comm final

Public speaking is considered
Both a science and an art
Which of the following is one of the major spheres of communication constantly available to use?
All of the answers are correct
Which of the following is NOT one of the 8 elements of public speaking?
Rhetoric
The “spotlight effect” refers to
thinking the audience is observing you more carefully than they really are
When Carlos was preparing his speech, he carefully saw himself completing each step in a positive, detailed, systematic way. This approach is called
Visualization
Which of the following was NOT listed as a source of uncertainty causing speech anxiety?
your appearance
According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT listed as a strategy for building your speaking confidence?
envisioning
According to your textbook, —- refers to the fear of speaking in front of an audience.
speech anxiety
The general purpose of you speech typically corresponds with one of the most common types of speeches. These types of speeches include
all of the following are correct
If the topic of your speech is woodworking and your specific purpose is to teach your audience how to build a birdhouse, then the general purpose if your speech is
to inform
When you combine your general purpose, topic, and audience to identify the particular objective you want to accomplish, you have informed the —- of your speech.
specific purpose
In selecting topic ideas, you should
All of the answers are correct
Yvette’s specific purpose for her speech is “to educate the audience about nano technology,” this speech likely has which general purpose?
to inform
Asha’s audience questionnaire was designed to gain information about her audiences’ age, sex, race, educational level, income level, and religious affiliation. This type of data is called
demographics
A person’s standpoint can best be described as
their perspective on the world
When you judge something as good, right, worthy, and important, you are expressing your
Values
Which of the following are factors to consider during speech preparation and delivery?
All of these answers are correct
Your textbook encourages an—- centered approach to public speaking?
Audience
One advantage of the —- delivery method is the speaker can avoid making misstatements.
manuscript
A faster speaking rate, higher vocal pitch, and louder volume when speaking suggests
Energy
Which of the following is NOT one of the 4 delivery methods discussed in your textbook?
Improvisation
Which of the following types of delivery has little or no preparation?
Impromptu
Which type of delivery is also referred to as “structured spontaneity?”
Extemporaneous
Which of the following is not one of the things a speaker accomplishes in the speech’s introduction?
reviews main points
When a speaker asks a question during their introduction that they really do not expect their listeners to answer, the question is referred to as
rhetorical
Letting the audience know you are an authority on your topic establishes your
credibility
The main points of your speech should be
All of these answers are correct
Audience members tend to recall what the speaker presents last better than they recall the information presented in the body of the speech. This effect is called
the recency effect
Which of the following is NOT one of the main parts of speech?
signposts
When the main points of your speech are arranged in a time sequence, you are using a—- pattern of organization.
chronological
Kathy’s speech, a tribute to her favorite brother-in-law, included several stories. This type of format is called
narrative format
When developing an outline for your speech, there are three items which should be at the top. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
references
In what part of your speech are you likely to first hear the thesis?
introduction
According to your textbook, in basic formatting the first main point would be labeled with an
I
Which of the following is NOT a type of special occasion speech?
Persuasive speech
Which of the following is most likely a speech that is presented about an individual who has died?
Eulogy
—- are words, phrases, or sentences used throughout a speech to mark locations in the organization and clearly link the parts of a speech together.
Transitions
A point or sub-point should have at least how many pieces of information to support it?
two
Ethical communication refers to
the moral aspects of speaking and listening
When giving his speech on the Civil War, Carl quoted a section of President Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” without crediting Mr. Lincoln. Carl is guilty of
plagiarism
While researching her speech on the Salvation Army, Jean found a particularly useful quotation. During her speech, she put the quote in her own words. In doing so, Jean is —- the quotation
paraphrasing
Fred’s headache was causing him to have trouble concentrating on his classmate’s speech. This type of distraction is called
an internal noise
Jason was extremely nervous about an upcoming test in his science class. During the class period prior to the test, Jason found himself having trouble focusing on the content of the professor’s lecture. Jason was experiencing
listening anxiety
The meanings of words are arbitrary. This means that
different groups of people have different words that stand for the same thing
Informal language typically used in an interpersonal setting is referred to as
slang
“The assignment was to collect six sources, don’t you think?” is an example of an
tag question
“Fat flogs flying past fast” is an example of which language device?
Alliteration
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech repeats the phrase, “I have a dream…” an this is an example of which language device?
Parallelism
“The Many Faces of Madonna” is an example of an informative speech about
people and other living creatures
“How to Take a Two-Week Vacation on a Budget” is an example of an informative speech about
processes
“The History of Mardi Gras in New Orleans” is an example of an informative speech about
events
If an informative speaker wants to highlight locations or areas in a particular place, then the —- pattern of organization would be the most effective.
spatial
When used in an informative speech, the —- pattern of organization helps the speaker explain how someone or something has developed over time
chronological
Presentation media should do which of the following?
all of the answers are correct
It is usually best to distribute handouts when?
after your speech
The most versatile and dynamic multimedia tool for most public speaking purposes is
presentation software for your computer
“A copy of an object, usually built to scale, that represents the object in detail” is the description of which presentation media?
model
Which of the following is discussed as a tip for effective presentation of media?
all of the answers are correct
When researching your topic, you want information that has currency. This means
information that is up to date
Which of the following will help make researching your topic a more productive experience?
