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Counseling Theories

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Unconsciousness
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Psychoanalytic theory calls attn to psycho dynamic factors that motivate behavior & focuses on role of ____
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behavior
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Our ____ is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological & instinctual drives
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First 6 years of life
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Our instinctual drives evolve through psycho sexual stages…
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Libido
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At first termed as sexual energy by Freud then changed to include all life instincts
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Life instincts
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Survival of person and human race; oriented toward growth, development & creativity
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Gaining pleasure and avoiding pain
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According to Freud what is everyone’s life goal
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Death instinct
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Accounts for the aggressive drive, when people manifest an unconscious wish to die or hurt them self or others
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Sexual & aggressive drives
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What Freud says are powerful determinants why people act the way they do
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Id, ego & superego
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Freud’s structure of personality
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Id
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Freudian personality structure that primary source of psychic energy, the chair of instincts
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Id
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Freudian personality structure that lacks organization is blind, demanding & insistent. Also can’t tolerate tension
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Id
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Illogical, amoral, drive to satisfy instinctual needs, never matures, no thinking just wishes and acts
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Id
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Largely unconscious or out of awareness
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Ego
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Freudian personality structure Executive that governs, controls & regulates the personality
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Ego
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Controls consciousness, exercises censorship, rules by reality principle, formulates realistic plans of action to satisfy needs
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Ego
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Checks and controls id’s blind impulses, distinguishes between mental images and things in the external world
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Super Ego
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Freudian personality structure is the judicial branch of personality, functions to inhibit id, includes moral code, good, bad, right or wrong. Strives for perfection instead of pleasure
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Super Ego
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Related to psychological rewards (pride & self love) and punishments (guilt & inferiority)
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Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious
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1. Dreams. 2. Slips of the tongue & forgetting. 3. Post hypnotic suggestion. 4. Info from free-association techniques. 5. Projective techniques. and 6. Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms, Freud says are…
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Make unconscious motives conscious
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Aim of psychoanalytic therapy…
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Freud says the cure is based on…
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uncovering the meaning of symptoms, causes and repressed materials interfering w/ health functioning
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Anxiety
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dred that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires, experiences that emerge to awareness
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Anxiety
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develops out of id, ego, & superego conflict to control psychic energy
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Anxiety
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It’s function is to warn of impending danger
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Reality anxiety
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fear of danger from external world
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Neurotic anxiety
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fear instinct will get out of hand leading to punishment
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Moral anxiety
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fearing one’s own conscious, guilt when doing something against their moral code
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Ego-defense mechanisms
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Help cope with anxiety & prevent ego from being over whelmed
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Ego-defense mechanism-Repression
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Negative thoughts & feelings excluded from awareness, unconscious buried events that influence later behavior
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Ego-defense mechanism-Denial
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Ignoring existence of a reality, simplest of all mechanisms distorts what the person thinks, feels or perceives in a traumatic event
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Ego-defense mechanism-Reaction formation
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expressing opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening impulse, by doing this don’t have to face the anxiety that would result if they were to recognize these dimensions of them selves
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Ego-defense mechanism-Projection
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blaming others for ones own unacceptable desires & impulses, self deception, “it’s them not me.”
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Ego-defense mechanism-Displacement
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direct energy toward another person (safer) when the original (threatening) is inaccessible
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Ego-defense mechanism-Rationalization
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Manufacturing reasons to explain a bruised ego, helps justify specific behaviors.
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Ego-defense mechanism-Sublimation
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Diverting sex or aggressive energy into other channels, divert into socially acceptable sometimes admirable channels.
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Ego-defense mechanism-Regression
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Going back to a earlier phase because there’s fewer demands, severe stress or challenges people may attempt to cope with anxiety by clinging to inappropriate & immature behavior
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Ego-defense mechanism-Introjection
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Adopting the values & standards of others, danger of this is accepting values of the enemy by identifying with them
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Ego-defense mechanism-Identification
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People hoping they will be perceived as worthwhile when joining successful causes. Can enhance self worth, protect from being a failure, used by people feeling inferior
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Ego-defense mechanism-Compensation
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Hide weaknesses or develop positive traits to make up for limitations.
