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Corrections Chapters 3

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John Augustus
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Boston formalizes probation 1859
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Judicial Reprieve
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Permitted Judges to suspend judgment and consider pardon for an offender or new evidence
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Recognizance
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Permitted offenders to remain free if they promised to pay their debts to the state
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Sureties
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Individuals who would agree to make themselves responsible for offenders who had been released from custody
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Diversion
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recommended to keep both juveniles and adults out of corrections facilities
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Reintegrative philosophy of corrections
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a correctional approach aimed at returning offenders to the community as soon as possible
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Rationale for diversion
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-avoids the harsh impact of incarceration -Provides a “more justifying justice”
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Probation
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a form of punishment that permits a convicted offender to remain in the community, under the supervision of a probation officer and subject to certain conditions set by the court
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Probation under supervison
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-Financial restitution -Community Service -Drug or alcohol testing -Regular employment
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Pre-sentence investigation reports
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the purpose is to help the judge make good decisions over the offense helps the court decide whether to grant probation; collecting info
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Risk Assessment Models
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focused more on regulation and controlling offenders than providing treatment or services
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New penology
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a new approach in probation and other community-based corrections that focuses more on administrative control and regulation than on treatment and offering services
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Duties of Probation Officer
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-Casework management and other administrative duties File of court documents and chronological listing of contact with probationer) -Supervision, investigation, and surveillance -Pre-sentence investigation reports
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Minnesota v. Murphy (1984)
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convos with Probation Officers are NOT private
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Griffin V. Wisconsin (1987)
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a probation officer does not need a warrant or probable cause to search a probationer’s home
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United States V. Knights (2001)
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Mempa v. Rhay (1967)
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paroles have a right to an attorney
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Community corrections act (CCA)
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state-based act through which countries who participate
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Shocking probation
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go to prison than probation
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split sentence
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serve half in jail have in the community ex: can serve during the weekend
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intensive probation
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talk to you more than once a week, strict restrictions
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Bench supervision
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will see your case if mess up but will not contact you
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Risk Management Systems are more focused on
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Controlling offenders on probation or parole
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Rehabilitation
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In the 1960s there was a public there was a public “reintegrative philosophy” that gave widespread support for which type of corrections mode?
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Which of the following is NOT current trend in probation
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community partnerships will be used less frequently
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20
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Research shows that the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model can cut recidivism of high-risk offenders by as much as _____ percent
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Griffin V. Wisconsin
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In _____ the U.S. Supreme Court held that probationers have fewer constitutional protections than the general public and specifically that their homes can be searched without a warrant
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Deferred prosecution programs appear to be a good option for most first offenders because they avoid the stigma of a criminal record and reduce the volume of persons going through the criminal justice process
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True
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Recidivism rates are low amount those placed on probation for a misdemeanor
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True
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Shock
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probation calls for the offender to serve a few weeks in prison followed by a normal probation period
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Presentence investigation
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a report used at a sentencing hearing is a PSI
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technical
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a _____ violation occurs when a probationer violates one of the rules of probation, such as not meeting with their probation officer
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What is the focus of restorative justice
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-Community restoration -Offender reintegration -Victim healing
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Which benefit of graduate sanctions ensures that the level of punishment is commensurate with the severity of the criminal behavior?
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Proportionality
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A major criticism of intermediate sanction programs is that they
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widen the net of the criminal justice system
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which intermediate sanction program requires offenders to report on a regular basis and participate in counseling, social skills and employment training?
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Day reporting center
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Jude Ellis is convinced that offenders who have a drug addiction need more services provided. He explains the various sanctions and series utilized at his drug court. Which of the following are likely to be a part of judge ellis drug court?
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Mandatory periodic testing for the use of controlled substances Substance abuse treatment Aftercare series such as relapse prevention
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Intermediate sanctions, if successfully completed, cost less than jails and prisons
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True
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Criminal forfeiture occurs after a suspect is arrested by police officers but before they are convicted in criminal court
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False
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Financial restitution
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the purpose of ______ is to compensate victims for their losses and to teach the offenders financial responsibility
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Celerity
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a benefit of graduated sanctions is ____ because the response to violations is swift
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intermediate sanctions
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one reason for the emergence of ______ in the 1980s was the belief that prisons were being overused for offenders who really did not need secure confinement
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Overcrowding of the facility
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what is the biggest difficulty for large jails to offer adequate programing for each inmate
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increases in mentally ill offenders
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one of the most serious issues facing contemporary US jails is
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More juveniles were housed in jails pending transfer to juvenile authorities
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although the crime rate has fallen over the past decade, jail populations have increased. Which of the following is NOT a viable explanation for this trend?
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Biometric
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Keeping track of inmates visually within the jail often involves using physiological or behavioral characteristics of the inmate known as _____ technology
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the initial step offenders in the incarceration process is to be placed in a housing unit
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false
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jails are constitutionally mandated to make available adequate health care delivery systems
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true
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Sheriff
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the contemporary jail is usually under the authority of the ____
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preventative detention
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the objective of ____ is to retain in jail defendants who are deemed dangerous or likely to commit crimes while awaiting trail
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rabble
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criminologist John Irwin refers to disorderly and disorganized persons as
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direct-supervision
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the new generation jails are based on the ____ model
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UNICOR
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an inmate vocational porgam in the general bureau of prisons
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All of the following are indicative of a proactive warden execpt
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they believe in treating inmates harshly and physically
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an approach to prison management focused on anticipating problems before they occur is a
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proactive warden
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Richardson V McKnight
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While incarcerated Thomas files a lawsuit against the private prison corporation charging a 1983 violation. He also files a lawsuit against the officer that he alleges used excessive fore and violence. What case held that correctional officers employed by a private firm are not entitled to a qualified immunity from suit by prisoners charging a section 1983 violation?
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The crime rate has increased and the number of people in prison has declined
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false
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state correctional institutions have improved over the years mostly due to training, research, and evaluation
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true
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state departments of corrections have underdeveloped programming insufficient prison industries for inmates and lack of resources for anything other than prison construction
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true
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used to house inmates who are knowledge as posing a threat to the general population
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administrative detention
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a current movement that believes that the purpose of corrections is to punish offenders as severely as possible
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penal harm
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the highest level of incarceration is the ______ prison
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supermax
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the process by which inmates learn and internalize the customs and culture of prison is
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Prisonization
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Which of the following is NOT an advantage of classification
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it can aim to place inmates in more secure and expensive housing than they really need
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Carl is attempting to explain the culture of the prison to Brad. Carl explains that there are mainly two explanations to prison culture. Carl believes that inmate behave the way they do bc they have a hard time adapting to prison because of all they think they are missing this is known as
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Deprivation model
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based on research who is most likely to be sexually victimized if they do not show their toughness and resiliency when they arrive to prison
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white males who have committed minor crimes
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Prison gangs usually specialize in
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economic victimization
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Internal classification determines the level of security and control needed for the incoming prison population
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false
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The inmates social code is and unwritten, informal understanding of how the prison “works”, including how the new inmates will adjust
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true
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Prison gangs are commonly referred to as
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security threat groups
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some correctional experts suggest that patterns of behavior of inmates are more strongly influenced by their experience outside the prison rather than those developed within its walls. The name given to this behavior model is
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importation model
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prisons in the US are designed to segregate the inmates from the outside world and to keep them under constant scrutiny and surveillance, forcing them to obey strict rules. _______ is the term sued to describe this type of situation
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Total institutions