All of the answers are correct
Which of the following print mediums contains the most current information about most topics?
newspapers
The portion of the World Wide Web composed of specialty databases that are not accessible by traditional search engines is called
the deep web
Mary incorporated a story from her childhood into her speech. This type of supporting material is called
narrative
When Jake defines a word in his speech by using a definition he found in a dictionary, he is giving that word a
denotative meaning
When a speaker defines something by explaining how it works or what is does, this is called what?
definition by function
Which type of example gives listeners the most detail?
specific examples
Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of narratives discussed in your textbook?
irrelevant stories
—- meaning is unique and associated with a word based on a person’s own experiences
connotative
A ? of —- asks whether something is true or false
fact
A ? of —- asks for a subjective evaluation of something’s worth, significance, quality, or condition
value
A ? of —- asks what course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved
policy
Persuasive speeches address ?s of all of the following EXCEPT
attitude
The solution to a problem is discussed in which of the 5 motivated sequence steps?
satisfaction
When persuasive speakers use facts and statistics, they rely on —- to influence the audience
logos
Emotional appeals in one’s speech are an appeal to
pathos
What was David Lump’s informative speech topic
installing tile
What was Laina Burgin’s informative speech topic
down syndrome
What is the correct length of our persuasive speeches?
5-7 minutes
Reasoning from examples is ________ reasoning.
inductive
When addressing a divided audience, the persuasive speaker should
address objections to the speaker’s position.
Nicole’s informative speech on starting a fantasy football league has three main points. Look them over and select the type of organizational pattern that best fits this structure.

I. Seek out interested people
II. Define the rules for earning points
III. Hold a fantasy draft

Chronological
Which of the following is NOT one of the four delivery methods discussed in your textbook?
Improvisation
Robert is preparing her digital slide show for her informative speech. According to your book which type of special effect is the best choice?
Robert should avoid using special effects
“The assignment was to collect six sources, don’t you think?” is an example of a(n) ___________.
Tag question
Eleanor states in her speech, “Seventeen million children in the United States experience hunger each day. How do you suppose it feels to go to bed hungry?” What language technique is Eleanor using to spark her audience imagination?
invitation to imagine
“You had better keep your nose to the grindstone if you are going to finish on time!” This is an example of __________.
an idiom
According to your textbook, the attention-getter for a speech to persuade should include all of the following EXCEPT __________________.
Explain your connection to the topic.
Which of the following is not one of the main parts of a speech?
signpost
Which of the following was NOT listed as a source of uncertainty causing speech anxiety?
The speaker’s appearance
According to your textbook the first step in preparing to research your topic is to _______________________________.
Examine your own experience(s)
If Max wants his audience to believe that he is qualified to speak on a certain topic, he should focus on which of the components of credibility discussed in your textbook?
Competence
When you ask yourself, “What is the central idea I want my audience to get from my speech?” you are beginning the process of
phrasing your thesis.
When George thinks to himself, “How can Jude possibly believe in that?” he is experiencing ____.
ethnocentrism
When John has finished listening to Lucy’s speech, he challenges her by opening his comments with, “I am sure you are wrong about the statistics you used to support your point about the dangers of cloning.” This creates which kind of communication climate?
defensive communication climate
Which of the following are principles of dialogic ethics?
A. create a supportive communication climate
B. convey a positive attitude toward learning
C. demonstrate respect for others
Unlike in everyday conversations, your public speaking audience expects you to ________.
be an authority on you subject
Paul decided instead of being fearful and apprehensive about his upcoming speech, he would try to be excited and look forward to it. This behavior is called __________.
relabeling
_______________ theory believes people become anxious when faced with unfamiliar situations.
uncertainty reduction
Which of the following is not one of the “arts of public speaking?”
Feedback
Which of the following was NOT part of Cicero’s “five arts of public speaking?”
Research
Public speaking in the time of the Greeks was called
rhetoric.
The term “ethics” refers to
right and wrong
Which of the following is not one of the “arts of public speaking?”
A. Style
B. Feedback
C. Arrangement
D. Delivery
Feedback
Which of historical age was noted for the development of mass media, such as newspapers and radio?
industrial
Common patterns of organizing a speech include all of the following except:
A. chronological.
B. cause-and-effect.
C. problem-solution.
D. spatial.
All of the above are correct
Distance speaking occurs in the following context:
communication by internet
When a speaker remains fully aware of their audience’s expectations and situations, they are ___________________ speakers.
audience-centered
Technology is not available to everyone, particularly in developing countries. This lack of equitable technology distribution across age, race, education level, and internet connection speed is called the _______________.
digital divide
_______________ refers to the rules or standards within a culture about what is right and wrong.
ethics
Which is not one of the proofs or appeals used in public speaking identified by Aristotle?
A. ethos
B. pathos
C. mythos
D. logos
mythos
Public speaking is considered
an art
According to the Roman statesman Cicero, you need this to form the groundwork for learning about public speaking.
A. Memory
B. Delivery
C. Invention
D. Arrangement
E. Style
The linear or transmission model of communication consists of
communication in a single direction
Which of the following is not one of the eight elements of communication?
rhetoric
Which of the following is one of the major spheres of communication constantly available to use?
A. mass media
B. information technology
C. personal communications technology
D. face-to-face
Which of the following is NOT an element of the audience’s view of the speaker’s credibility?
A. Competence
B. Friendliness
C. Trustworthy
D. Organized
organized
Rhetoric was the major work of which philosopher?
aristotle
Which of the following was NOT part of Cicero’s “five arts of public speaking?” Invention, research, style or delivery
research
_______________ theory believes people become anxious when faced with uncertain or unfamiliar situations.
A. transmission
B. social exchange
C. uncertainty reduction
D. speech
uncertainty reduction
Ryan decided instead of being fearful and apprehensive about his upcoming speech, he would try to be excited and look forward to it. This behavior is called
relabeling
Unlike in everyday conversations, your public speaking audience expects you
to ________.
be an authority on your subject
Janet could not get a sense of how her audience was responding to her speech. This generally made her feel ___________.
anxious
The “spotlight effect” refers to ____________.
thinking the audience is observing you more carefully than they really are
Even though Sally started her speech with great apprehension, she used her heightened emotions and increased sensitivity to her surroundings to better her presentation. Which term best describes this reaction?
intelligent fear
If you have a positive attitude toward public speaking, you ___________.
