Comm 170

What is one source of meaning in rhetoric, according to 20th century analytics?
habitual use over time

meaning is constructed habitually, in that it’s produced over time by habits, repeated in culture.

What does Kenneth Burke mean by a terministic screen, and what is the significance of calling it “terministic” in his system of thought?
“a set of symbols that becomes a kind of screen through which the world makes sense to us”

He offers the metaphor to explain why people interpret messages differently, based on the construction of symbols, meanings, and, therefore, reality.

What are the components of Burke’s dramatistic pentad
what is done in language
what is performed
how it is rhetorically produced
what is being done

where the act curried
what is the context
the where

who performed the act
the do-et

the means of acting
how the deed was done
the how

the end goal of this act
the why

What are the two parts of a sign, for Ferdinand de Saussure and other structuralists?
Sign = Signifier (sound/word) and Signified (concept/meaning)


What is ethos?
Ethos is the dynamic relationship someone has with its audience. It is Greek for “character” and “habit”. The speaker must prove credibility and trustworthiness.

What is dramatism, and why is this theoretical position named as such?
Dramatism examines the ways in which we use language in the format of dramatic action. It is Burke’s method for analysis.

Concerned with how people manage symbols for social coordination. Through the analysis of how language is used, we gain insights into motives that impel human actors to do what they do and why.

was named this because it mirrors a play.

According to Tonn, Endress and Diamond, Burke has two notions of redemption: What are they, and what are the differences between the two?
Mortification and Victimization

What is an ideograph, and what are its characteristics?
A symbol for an abstract idea or an “argument”

-Usually political
-part of the collective consciousness of a culture (“equality” in US and Soviet Russia have two different meanings)l

Who was the archetypal hero in Teddy Roosevelt’s myth, according to Dorsey and Harlow?
immigrant hero

What does the Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning teach us?
there is not a single “correct” meaning associated with each and every word because each word means something different to each person, or more simply, meanings don’t reside in words, they reside in people

Ogden and Richards use the triangle of meaning to link signs and symbols with actual objects. There way is to connect all words to their meanings.

What is the greatest television show ever made?
The Wire???? with snot boogy

Define the term metaphor, and explain its relation to meaning making.
Metaphor means to “carry over.” carries over meaning from one word to another.
When we describe something metaphorically, we carry over a set of qualities from the thing.

“the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” -Lakoff and Johnson

What are the parts of a metaphor? Be able to identify them.
Principal Subject: the thing talked about

Subsidiary Subject: what is applied to principle subject.

EX. you are a lion.
Principal is you. Subsidiary is Lion

What are “associated commonplaces” of a metaphor?
the qualities associated with each of the two subjects.

A system of associated commonplaces consists of the standard beliefs that are shared by members of the same speech community when they use a term literally.

Name some metaphors central to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech. study guide
“a lonely island of poverty…”
“america has given the negro people a bad check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds’ but we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt”
“Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.”
“Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children.”

What is metonymy?
another name for something
arbitrary linking of two things
replace literal meaning with another meaning commonly associated with it
use words to connect things that are similar.

EX. king=crown
news=the press
white house=the oval office
I am mad-I am furious

What is Burke’s “definition of the human”?
1. Symbol using (misusing) animals

2. Inventor of (or invented by) the negative.
(this is a marker, not a table)

3. Separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making
(by desires and emotions we think and decide)

4. Goaded by a spirit of hierarchy
(we seek out and identify with symbols that confirm us better somehow) blondes, brunettes, rich and skinny

5. Rotten with perfection

Who wrote “Language is a system with no positive terms”?
Saussure/Structuralist view

What does Burke mean when he says the human is “rotten with perfection,” and how does that statement follow from the other components of his definition of the human?
People feel compelled to pursue what they value, whether its rational or not, whether it’s self-destructive or not. Rhetoric can compel behavior.
Ex. If you are too thin, you can die from anorexia

What are the three principal components of the Toulmin model? If given a written argument, could you identify these three parts?
What have you got to go on?
Presents the facts and opinions of data
Inference drawn as conclusion from data
Where you’re going with the argument
way in which we connect data and claim
why should this claim happen?