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach therapist assumes anonymous stance “blank screen” approach with very little disclosure, client makes projections onto them
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach therapist must 1st est a working relationship with client then do a lot of listening & interpreting particular attn given to clients resistances
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Central function of psychoanalysis
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teach clients meaning of the processes so they achieve insight into their problems, increase awareness of ways to change & gain more control over their lives
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Psychoanalytic therapy
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which therapy must the client be willing to commit themselves to an intensive and long term therapy process
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Free association
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client says whatever comes to mind without self censorship report feelings, experiences, associations, memories, & fantasies
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Psychoanalytic therapy
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therapy the client must agree to talk because their verbal productions are @ the heart of this therapy
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Contemporary psychoanalytic therapy
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counselor has impact on client & on present interaction occurring in the therapy context, highlights relationship as THE factor that brings about change
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Transference
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client unconsciously shifts feelings &/or fantasies that are reactions to past significant others
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Working through
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doing this consist of an exploration of unconscious material & defenses, most of which originated in childhood
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Counter-transference
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when therapist projects distortions onto clients &/or respond in irrational ways or lose objectivity when their own conflicts are triggered
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Counter-transference
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a therapist with a relationship perspective will pay attn to their ____ reactions & observations to a client then uses it as a part of therapy to help the client gain self-understanding
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How is psychodynamic therapy different than traditional psychoanalysis
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geared 2 ltd objectives than 2 restructuring 1’s personality; couch is use of supportive interventions, reassurance, empathy, support, & suggestions; >disclosure by therapist; fewer sessions
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6 basic techniques of psychoanalytic therapy
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maintain analytic framework; free association; interpretation; dream analysis; analysis of resistance; analysis of transference
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Interpretation
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counselor pointing out, explaining, even teaching client meaning of behavior manifested in dreams, free association, resistance & therapy relationship itself
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Dream analysis
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important for uncovering unconscious material & giving the client insight into some areas of unresolved problems
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Latent dreams
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hidden, symbolic, unconscious motives, wishes & fears, sometimes so painful & threatening they are transferred 2 >acceptable manifest dreams
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Manifest dreams
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dream as it appears to the dreamer
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Dreams
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serve as a pathway to repressed material but also provide an understanding of clients current functioning
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Resistance
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anything that works against progress of therapy & prevents client from producing previous unconscious material, specifically clients reluctance
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Jung
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was once considered Freud’s spiritual heir developed theory of personality markedly different from Freud
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Jung
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which theorists analytical psychology is an elaborate explanation from history, mythology, anthropology & religion
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Jung
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who developed a spiritual approach emphasis on being impelled to find meaning in life rather than driven by psychological & biological forces described by Freud
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Jung’s individuation
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harmonious integration of the conscious & unconscious aspects of personality; is an innate & primary goal
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Ego psychology
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stresses on psychosocial development through the lifespan or exposes the ego striving for mastery thru out human life span
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Jung’s archetypes
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images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious
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Jung’s archetypes
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the persona, the anima & animus, & the shadow
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Jung’s persona archetype
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a mask, or public face, that we wear to protect ourselves
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Jung’s animus & anima archetype
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represent both the biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity, which are thought to coexist in both sexes
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Jung’s shadow archetype
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deepest roots and is the most dangerous and powerful, represents our dark side, the thoughts, feelings and actions that we tend to disown by projecting them outward
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Object relations theory
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form of analytic treatment involves exploration of internal unconscious identities & internalization of external objects i.e. aspects of significant other people
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“Object” or “drive”
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term used by Freud for that which satisfies a need
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Self psychology
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emphasizes how we use interpersonal relationships to develop our sense of self
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Relational model
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therapy that’s an interactive process between client & therapist
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Contemporary relational therapists
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which therapists challenge whats considered the authoritarian nature of traditional psychoanalytics & replace it w/a >human equality model
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“Normal infantile autism”
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Mahler calls the first 3 or 4 weeks of life @ this point infant is responding >2 physiological tension than psychological processes
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Symbiosis
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Mahlers phase recognizable by the 3rd mos extends through the 8th mos infant has a pronounced dependency on mom who is clearly a partner not just an interchangeable part
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Separation-individuation
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Mahler’s process begins in the 4th or 5th mos child moves away from symbiotic forms of relating, experiences separation from significant others yet still turns to them for a sense of confirmation and comfort
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Narcissistic character & self esteem disorders
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According to Mahler children who don’t experience the opportunity to idealize others while also taking pride in themselves may later suffer from
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Borderline personality disorder
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According to Mahler these are people that have moved into the separation process but have been thwarted by parental rejection of their individuation; usually in-stable, irritable, self destructive, impulsive anger & extreme mood shifts
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separation-individuation
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Mahlers final sub phase involves a move toward constancy of self and object, pronounced by 36th mos of life, others are more fully seen as separate from the self
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Splitting
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when a person (esp a child) can’t keep 2 contradictory thoughts or feelings in mind @ the same time therefore keeps them apart focusing on just 1 of them.