A. welcome the chance to entertain others
B. view public speaking as an opportunity
C. look forward to sharing information
When Carlos was preparing his speech, he carefully saw himself completing each step in a positive, detailed, systematic way. This approach is called __________.
visualization
Diaphragmatic breathing, meditation breathing, and tension-release breathing exercises are part of what technique used to prepare for a speech?
relaxation
Which of the following would tend to increase the level of speech anxiety when presenting your speech?
choosing a topic about which you know little
If Lucinda wants to help reduce her anxiety about giving a speech, she should _________.
practice her speech in front of an audience
Kelly was sure that her audience would notice every mistake she made during her speech. This belief is known as ______________.
the spotlight effect
Which of the following should you not do during your speech?
A. focus on your audience
B. display a positive attitude
C. apologize for mistakes
D. pay attention to audience feedback
apologize for mistakes
Speech anxiety is ___________.
something that can be managed and controlled
In order to deliver a good speech it is essential to ___________.
thoroughly plan, prepare and practice your speech
According to your textbook, __________________________ refers to the fear of speaking in front of an audience.
speech anxiety
Which of the following was NOT listed as a source of uncertainty causing speech anxiety?
A. The speaker’s role
B. Your appearance
C. How others will evaluate you
D. The technology
your appearance
Which of the following is an example of Can-Do Language?
A. Challenges rather than problems
B. Trouble rather than mistakes
C. Criticism rather than feedback
D. Failure rather than success
challenges rather than problems
Judith has just completed her first public speech. She congratulates herself on her performance, even though she made a few small mistakes. In addition, she thinks about what speech anxiety techniques really helped her to relax prior to the speech. Judith is engaging in what type of confidence building strategies?
after the speech strategies
According to the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) scores between _________ indicate moderate speech anxiety.
98-131
According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT listed as a strategy for building your (speaking) confidence?
A. Visualization
B. Relabeling
C. Envisioning
D. Relaxation
envisioning
“Imagining a successful communication event by thinking through a sequence of events in a positive, concrete, step-by-step way,” is the definition for which strategy for building your public speaking confidence?
visualization
According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT listed as a strategy for building your confidence before the day of your speech?A. Plan and prepare your speech early
B. Choose a topic you care about
C. Practice your speech
D. Observe your fellow student’s speeches
observe your fellow student’s speeches
18. Ethical communication refers to
the moral aspects of speaking and listening
19. When Bill has finished listening to Sally’s speech, he challenges her by opening his comments with, “I am sure you are wrong about the statistics you used to support you point about the dangers of cloning.” This creates which kind of communication climate?
B. defensive communication climate
Ethical speakers and listeners have what in common?
A. a mutual respect for themselves and each other
B. logical interaction with each other
C. accuracy
D. All of these answers are correct.
all of these are correct
Which of the following are principles of dialogic ethics?
A. create a supportive communication climate
B. convey a positive attitude toward learning
C. demonstrate respect for others
D. all of these answers are correct.
all of these are correct
22. Cathy’s speech at her college campus sorority attacked and degraded the Mexican students. This type of speech is called ________.
hate speech
23. When you email an expert for information on you topic, how should you deal with that information in your speech?
you should ask permission and name your source in your speech
24. When giving his speech on the Civil War, Carl quoted a section of President Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” without crediting Mr. Lincoln. Carl is guilty of _______.
plagiarism
25. The practice of using limited portions of an author’s work and crediting the source is called __________.
fair use
26. Effective public speakers provide oral citations during their speeches. Oral citations are
brief references to their sources
28. While researching her speech on the Salvation Army, Jean found a particularly useful quotation. During her speech, she put the quote into her own words. In doing so, Jean is _________________ the quotation.
paraphrasing
29. When Dave thinks to himself, “How can Roberta possibly believe in that?” he is experiencing ____.
ethnocentrism
30. Which of the following is an example of gender neutral language?
salesperson
31. When you go to a comedy club for entertainment, you are engaging in _______.
appreciative listening
32. Fred’s headache was causing him to have trouble concentrating on his classmate’s speech. This type of distraction is called ________.
an internal noise
33. According to your textbook, the psychological and emotional tone that develops as communicators interact with one another is referred to as the ________________.
communication climate
34. According to your textbook, a recent study found that over _________ of college students reported copying information directly from an internet source without providing a reference.
one third
35. Jason was extremely nervous about an upcoming test in his science class. During the class period prior to the text, Jason found himself having trouble focusing on the content of the professor’s lecture. Jason was experiencing __________________.
listening anxiety
36. Selecting, assigning meaning to, responding to and recalling sensory stimuli is part of what process?
listening
37. An example of an open-ended question is:
how are you feeling today?
38. Zane is listening to his sister talk about her feelings after a rough day she had at school. He is likely engaging in what type of listening?
empathic
39. Rob is going to a concert to hear his favorite band play. While there he will likely be engaged in what type of listening?
appreciative
40. Bengie is busy trying to prepare for her upcoming speech but she keeps getting distracted by thoughts of other assignments she has to complete. She is likely experiencing ____________ noise.
internal
19. After Brandon brainstormed for ideas associated with his topic, he identified themes and then grouped those themes by category. These categories will become the ________ of Brandon’s speech.
main points
20. Which of the following outlines would be the last you would use when preparing a speech?
presentation outline
21. The general purpose of your speech typically corresponds with one of the most common types of speeches. These types of speeches include _______.