What are the three subsidiary components of the Toulmin model? If given a written argument, could you identify these three parts as well?
Evidence and argument to support warrant
States exceptions
Reasons why warrant should not hold
Things you squeeze into time
This year, this month

According to the reading from John Lye, what is ideology, and how does it function?
a term developed in Marxist tradition to talk about how cultures are structured in ways that enable the group holding power to have the maximum control with the minimum of conflict.

Ideologies naturalize, historicize, and eternalize (HEN)

Lye offers us a set of questions to ask ourselves when doing an “ideological reading” of a text. Could you pick out of a list what is not on his list?
What are the assumptions about what is natural, just and right?
What (and who) do these assumptions distort or obscure?
What are the power relations? How are they made to appear as if they are normal or good? What negative aspects are excluded?
Look for binaries, oppositions (good/evil, natural/unnatural, tame/wild, young/old). Which term of the binary is privileged, what is repressed or devalued by this privileging of one term over the other?
What people, classes, areas of life, experiences, are ‘left out’, silenced?
What cultural assumptions and what ‘myths’ shape experience and evaluation? What is mystified (e.g. a pastoral setting for cigarette smokers, a gentle rocking chair in a lovely room for motherhood)? I use “myth”, also known as “second-order signification,” in the sense in which it is used by Roland Barthes: as a sign which refers to a broad, general cultural meaning; see his Mythologies. An experience or event or thing is mystified when a broad cultural meaning obscures the particulars of that experience, event or thing; this obscuring usually covers up or ‘disappears’ contrary or inconvenient facts, as in the examples I have given. To demystify, pay attention to the particulars, the specifics, the concrete reality, with all its blemishes and contradictions.
What enthymemes can you see in the ‘logic’ of the text? In a general sense, enthymemes are statements which exclude the expression of key assumptions which ground conclusions — e.g. “Karen studies really hard. She’ll ace this exam for sure” Unspoken assumption: What it takes (all it takes?) to ‘ace’ an examination is hard study.
How does the style of presentation contribute to the meaning of the text? Style always contains meaning.
What ‘utopic kernel’, that is, vision of human possibility, appears to lie at the heart of the understanding of the ideology? The assumption is that there will be some vision of the good that drives that ideological perspective’s imagination of the world.

According to Eagleton, ideologies work using several strategies, two of which are naturalizing and universalizing. What are some others?

What is hegemony, according to Lye and/or Eagleton?
the shaping of our cognitive and affective interpretations of our social world

In the article “The Rhetoric of Dehumanization,” what did Solomon describe as the scene for the dramatic action? What was the agency?
The scene → Tuskegee in Southern Alabama and the medical and scientific community.

The agency → the negro men suffering from syphilis who were the means through which the doctors achieved their purpose

Purpose-of increasing their knowledge (researching) of syphilis for the “good of mankind” with no regard for the care and treatment of those men.

In the article “Hunting and Heritage on Trial,” according to the authors, who was the agent who undertook the dramatic action, and what was the act?
Rogerson was the agent who undertook the dramatic action and the act was the shooting of Wood.

What is phronesis, and what is its relationship to ethos?
Phronesis is one of the three parts to ethos.

It means “mental habit”.
Whether the speaker has good sense/wisdom about what they are talking about. Whether they have experience and are well informed.

Hausser translates this as “practical wisdom”

Define pathos.
Pathos is persuasion by inducing an emotion or feeling in your audience.

It is not the emotion displayed but instead the emotion induced.

Hausser argues that emotions are judgements.

Know Aristotle’s three means of persuasion.
Ethos, Pathos, Logos

What are topoi?
Topoi, or topics, consist of a set of categories that are designed to help a writer or speaker find relationships among ideas, which in turn helps organize his thoughts into a solid argument.

EX time and space

In our discussion of Roman additions to rhetoric, we discussed stasis theory. What are some examples of stases? (Hint: Hauser argues that there are four stases, and I added the stasis of “value.”)
-Conjecture or Fact (What happened)
-Definition: the way in which we define something affects our judgment of it.
-Causes/Consequences: helps in evaluating claims.
-Procedure: what happens next.
-Value: what secures the judgments we make.

What is deductive reasoning?
Deductive reasoning begins with generalizations and applies it to specific cases so that if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.

Ex. all swans are white so if you see a black swan it is not a swan because it is not white.

