COMM Midterm

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psychological
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Yani is on the phone with her mother, who is explaining how to go about preparing dinner for the family later. Yani is distracted by a humorous Twitter post by one of her friends. As dinner time nears, Yani realizes she has no idea how to cook the family meal as her mother instructed her to do. During the conversation with her mother, Yani was experiencing what type of noise? correct
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relational
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If your roommate tells you that you’re out of cereal and you interpret the statement as also meaning, “I’m irritated you never replace food items when they are gone,” you are interpreting which dimension of your roommate’s message?
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Intrapersonal
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Stan mentally rehearses what he will say to break up with his girlfriend later in the day. Stan is engaging in what kind of communication? correct
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Which of the following can make someone a more competent communicator by enabling that person to see how his or her behavior fits, or doesn’t fit in a given social situation?
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self-monitoring
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Tell the truth
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Kenny is writing a persuasive speech on the existence of extraterrestrial or alien life. His thesis is “Extraterrestrial life is a fact, backed up by extensive scientific study and government involvement.” After doing his research, however, Kenny feels he cannot support his original thesis, so he rewrites it to state, “Extraterrestrial life has been a hot topic for debate for decades, with a lot of speculation and very little proof.” Kenny is following what guideline for crafting his thesis?
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five
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Most speeches have between two and _____ main points.
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plagiarism
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Which of the following terms means knowingly using information from another source without giving proper credit to that source?
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verbal footnote
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While it is acceptable to quote other people’s words in your speech, it is essential you use a _________________
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Which statement is most accurate about facial expressions during a speech?
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Your expressions should match the tone of your words.
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strive for simplicity
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Trish loves using Powerpoint during presentations at work. She loves incorporating sound effects, fancy slide transitions, and moving graphics. However, she never seems to get good reviews on her speeches from her boss. Instead, he complains that he finds her Powerpoints to be distracting and that he has a hard time learning during her speeches. What guideline should Trish consider before preparing her next Powerpoint presentation? correct
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extemporaneous
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Which type of speech is one that is carefully prepared to sound as though it is being delivered spontaneously?
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stay positive
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It is important to _____________ when dealing with stage fright because if you don’t, self-fulfilling prophecy can cause you to have a poor performance simply because you expect that you will.
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Avoiding ___________ during a speech is a response to fear that makes the speaker feel hidden and protected; having it can make the speaker feel vulnerable because it acknowledges that the audience is evaluating the speaker.
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eye contact
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movement
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A particularly good time to incorporate ________ into your delivery is during a transition in your speech because your change in position will correspond to a change in your remarks.
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demographic
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Carrie is giving a speech to her political science class. In order to make her topic interesting and engaging to her audience, Carrie looks at her audience’s ____________ characteristics, such as sex and sexual orientation, culture, and political orientation.
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Ben is doing a speech on communication apprehension in college students. Because he wants to see how speech students in general feel about the topic, he decides that a _______________ would be the most efficient way to see how a large number of speech students feel about communication apprehension.
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questionnaire
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_________ sensitive speakers recognize that many minorities have histories of social, economic, or political oppression.
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culturally
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Jocelyn is a dynamic, humorous speaker. When she is asked to give a eulogy for her former biology professor, she prepares a somber, serious speech commemorating the educator’s contribution to his field. In order to give a speech appropriate for the occasion, Jocelyn most likely asked herself,
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“What is the emotional tone of the event?”
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Jason needed help with his construction job and called on his cousin Jeff to assist. Jason told Jeff that window trim needed to be cut and installed and detailed how to turn on the saw, how to make adjustments to it, how to use it to make the cuts, and how to turn it off. Which method of informing is Jason using?
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explanation
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information hunger
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Miguel never thought he would look forward to going to English class, but ever since his teacher started teaching grammar lessons, Miguel has eagerly anticipated each class. His teacher has a way of explaining grammar that is interesting and makes sense. What has Miguel’s teacher created?
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communication
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the process by which we use signs, symbols, and behaviors to exchange information and create meaning.
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Physical Needs
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when people are prevented from having contact with others for an extended period, their heath can deteriorate.
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Relational needs
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the essential elements we look for in our relationships with other people.
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Identity Needs
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The ways we communicate shapes the way we see ourselves.
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Spiritual needs
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principals someone values in life. Morals.
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Instrumental needs
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People communicate to meet their practical, everyday needs.
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Action Model
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Describes communication as a one-way process.
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Interaction Model
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Takes up where the action model leaves off. Describes communication as a process shaped by feedback and context.
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Transaction Model
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Describes communication as a process in which everyone is simultaneously a sender and a receiver.