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separation-individuation
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“borderline” conditions are rooted during this Mahler period
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Brief psycho dynamic therapy (BPT)
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uses psycho dynamic theory to treat selective disorders w/i a pre est time i.e.10-15 sessions, therapist takes active role quickly formulating therapy going beneath surface of presenting problems & treating underlying issues.
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Brief psycho dynamic therapy (BPT)
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some goals might include: conflict resolution, >access to feelings, increase choice possibilities, improve relationships & symptom remission
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach is particularly useful in understanding resistance i.e. canceled appt’s, fleeing early, failure to engage & refusal to look at oneself
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach is particularly useful in understanding unfinished business can be worked through so client can provide a new ending to emotionally crippling events
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach is particularly useful in understanding value and role of transference
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Psychoanalytic approach
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which approach is particularly useful in understanding how the overuse of ego defenses in counseling relationship and in daily life can keep clients from functioning effectively
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Psychoanalytic approach
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Along with Jung which approach to theory did Adler take
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Alfred Adlers key concept
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Humans are motivated primarily by social relatedness rather than sex urges; behavior is purposeful, goal directed & consciousness >than unconsciousness is the focus of therapy
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Alfred Adlers key focus
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inferior feeling which can be the wellspring of creativity, motivate us to strive for mastery, success & completion
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Alfred Adler
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who was the 1st systemic theorist who maintained its essential to understand people within the system which they live
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Phenomenological
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Adlerians attempt to view the world from the clients subjective frame of reference. How people perceive their world, thoughts, feelings, values, beliefs, convictions & conclusions
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Which approaches use phenomenological perspective
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existential therapy, person-centered, Gestalt, cognitive behavioral, reality & postmodern approaches
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Individual psychology
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what did Adler name his approach (not the same as his theory)
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Holistic concept
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implies we cant be understood in parts, ALL aspects of ourselves must be understood
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Fictional finalism
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aka “guiding self ideal” & “goal of perfection” is people living by an imaginary concept that refers to a central goal guiding a personal behavior
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Teleological
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Adler replaced deterministic explanations with ____, meaning a more purposive goal oriented approach
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Fictional finalism
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the guiding self ideal represents an individuals image of goal perfection for which they strive in any situation
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Adlers term lifestyle or “style of life”
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a persons core beliefs, assumptions that guide their movements thru life & organize their reality
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Adlers term lifestyle
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our perceptions regarding self, others, world; persons way of thinking, acting, feeling, living & striving toward long term goals
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1st six years of life
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Adler says our unique style is created primarily during which life span
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Adlers “social interest”
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an ACTION line of ones community feeling involves + attitude toward other people in the world, capacity to cooperate & contribute
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Adlers “community feeling”
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being connected to all of humanity, being involved with making the world better
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Adlers 3 basic universal life tasks we must master
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building friendships, establish intimacy, & contribute to society
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Mosak & Dreikurs added onto Adlers 3 basic universal life tasks
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self acceptance & developing our spiritual dimension
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Adlerian emphasis
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relations within family are our earliest & perhaps most influential social system
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Main aim in Adlerian therapy
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develop clients sense of belonging, assist adopting behaviors for community feeling & social interest
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Goal of Adlerian therapy
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assist clients understand their unique lifestyle help to think about self, others & the world to meet tasks of life with courage & social interest, DO NOT view clients as sick
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Adlerian counseling process
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focuses on providing info, teaching, guiding & offering encouragement to discouraged clients
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Adlerian therapist
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look for major mistakes in thinking & valuing such as mistrust, selfishness, unrealistic ambition & lack of confidence
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Adlerians
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assume a non pathological perspective, don’t label clients by their diagnosis
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Family constellation questionnaire
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how do Adlerians gather lifestyle info, frm this assess areas of success, failure & critical influences client has assumed in the world
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ER’s (early recollections)
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stories of events person says occurred b4 10y.o. used by Adlerians 2get a better understanding, learning goals, motivations of the client part of lifestyle assessment when completed gives targets of therapy