A. persuasive
B. entertaining
C. informative
22. If the topic of your speech is woodworking and your specific purpose is to teach your audience how to build a birdhouse then the general purpose of your speech is ________.
to inform
23. In a good speech outline, ideas that make up any main heading or subheading have a logical connection to one another. This is called ________.
internal consistency
24. Once you have a list of ideas for your topic, it is a good idea to
distill each idea down to a single word
25. The thesis of your speech should
A. be written as a single declarative sentence.
B. capture the essence of you speech.
C. incorporate the main points you plan to address.
26. Your thesis statement will refine your topic and provide
guidance for research
27. When you combine your general purpose, topic, and audience to identify the particular objective you want to accomplish, you have formed the _______ of your speech.
specific purpose
28. Which of the following is not part of a working outline?
brainstorming
29. Mary’s speech inspired many people in her audience to give blood at the earliest opportunity. This type of speech would fall into which of the following categories?
persuasive
30. In brainstorming for topics you should
write down every idea- whatever comes to mind
31. In selecting topic ideas you should
A. consider the audience.
B. consider the setting and type of event.
C. consider resource availability.
32. Which of the following types of speeches is appropriate when the speaker wants to change the audience’s attitudes towards a topic?
persuading
33. Which of the following is NOT discussed as rule for the brainstorming process?
evaluate the ideas
34. According to your textbook, when evaluating and selecting your topic it is important to do each of the following EXCEPT ______________.
consider what others are speaking on
35. Yvette’s specific purpose for her speech is “to educate the audience about nano technology,” this speech likely has which general purpose?
to inform
36. Jimmy’s specific purpose for his speech is “to advocate for more recycling on campus,” this speech likely has which general purpose?
to persuade
37. Choose the correct order from broadest to narrowest focus on your topic.
general purpose, specific purpose, thesis
38. According to your textbook, which of the following outlines should you write first?
working
16. As he spoke, his audience perceived Daniel to be competent about his topic, honest and sincere, and to be a dynamic speaker. These perceptions greatly increase Daniel’s ______________.
credibility
17. Asha’s audience questionnaire was designed to gain information about her audiences’ age, sex, race, educational level, income level, and religious affiliation. This type of data is called ________.
demographics
18. Blake was asked to speak at his local Kiwanis club meeting. In this case, his best source of audience information would likely be
the person who invited him to speak
19. Analyzing and adapting to the audience is crucial to all public speakers. This approach to preparing and delivering you speech is called ________.
an audience centered approach
20. Demographic information about an audience can best be obtained through
A. consulting people familiar with that audience.
B. using a questionnaire.
C. personal observation.
21. A person’s standpoint can best be described as
their perspective on the world
22. A seventeen-year-old African-American from the south side of Chicago and a forty-five-year old Caucasian businessman from Boston would likely have very different ______ based on demographics.
standpoints
23. When you judge something as good or bad, right or wrong, or attractive verses unattractive, you are expressing your __________.
values
24. An individuals’ psychographic factors-standpoints, values, beliefs, and attitudes—can all be better understood by using _____________________.
an audience research questionaire
25. Should the U.S. continue to pursue the use of nuclear power as an energy source in the future? This type of audience research question is called _____________.
closed ended
26. Which of the following question is closed-ended in nature?
how long have you lived at this address?
27. Bill’s speech about the effects of recycling on the environment made extensive use of data and quotes gathered from his audience. These data and quotes will most likely ______________ the likelihood that his audience will be persuaded by his speech.
increase
28. When using an audience research questionnaire, you can clarify audience positions and obtain additional useful information by
asking both open ended and closed ended questions
29. Information in the responses to an audience research questionnaire that reflects trends and comparisons is called __________.
summary statistics
30. Which of the following are factors to consider during speech preparation and delivery?
A. the location of the speech
B. the time of day when delivering the speech
C. the occasion of the speech
31. Your textbook encourages a(n) _______________-centered approach to public speaking.
audience
32. Lisa believes that females are the ones she most wants to persuade with her speech on detecting breast cancer. As such, women would be considered her _________________.
target audience
33. Which of the following was NOT discussed in your textbook as an effective technique for adapting to diverse audiences?
dress accordingly
34. Which of the following questions is open-ended in nature?
how do you feel about your job promotion?
35. __________________ refers to the location or place from which an individual views, interprets and evaluates the world.
standpoint
36. According to your textbook, how a person feels about something is the definition of ____________.
audience attitudes
37. According to your textbook, adapting to the setting requires you to consider all of the following EXCEPT ______________.
the audience
38. According to your textbook, which of the following audiences would most likely be considered a “captive audience?”
a sociology class at your college
39. Which was Aristotle’s term for speaker credibility?
ethos
40. Which of the following components of credibility measures the degree to which an audience feels a connection to a speaker?
sociability
41. If Kwon wants his audience to believe that he is qualified to speak on a certain topic, he should focus on which of the components of credibility discussed in your textbook?
competence
20. One of the questions Nick asked during his interview with a nuclear physicist was, “Wouldn’t you agree that the benefits of nuclear power out way the risks?” This is what type of question?
leading
21. When researching your topic, you want information that has currency. This means ___
information that is up to date
22. Questioning the logic of an authors’ conclusions or whether or not they provide adequate evidence is questioning the _________ of the authors’ information.
validity
23. Cindy mentioned her professor during her speech as a source of information. This mention is called _______.
an oral citation
24. Which of the following will help make researching your topic a more productive experience?
A. keeping accurate records
B. scheduling research time
C. starting early
25. Which of the following print mediums contains the most current information about most topics?
newspapers
26. Sally wants to use the computer to research her speech topic. To do so, she will need to develop ________ to properly guide the search engines she will use.
particular keywords
27. As a general rule, your interview questions should be
neutral and open ended
28. Which of the following is an additional resource for you to utilize during your research?
A. deep web
B. blogs
C. real-time web
29. A source’s complete citation, including author, date of publication, title, place of publication, and publisher is called________________.
