthood
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adolescence-limited offenders
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according to moffitt’s dual taxonomic theory, this is one of the types of people who commit crime. what Moffitt found is that this type of offender goes through limited periods where they exhibit high probabilities of offending, peaks during ages 14-16 where young-adults commit a lot of petty crimes (typically highest during the mid-teen years of ages 15-20) engage in illegal drug use and shop lifting and then it goes down again
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farrington’s delinquent development theory
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a theory in which persistence describes continuity in crime and desistance refers to the termination of criminal activity or termination in a period of involvement of offending behavior
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thornberry’s interactional theory
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kids commit crimes because of weakened bond to conventional society, environment where behavior can be learned (rule-violating behavior rewarded)
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persistance
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continuity in crime, or continual involvement in offending
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desistance
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the termination of criminal activity/ termination of period of involvement in offending behavior (abandoning a criminal career)
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deceleration, specialization, de-escalation, reaching a ceiling
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list marc leblanc and rolf loeber’s four components of desistance
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deceleration
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one of the four components of desistance that refers to a slowing down in the frequency of offending
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specialization
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one of the four components of desistance that refers to a reduction in the variety of offenses
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de-escalation
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one of the four components of desistance that refers to a reduction in the seriousness of offending
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reaching a ceiling
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one of the four components of desistance that refers to remaining at a certain level of offending and not committing more serious offenses
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evolutionary ecology
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more contemporary example of life-course approach pioneered by Lawrence Cohen and Richard Machalek; contemporary example of life-course approach blends elements of social ecology while emphasizing developmental pathways encountered early in life
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control ratio
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the amount of control to which a person is subject versus the amount of control that person exerts over others
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control-balance theory
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Charles R. Tittle’s theory that blends the social bond and containment perspective to explain that too much control can be just as dangerous as too little control, and both may result in deviance
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control deficit
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part of control-balance theory that explains individuals who do not have enough control in their environment
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control surplus
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part of control-balance theory that explains individuals who believe that they have the right to control people
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ecological fallacy
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taking a group level data and trying to predict what an individual would do
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environmental criminology
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A researcher notices that one crossroad is the location of nearly 10% of the city’s crime. What type of criminology would best explain why?
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central business district
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in this concentric zone, there is low level street crime