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Adlerian dream interpretation
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considered useful in assessment viewed as rehearsal of possible future courses of action
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Act
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Adlerians c feelings aligned 2 thinking as fuel 4 behavior…first we think, then we feel then we ____
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Four phases of Adlerian technique
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Est proper therapeutic relationship, explore psychological dynamics, encourage self understanding/insight, reorientation & reeducation
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Time limited therapy
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Adlerian approach is suited to be a brief ___ ___ ____
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Carl Rogers basic assumptions
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people r essentially trustworthy; have vast potential 4 understanding self, resolving their problems w/o intervention; capable of self directed growth
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Self-change
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Rogers is revolutionary by proposing theory centered on client as the agent for what
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Existential, person-centered & Gestalt therapy
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60’s & 70’s growing interest in a 3rd force therapy alternative to psychoanalytic & behavioral approach’s, these fit that bill
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Person-centered therapy
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key concept when therapists are able to communicate their realness, support, caring & non-judgemental understanding significant changes in the client >likely 2 occur
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Person-centered therapist attributes (aka core conditions)
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congruence (genuine realness); unconditional + regard (acceptance, caring); accurate empathetic understanding
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Person-centered
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theory that people have an innate drive toward progressive self growth to achieve self actualization is ___ ___ therapy
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Rogers “two types of self”
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Ideal (what you should be like) & real (contained actualizing tendency)
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Person-centered therapist
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focuses on constructive side of human nature, what right w/ them, their assets. Emphasis how client acts toward world w/ others; how 2 move fwd constructive direction; successfully encounter obstacles blocking growth
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Person-centered therapeutic process
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aims toward client achieving >degree of independence & integration, focus is on the person not the problem
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Person-centered therapeutic process
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to provide a climate of helping people become a fully functional person, client defines & clarifies their own goals, therapists don’t set the goals
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Rogers reason client seeks therapy
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feeling of basic helplessness, powerlessness & inability to make decisions or effectively direct their own lives
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Clients experience in person-centered therapy
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soon learn they can be responsible for themselves in relationship & can learn to be freer by using client/therapist relationship to gain >self understanding
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Rogers found people become actualized by
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openness to experience; trust themselves; internal source of evaluation; willingness to continue growth
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Therapeutic core conditions
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if the ___ ___ ___ exist, in time constructive personality change will occur, Rogers says they are necessary & sufficient 4 chng 2 occur
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Empathy
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not sympathy or feeling sorry but helping client pay attn, value their experience c earlier experiences in new ways, modify perceptions & increase confidence
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Accurate empathy
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the cornerstone of the person-centered approach
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Simply by restating what the client said
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in person-centered approach how does the therapist grasp the clients world & reflect this understanding
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Ability to establish a strong connection with the client
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THE critical factor determining successful counseling outcomes in person-centered counseling
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Presence, engagement & absorption (with client)
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in person-centered approach items essential for clients progress is the therapist…
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Skills like listening, accepting, respecting, understanding & responding
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proves presence is far >powerful than any technique used to bring about change
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Role of assessment in person-centered therapy
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what matters in not how the counselor assesses the client but the clients self assessment
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Our techniques are only helpful if
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the client sees them as relevant & credible
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Person-centered approach is especially applicable in crisis intervention because
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when people are in crisis one of the 1st steps is to give them the opportunity to fully express themselves
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Person-centered technique of sensitive listening, hearing, & understanding esp helps
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ground people in crises, calm them in turmoil & enables clear thinking for better decisions
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Define person-centered approaches “way of being”
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an effective therapist that is grounded, centered, genuine, present, focused, patient & accepting in a way involving maturity
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Carl Rogers attitude of confrontation with the client
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the use of confrontation is a special skill of person-centered therapists
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Were existentialist and humanist disagree
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one says we are faced w/ anxiety to create an i.d. in a world lacking intrinsic meaning, the other each of us has innate potential in finding meaning