bibliographic information
30. Metasearch engines should be used when you want to find:
general information about your topic
31. The following type of information is found in the Real-time Web:
A. videos
B. photos
C. microblogs
33. You should __________________________before using any files that you have downloaded from the Internet.
read the copyright information
34. The portion of the World Wide Web composed of specialty databases that are not accessible by traditional search engines is called_________.
the deep web
35. Which of the following is NOT discussed in your textbook as a step in the research process?
constructing your own research
36. According to your textbook the first step in preparing to research your topic is to _______________________________.
examine your own experiences
37. Which of the following is a primary source of information about Dr. Tracy Adams research?
a journal article written by Dr. Adams about her research
38. According to your textbook, which of the following would NOT be considered a reference work?
government publications
39. Sarah is preparing to interview film director Ed Buhr about his latest work. If Sarah wants to ask unbiased and impartial questions to solicit a forthright answer she should ask ____________ types of questions.
open ended
40. As Mary is finishing her research interview, she quickly summarizes the main points of the interview and thanks the interviewee for her time. Mary was using which of the following interviewing strategies?
closure statement
41. Which of the following documents a book in proper format using APA style?
A. Moran, M. (2008). Do it wrong quickly: How the web changes the old marketing
rules. Upper Saddle River, NJ: IBM Press.
42. Which of the following documents a journal article in proper format using MLA style?
. Pais, Joana. “Speech Anxiety and Rapid Emotional Reactions to Angry and Happy
Facial Expressions.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 48 2007: 321-328.
18. “Looking for wild asparagus is like hunting for mushrooms; they are relatively hard to find, but well worth the effort when you do find them.” This type of comparison is called______.
an analogy
19. When Jake defines a word in his speech by using a definition he found in a dictionary, he is giving that word a _______________.
denotative meaning
20. When a speaker defines something by explaining how it works or what it does, this is called what?
definition by function
21. Using definitions in your speech may
A. help clarify your topic.
B. help audience members and the speaker think about the topic in similar ways.
C. cause problems if not properly used.
22. Because they appeal to logic, audience members generally find ______convincing in persuasive situations.
facts and statistics
23. Which of the following is viewed by people as having the most credibility?
local daily newspapers
24. Hypothetical examples are based on _______.
conjecture
25. Cultural stories transmit basic values and ways of behaving and best represent which type of appeal?
mythos
26. Which of the following four terms does not relate to the other three? A. stories
B. definitions
C. anecdotes
D. narratives
definitions
27. Carol’s reference to the impact of visitors to the Rocky Mountains in her speech about the fragile eco-system of the mountains is considered a _____.
specific example
28. In Dave’s speech about the history of civil rights in the U.S., he used quotes from Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr. Dave used ______ to support his points.
expert testimony
29. If you want to quantify the magnitude of a problem in your speech, you may want to use ______?
statistics
30. When using media credibility to improve your speech, remember that the most popular news source for Americans is ________?
television
31. Which type of example gives listeners the most detail?
specific examples
32. According to your textbook which of the following types of supporting materials mostly likely enhances the speaker’s credibility?
testimony
33. Which of the following refers to emotional appeals?
pathos
Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of narratives discussed in your textbook?
A. Your own stories
B. Stories about others
C. Institutional stories
D. Irrelevant stories
irrelevant stories
35. Which of the following types of narratives best represent mythos?
cultural stories
36. ___________________ meaning is unique and associated with a word based on a person’s own experiences.
connotative
37. “Josh was flopping like a fish on a line” is an example of ______________.
simile
38. “Into each life a little rain must fall” is an example of:
a metaphor
39. The average price of a home in your town is most likely what type of evidence?
statistic
1. Speeches that rely on a problem-solution pattern of organization link points together based on their physical relationships.
A transition that indicates a key move in a speech, making its organization clear to the audience is called a
signpost.
provides a very broad and general description of your ideas and how they are related to each other.
The complete-sentence outline
9. Spatial organization links points together based on their physical relationships, such as their locations.
10. A speech of tribute is likely to follow the
narrative organizational pattern.
11. “Cause-and-effect” pattern of organization can be used for
either Informative or Persuasive Speeches
Common patterns of organizing a speech include all of the following except
E. all of them are correct (chronological, cause and effect, problem solution, spatial)
When a speaker remains fully aware of their audience’s expectations and situations they are __ speakers
audience centered
Technology is not available to everyone, particularly in developing countries. This lack of equitable technology distribution across age, race, education level and internet connection speed is called the __
digital divide
__ refers to the rules or standards within a culture about what is right and wrong
Ethics
Which of the following is one of the major spheres of communication constantly available to use?
All of them ( mass media, IT, personal communications technology, face to face)
__ theory believes people become anxious when faced with uncertain or unfamiliar situations
Uncertainty reduction
Ryan decided instead of being fearful and apprehensive about his upcoming speech he would try to be excited and look forward to it. This behavior is called __
relabeling
Kelly was sure that her audience would notice every mistake she made during her speech. This belief is known as __
The spotlight effect
Which of the following should you not do during your speech
apologize for mistakes
Which of the following was NOT listed as a source of uncertainty causing speech anxiety?
Your appearance
Cathy speech at her college campus sorority attacked and degraded the mexican students. This type of speech is called
Hate speech
While researching her speech on the Salvation Army, Jean found a particularly useful quotation. During her speech, she put the quote into her own words. In doing so, Jean is __ the quotation
paraphrasing
When giving his speech on the Civil War, Carl quoted a section of Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” without crediting Mr. Lincoln. Carl is guilty of __
plagiarism
Rob is going to a concert to hear his favorite band play. While there he will likely be engaged in what type of listening?