What’s the difference between the validity and the soundness of an argument?
Valid if in syllogist form.

Sound if all statements are true, including the conclusion.

What assumptions and claims do Hariman and Lucaites make about journalistic photography, emotion, and public life in their essay on the Kent State photograph?
Argue the feminization of emotion–Kent State photo was used to dramatize the situation from the female’s perspective because, supposedly, a female would have greater emotional impact than a male. Hidden argument that men are the rational and women are the emotional/irrational.

For Burke, where do “motives” reside?

ACTS and STATES? Ex. heroism resides in his acts and his status as a soldier

When considering the public sphere, which of Aristotle’s three means of persuasion is typically considered part of it, and which of his means of persuasion has been typically excluded? Why?
pathos because they were seen irrational

What are the differences between syllogisms and enthymemes?
Syllogisms are formal and enthymemes are non-formal.

An enthymeme is like a syllogism; however, there is a suppressed premise or conclusion

What is inductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning is using specific observations in order to make broad generalizations.

Example: White swan, white swan, white swan. in general all swans are white

What is the relationship between identification and division for Burke?
the principle of identification creates an ongoing cycle of joining and dividing, creating the need for a new effort to join that will also divide us from something else.

when we identify with someone (find that our ways are the same) we are also forgoing its opposing views

What are langue and parole, for a structuralist approach to language?
structure of language
system of language
synchronic-frozen in time. given time.
EX. English, French, German

individual utterance
diachronic-language over time. change
EX. word. father

How does ethos function?
Action, Deeds, Understanding, and Expertise are all ways to create ethos.

The two important features of ethos: Ethos is dynamic and Ethos is a caused response

Aristotle’s belief that a positive assessment of a rhetor’s character could well be the most potent of all the available means of persuasion

What is the difference between ethos and reputation?
Reputation can come before you and comes with its own baggage. It is something someone has and reputation can not be taught.

On the other hand, ethos is not something people have, it is a relationship someone has with their audience

What does Hauser mean when he says ethos is a caused response?
Ethos is developed through the rhetors choices of inclusion and exclusion. In other words, how we appear to others depends on the choice we make presenting our message and ourselves.

Example: language we select, tone we make, and the nonverbal cues we present

What does Hauser mean when he says ethos is dynamic?
Ethos is a dynamic relationship the speaker has with his/her audience.

Ethos is developed through the way we talk.

sign and symbols
signs are natural representations of something beyond themselves, such as a sound,

symbols are specialized types of signs, such as text

3 Parts of Ethos
Phronesis aka “mental habit”

Arete aka “moral habit”

Eunoia aka “emotional habit”

What is Arete
Arete is the “moral habit” part of ethos

The speaker should show excellence, good character.
He/She should develop good character through moral habits.
ex. Justice, courage, temperance, generosity, magnanimity, prudence, magnificence.

What is Eunoia
Eunoia is the “emotional habit” part of ethos

The speaker should show a concern for his/her audience.
They should always display goodwill toward your audience
ex. praise them, be thoughtful and inclusive

How is pathos used
Pathos is used by choosing language and metaphors that convey emotion

the argument it makes.
the content of the speech and how it is organized.

How is logos used
Through developing good reasons, the rhetor makes persuasive case.

Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

What are types of inductive reasoning?
Examples (Paradigms)
use examples to prove their claims.

Deductive Argument
A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument’s premises (assumptions) are true. If a valid argument has true conclusions, then the argument is said to be sound.

What are types of deductive reasoning?
Syllogism (Formal)
Enthymemes (Non-Formal)

Form of deductive reasoning. There is 1 major premise, 1 minor premise, and 1 conclusion.

MP: All students take courses.
mp: All who take courses get grades
Conclusion: All students get grades

Form of deductive reasoning. like a syllogism but has a suppressed premise or conclusion.

Example: Bob is a student; therefore, Bob is registered in class. Suppressed premise is that All students register in classes.

Why are enthymemes important
There is a common ground that is unsaid.
There is a linking premise that is particularly targeted at a belief
The audience must link the expressed with the unexpressed, which joins the audience to the rhetoric.

Soundness of an argument
We call an argument “sound” if the argument is valid AND all the statements, including the conclusion, are true.