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Intrapersonal Communication
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communication you have with yourself
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Interpersonal Communication
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Occurs between two people in the context of their ongoing relationship. (Most common form)
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Small Group Communication
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Within groups of 3-20
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Public Communication
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Speak/Write to larger audience
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Mass Communication
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Transmitted by media
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Language
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structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning.
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Symbolic
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each word represents a particular object or idea, but it does not constitute the object or idea itself.
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Arbitrary
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Words literally mean whatever we chose for them to be.
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Phonological Rules
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deal with the correct pronunciation of a word, and they vary from language to language.
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Syntactic Rules
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Govern the order of words within phrases and clauses.
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Semantic Rules
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Has to do with the meaning of individual words.
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Pragmatic Rules
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Deals with the implications or interpretations of statements.
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Denotative Meaning
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dictionary definition
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Connotative Meaning
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the ideas or concepts the word suggests in addition to its literal definition
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Loaded Language
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words with strongly positive or negative connotations. Reflects the fact that denotations and connotations represent different layers of meaning.
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Ambiguous Language
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making a statement that we can interpret to have more than one meaning.
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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
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language shapes our views of reality. Language influences the ways members of a culture see the world. Societies attitudes and behaviors are reflected in this language.
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Cliches
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words or phrases that were novel at one time but have lost their effect owing to overuse.
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Dialects
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language variations shared by people region or social class.
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Equivocation
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language that disguises that speakers true intentions through strategic ambiguity.
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Weasel Words
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term or phrase intended to mislead listeners by implying something they don’t actually say.
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Allness Statement
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All, everyone, always etc…
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Anchor-and-contrast Approach
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A persuasion technique by which one preceded a desired request with a request that is much larger.
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Norm of Reciprocity
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The expectation that favors are reciprocated.
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Social Validation Principle
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the idea that people will comply with requests if they believe that others are also complying.
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Euphemism
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a vague, mild expression that symbolizes and substitues for something that is blunter or harsher. (We use this when we want to talk about sensitive topics without making others feel embarrassed or offended).
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Slang
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the informal and inconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group. (Helps distinguish between those who do and don’t belong in their particular social networks).
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Hate Speech
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specific form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize people based on their sex, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, race, disability status, or political or moral values.
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Opinions from facts
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makes an assertion that we can verify with evidence and show to be true or false.
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Appropriate Levels
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Knowing how simple or complex your language should be for your audience. Talking over their heads/ talking down.
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I-statement
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claims ownership of what a communicator is feeling or thinking, where as a you-statement shifts that responsibility to the other person.
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Cultivation Theory
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the theory that television encourages or cultivates a distorted view of the world among heavy viewers.
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Agenda Setting Theory
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the theory that media tells people what to think about determining what they watch, read, and hear.
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Media Effects
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the influences media has on people’s everyday lives.
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Uses and gratification
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a theory that leads researchers to explore needs other than validation that media messages fulfill for people.
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Selective Exposure
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process whereby we seek media messages that match our values rather than those who do not.
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How to create information hunger
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By connecting the information in your speech to one or more of your listeners’ needs, you make that information relevant to them and thereby motivate the audience to pay attention to your words and message.
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Extemporaneous Speech
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One that is carefully prepared to sound like it is being delivered spontaneously. Natural, conversational manner. Minimal notes allow for eye contact. Difficult in a narrow time frame.
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Scripted Speech
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composed word for word on a manuscript and then read aloud exactly as it is written. Easiest form of speech as it is just reading. Can be time consuming to write out drafts.
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Memorized Speech
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a speech you compose word for word and then deliver from memory. No notes help with eye contact. Must write speech and commit to memory, which takes a lot of time.
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Impromptu Speech
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a speech you deliver on the spot, with little or no preparation. Requires little preparation. Spontaneously have to organize your thoughts.
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Rules of Parallel Wording
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states that all points and subpoints in your outline should have the same grammatical structure.
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Rule of Division
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specifies that if you divide a point into subpoints, you must create at least two subpoint.
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Rule of subordination
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some concepts in your speech are more important than others.
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Catalytic Theory
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watching violence encourages real life violence, but only if other influences are present.
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Desensitization theory
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people’s acceptance of real-life violence grows as they see more violence reflected in the media.
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Agenda setting
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media tells people what to think about by determining what they watch/read/hear.
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Chronemics
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the use of time.
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Haptics
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study of how we use touch to communicate.
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Johari Window of self-disclosure
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a visual representation of components of the self that are known or unknown to the self and to others. (open/hidden/blind/unknown areas)
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Self-monitoring
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awareness of how you look/sound/how behavior is affecting those around you. high=more comfortable in social situations. low=hard to put audience at ease.

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