Appreciative
Bengie is busy trying to prepare for her upcoming speech bus she keeps getting distracted by thoughts of other assignments she has to complete. She is likely experiencing __ noise.
Internal
Susan checked the headlines of her local paper and looked through current magazines to come up with ideas for her speech topic. This is part of a process called
brainstorming
When you ask yourself ” what is the central idea I want my audience to get from my speech” you are beginning the process of
phrasing your thesis
If the topic of your speech is woodworking and your specific purpose is to teach your audience how to build a birdhouse then the general purpose of your speech is __
to inform
Mary’s speech inspired many people in her audience to give blood at the earliest opportunity. This type of speech would fall into which of the following categories?
persuasive-to gain immediate action
The thesis of your speech should
All of these ( be written as a single declarative sentence, capture the essence of your speech, incorporate the main points you plan to address)
As he spoke, his audience perceived Daniel to be competent about his topic, honest and sincere, and to be a dynamic speaker. These perceptions greatly increase Daniel’s
Credibility
Asha’s audience questionnaire was designed to gain information about her audience’s age, sex, race, educational level, income level, and religious affiliation. This type of data is called
Demographics
Should the U.S continue to pursue the use of nuclear power as an energy source in the future? This type of audience research question is called
Close ended ( because they can say yes or no)
A seventeen year old African American form he south side of Chicago and a forty five year old Caucasian businessman from Boston would likely have very different __ based on demographics
Standpoints- the pyschological location or place from which and individual interprets, and evaluates the world
Which of the following are factors to consider during speech preparation and delivery
All of these (the location, time of day and occasion)
Cindy mentioned her professor during her speech as a source of info. This mention is called __
an oral citation
A sources complete citation, including author, date of publication title, place of publication and publisher is called __
bibliographic information
Becoming an expert on your topic will
all of these answers are correct ( reduce your speech anxiety, allow you to determine the reliability of what you know, all you to determine the credibility of your original source)
Which of the following is not discussed in your textbook as a step in the research process
constructing your own research
Which of the following is a primary source of information about Dr. tracy Adams research
A journal article written by Dr. adams about her research
“looking for wild asparagus is like hunting for mushrooms; they are relatively hard to find but well worth the effort when you do find them” This type of comparison is called
an analogy
When Jake defines a word in his speech by using a definition he found in a dictionary, he is giving that word a
denotative meaning ( an agreed upon definition)
Because they appeal to logic, audience members generally find __ convincing in persuasive situations
facts and statistics
Cultural stories transmit basic values and ways of behaving and best represent which type of appeal
mythos
Carol’s reference to the impact of visitors to the Rocky Mountains in her speech about the fragile eco-system of the mountains is considered a __
specific example
Transistions which remind listeners of previously presented information so they fully understand those ideas before you move on to the next point are called
internal summaries
In what part of a speech are you likely to first hear the thesis?
Introduction
Dave is organizing his speech 1. 1901-1918, II. 1919-2003 III. 2003- present day, Dav’es organizational structure is best described as
chronological
Kaite is organizing her speech on the lay out of the Las Vegas Strip. Her main points are: I. Souther parts of the strip, II. Central parts of the strip III. Northern parts of the strip
Kaite’s organizational structure is best described as
spatial
__ are words, phrases or sentences used throughout a speech to mark locations in the organization and clearly link the parts of a speech together
D. transistions
Which of the following is not one of the things a speaker accomplishes in the speeches introduction?
Reviews main points (should be in conclusion)
Audience members tend to recall what the speaker presents last better than they recall the information presented in the body of the speech. This effect is called
The recency effect
Which of the following people would audience members view as the most credible speaker
An air traffic controller speaking about runway safety at airports
Letting the audience know you are an authority on you topic establishes your __
credibility
Ending your speech with a dramatic statement is one technique for
providing closure
The meanings of words are arbitrary. This means that
different groups of people have different words that stand for the same thing
Language and culture are
inseparable
“You had better keep your nose to the grindstone if you are going to finish on time!” This is an example of __
an idiom (An expression that means something other than the literal meaning of the words)
LaTonna states in her speech, “seventeen million children in the US experience hunger each day. How do you suppose it feels to go to bed hungry?” What language technique is LaTonna using to spark her audience imagination?
invitation to imagine ( Aking listeners to create a scene or situation in their minds
__ is technical language associated with a profession or subject.
Jargon
Effectively managing your technology requires
Planning and practice
Which statement best describes the use of presentation media?
Keep presentation media simple and brief
When deciding which presentation media to use in your speech, you should consider
All of these answers are correct (The make up of your audience, the equipment available to you, the size and physical layout of the space)
“A copy of an object usually built to scale that represents the object in detail” is the description of which presentation media?
Model
Which of the following presentation media is NOT recommended for a brainstorming session with the audience?
Transparencies (Present Information)
When students talk in class during a discussion, this is an example of __ delivery.
Impromptu (speaker has little or no time to prepare)
__ delivery can be thought of as balancing structure and spontaneity.
Extemporaneous (Speaker researches, organizes, rehearses, and delivers in a way that combines structure and spontaneity)
One advantage of the __ delivery method is the speaker can avoid making misstatements.
Manuscript (Reads a written script word for word)
To effectively manage the audience during a speech the speaker should
Make sure audience members who require accommodations have them
Which of the following is NOT recommended for managing your voice when delivering your speech?
Incorporate vocalized pauses
” The Allure of Old Baseball Fields: Wrigley and Candlestick Parks” is an example of an informative speech about __
objects and places
The specific purpose for an informative speech should begin with a phrase such as
To make my audience understand
When use in an informative speech the __ pattern of organization helps the speaker explain how someone or something has developed over time
chronological
Nicole’s informative speech on starting a fantasy football league has three main points. Look them over and select the type of organizational pattern that best fits this structure.
I. Seek out interested people
II. Define the rules for earning points
III> Hold a fantasy draft
Chronological
Jaime’s informative speech on Hawaiian culture has three main points. Look them over and select the type of organizational pattern that best fits this structure.
I. Traditional foods
II. Types of dance
III. Clothing/Attire
Topical
“Should all college students be required to take a course in public speaking?” is a question of
policy (asks what course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved
” Is Paris the most beautiful city in the world?” is a question of
value
A question of __ asks whether something is true or false
Fact
With a __ audience, the persuasive speaker should visualize the topic for the audience in positive ways.
Negative (holds an unfavorable view of the speakers position
In the __ step of the motivated sequence, the speaker presents information that shows the benefits of her proposed solution
visualization (imagining a successful communication event by thinking through a sequence of events in a positive step by step way)
“More than two thirds of adult americans are overweight or obese” is which element of an argument
evidence
Reasoning from examples is __ reasoning.
inductive (reasoning by example; supporting a claim with specific cases or instances)
When using __ reasoning the two things compared must have enough similarities to make the comparison believable
Analogical
Slippery slope fallacy, begging the question and false dilemma fallacy are examples of fallacies in
claims
“We either raise student tuition or lay of teachers” is an example of which fallacy?
False dilemma
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Self-actualization, esteem, social, safety, and physiological
Fear Appeal
This appeal was used when Jason stated “if you text while driving you WILL die”.
A panel/ panel discussion
This is a format where all members of the group discuss the issue in dialogical interaction with a moderator who guides interactions.
Demographic Analysis
When a speaker learns the audience’s gender, ethnicity, religion, and age he or she is completing this type of analysis.
What are the two types of appeal?
Positive – motivation Negative- fear
Final Report
This is a reporting format in which group members assign 1 person to present the groups findings.
Fact, Value, or Policy
A persuasive speech poses one of the 3 types of claims. The claims guide the writing of the speech. What are they?
Brief and Accurate
These two pieces of advice are important to keep in mind while delivering any special occasion speech.
Non-sequitur
This logical fallacy occurred when Fran stated that more laws should be in effect to protect the environment because her town has a littering problem.
Cognitive Dissonance
This refers to the sense of disorganization that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns.
Homogenous Audience
This term describes an audience whose members are similar in their attitude towards a topic, whither that attitude is positive or negative.
Commemorative
This type of speech is also called a “tribute” because it highlights and reinforces important cultural values.
Investigative and Problem Solving Groups
These are the 2 types of groups you might be asked to contribute to in a work place when speaking.
Ad Hominem
This is a logical fallacy that occurs when a speaker attacks the person supporting the issue rather than the issue itself.
Thank others and tell why this award is so important to you
These are the 2 essential parts of an acceptance speech.
Psychographics
This analysis is completed by a speaker to learn the audiences attitudes, beliefs, and values toward a topic.
Initial Credibility
This credibility is established by carful thought to appearance, establishing eye contact, and having your credentials as well as accomplishments.
Introductory Speech
A brief accurate speech to build another speakers credibility.
Aristotle
Pathos, ethos, and logos were developed by what philosopher?
Hostile Audience
A PETA activist addressing a group of fur manufacturers is most likely to face this type of audience.
Misplaced Authority
Jennifer Lawrence thinks Bank of America is the best so you will too. This is an example of what logical fallacy?
Gatekeepers
This member of a group makes sure all people are contributing.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
This person’s speech organizational pattern includes five steps. Attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
Public Relations Speech
This speech is designed to inform the public, strengthen alliances with them, and possibly recommend policy outside of group.
Group Think
You didn’t want to go to the movies but your friends insisted. Well, at the end of the movie you figured out that most of them didn’t want to go either. What is this called?
Audience Analysis
This is when a speaker considers the audience at every step of speech making and discovers ways to most effectively communicate with that particular group.
Kairos
Circumstances surrounding a reason to gather.
Causal Fallacy
This fallacy assumes that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
Causal Fallacy Example
I took my lucky rabbit’s foot to the test with me, and I passed with flying colors.
Bandwagon Fallacy Example
We all agree… or Everyone says…
States an issue as an either or choice and overlooks other reasonable possibilities
.False Dichotomy
Inductive fallacy that extends the conclusion further than the evidence warrants. “I hate that politician; everyone in his political party is corrupt.
“Hasty Generalization or Hasty Generalization
Aaron is listening to his professor lecture on Shakespeare and is taking notes based on what he thinks might be on the upcoming exam. What Type of listening is this?
Content
Jason is giving a speech on “How to Create a Website” and rather than putting thought into if his audience understands what he is saying, he is more focused on how he looks in front of them and if they think he is smart. His communication is considered…
Monologue
Andrea was preparing for her informative speech on “Sailing to the British Virgin Islands” and she asked herself “What do I want my audience to get out of my speech?” She was trying to figure out…
Thesis
how you intend to achieve the specific purpose
Thesis
Ian is doing a speech on “Basic steps for removing computer spyware.” What kind is informative speech is he doing?
Process
Jessica is doing a speech for her class. Her specific purpose is to persuade my audience that dinosaurs did not ever exists. What type of persuasive speech is she doing?
Question of Fact
Matthew was interviewing a friend who has served in the military in Iraq and asked the question: “Please tell me more about your experiences with Iraqi culture.” This type of question is a…
Secondary question
ask for elaboration on a previous response
Secondary question
introduce a new idea or topic
Primary question
broadly worded (closed ended questions limit the response choice)
Open ended questions
George has decided that he wants to give his persuasive value speech on why the Iron Bowl 2013 was the greatest football game ever. George is focusing on which art of public speaking?
Invention
Adam is going to do his speech on the evolution of the cellular phone. His organization pattern will most likely be:
Chronological
Sheldon was doing a speech on terrorism and Leslie, who was in the audience, immediately thought of 9/11 because she lost an uncle in the trade center that day. Leslie’s interpretation of terrorism was her ______ meaning of the words.
Connotative
Sarah is very nervous about giving her first speech in COMM 1000, but when her roommate asks if she is scared she responds by saying, “I am thrilled and looking forward to giving this speech.” What confidence building technique is she using?
Relabeling
When people face an uncertain situation, their level of anxiety increases. This is known as :
Uncertainty reduction theory
Bill was giving a speech about the effect of poor eating habits. During his speech he said : According to Nutritionist Elizabeth Allgood, people who develop poor eating habits at an early age are 50% more likely to develop long term disease. What doctrine allows Bill to do this without his work being considered plagiarism?
Fair Use
Allison was listening to a speech on campus about arranged marriages in certain countries. She couldn’t believe what she was hearing and said to her roommate: “How can those people believe that way, I would never have an arranged marriage.: Saying this exhibited:
Ethnocentrism
Anthony was giving a speech on the annual conference for his company and he was thinking “what do I want my speech to be about?” He was trying to figure out his…
Topic
Sam was preparing his persuasive policy speech on Studying Abroad, and he told his roommate he wanted to persuade his audience to consider studying abroad one semester. That statement is his:
Specific Purpose
What is the “deep web”
beaucoup.com
What is “Reliability”
refers to the consistency and credibility of the information
Pathos
emotions
Ethos
credibility
Logos
Logic
audiences tend to recall what a speaker says right at the beginning of their speech
Primacy effect
audiences tend to recall what a speaker says to the end of their speech
Recency effect
The type of speaking that you did this semester for your speech is __________ speaking.
extemporaneous
“We either raise student tuition or lay off teachers”
Hint: Fallacy in claim
False Dilemma
“Our program is the best one because we rate it highly”
Hint: Fallacy in claim
Begging the question
“If we improve this highway, it will lead to a decrease in traffic deaths”
Hint: Fallacy in claim
Slippery slope
“Angels and devils must exist because we have no proof that they don’t”
Hint: Fallacy in claim
Ad Ignorantiam
“Spend less time online. Our community is losing its unity, so people should get more involved in it.”
Hint: Fallacy in evidence
Red Herring
“If you’re a true patriot, you’ll support our petition for a new city hall”
Hint: Fallacy in evidence
Ad populum
“In-person college classes are better than online classes because City College has taught classes face to face”
Hint: Fallacy in evidence
Appeal to tradition
“Violent crime in our city doubled from last year. (Speaker omits previous year’s number, which was very low)”
Hint: Fallacy in evidence
Comparative evidence
“The red states voted Republican. Pat lives in a red state and therefore must have voted Republican.”
Hint: Fallacy in reasoning
Division
“Two local restaurants have seen an increase in business since the stadium was built, so all local restaurants have benefitted”
Hint: Fallacy in reasoning
Hasty generalization
“The year after the department hired a new manager, sales increased”
Hint: Fallacy in reasoning
Post hoc
“Buying stocks is like gambling because both involve money and risk”
Hint: Fallacy in reasoning
Weak analogy
“The administrator is an idiot, and of course came to the wrong conclusion”
Hint: Fallacy in responding
Ad hominem
“Any terrorist would support this idea”
Hint: Fallacy in responding
Guilt by association
“My opponent’s position is that the police force should be abolished. (In reality, the speaker’s opponent is calling for minor budget cuts)”
Hint: Fallacy in responding
Straw man
“Hunting is the senseless murder of innocent creatures”
Hint: Fallacy in responding
Loaded words
Structures conversation on a given topic among several people in front of an audience
panel discussion
If you are doing a speech on the layout of a building what type of organizational pattern are you useing
spacial
qualifiers, such as probably, that makes a statement ambiguous
hedges
]
monitoring news sources to analyze and access the information they produce
gate watching
deciding to talk about adoption over abortion bc of the negative media currently going on about planned parenthood
enviornment
an argument in which a premise or conclusion is unstated a jump in reasoning
enthymemes
assertion you want audience to accept
claim
I will not rest, I will not rest, I will not rest
parallelism
what type of literary analysis is “ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”
??antimetabole? anastrophe? antithesis?
peoples beliefs, standpoints, values
psychographics
the connection an audience has with the speaker
sociability
if you are doing a speech on the tango, what type of presentation media are you using?
human assistance
fallacy in responding-speaker misrepresents another speakers argument so only the shell of the opponents argument remains
straw man fallacy
fallacy in claims, uses a premise to imply the truth of the conclusion or asserts that it is evident (circular reasoning)
begging the question
threatening question
cohersion
general to specific
deductive reasoning
Im gonna do something – is wrongly using:
articulation
One about greeks??
Casey thinks its delivery (could be rhetoric, communication?)
we express ourselves and engage other people within 4 principle
spheres of communication
Shows how an action produces a specific outcome
cause and effect pattern
Dividing your topic into subtopics and address the components, elements, or aspects of the topic
topical pattern
This listening involves gathering information and focusing on the speakers main ideas
content
When communicators are invited to express their ideas with the goal of understanding each other
dialogue
Andrea was preparing her speech, and asked herself, “what do I want my audience to get out of this speech?” she was trying to figure out her..
thesis (or is it specific purpose)
What is the central idea i want my audience to get from my speech? you are beginning process of:
phrasing your thesis
Structures for ordering the main points of your speech that help audience members understand the relationships among your ideas are called?
patterns of organization
First, I will review the history…etc, etc.. This type of transition is called:
ordering
According to textbook, the attention getting for a speech to persuade should include all but:
explain connection to the topic
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