All sound arguments are valid, but not all valid arguments are sound.

Validity vs Cogency vs Soundness.
If an argument is written in the form of a syllogism, then it is a “valid” argument;

if the premises are true, then the argument is “cogent” (meaning the conclusion is likely to be true);

if the argument is “sound,” that means every part of the syllogism–but especially the conclusion, is true.

What is the Toulmin model? and why?
Stephen Toulmin created a two fold objection to Aristotle’s syllogistic logic:
1. People don’t talk in syllogisms.
2. Syllogism is sensitive to difficult reasoning patterns.

Toulmin Model example about Red Sox in World Series
Claim: Red Sox will win the world series

Data: The batting averages and statistics of the team

Warrant: Historically connecting statistics with world series champions/successors

Backing: I got this information from a trustworthy source

Rebutal: unless something happens to a player. their health. someone gets hurt

Qualifier: this year

3 Characteristics of Topoi
Contentless: have no proper subject

Analytic: helps us discover dimensions of a subject.

Heuristic: lead us to discover new things to say

Konoi Topoi and examples
Common Places.
1. Possible/Impossible
2. Past and Future Fact
3. Degree: More or Less

Types of Topoi (8)
Existence/Non Existence
Spatial Attributes
Capacity to change

What are three characteristics of language and symbols (Defamiliarization)
1. Arbitrary
2. Conventional
3. Differentially

Human Language is Arbitrary (and example)
there is no connection between the word (sound) and concept (meaning)
we refer to meanings not things.
Ex. The Wire Season 1 Snot Boogy. When the guy was a little kid, he had snot boogies, so his friends took the meaning of snot boogy and started calling him that.

Human Language is Conventional
meaning arises through context and habitually
through experiences, we tie words and things together

Ex. Duke. Different meanings are tied to duke here than they are over at duke

Human Language is Differentially
we know words based on their distinction of other words.
we can define something based on what it is not.

3 Steps for Analyzing any metaphor
1. Find different parts of metaphor
2. Pull out meanings of each part
3. Sort them/Rank them

Johnson and Metaphors
he argues that metaphors are meant to be systematic
we use metaphors to grasp ideas

Ex. time is money

MLK metaphors (own and in notes)
“I have a dream”
meant to evoke. stands for unreality and relates to American dream.

“live on a lonely island of poverty”
meant to evoke feelings that they’re shipwrecked. being forgotten about and ignored

“we’ve come to our nations capitol to cash a check”
they refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.
when the constitution was written, they gave checks to everyone except African americans.

important part of a community’s existence and they express our experiences of ourselves to produce clearness

Kenneth Burke’s 3 Rules of Action
1. There can be no action without motion

2. There can be motion without action

3. Action is not reducible (simplified) to terms of motion

Adolf Hitler and Rhetoric
In 1930s, Germans were upset about economy and were looking to not be losers. In Hitlers telling, they were not losers but instead they were victims that were betrayed by Jews. Germans motivated to believe this to be true because it gave them hope. Hitler did not have any hard evidence, just a convincing rhetorical story.

What did Burke say was the fundamental element of persuasion

As we listen to someone speak, we think how similar the person is to us.

define identification
the perceived sympathy, empathy, or analogy between the speaker and the audience

Two ways of approaching problems
1. Mortification
sort of cleaning
mortifies themselves in something like fate

2. Victimization
finding the bad guy and ruling them out
the community is victim and community is responsible

How does meaning arise and produce
1. Meaning arises in context
words that are produced effect the world that we see
terminsitic screen

2. Meaning is produced through metaphors

3. Meaning is produced through structure
interested in what is being signified and the meaning that goes with it

What are the three parts to Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning?
1. Symbol
2. Think
3. Referent

Ogden and Richards triangle of meaning in regards to an example of a panda
1. symbol-word panda

2. think-whatever comes to mind when you hear the word

3. Referent-live panda

Why is the triangle of meaning line dotted between Symbol and Referent? and when does it fill in?
It is dotted because it is not direct.
there is a problem with mediating it through meaning.
mediated by concept, reference and thought

What fills the line is “fantasy”. through persuasive action, what we try to do is what fills that line

harsh or abusive metaphor

Public Sphere
Habermas. circulatory system of discourse where meanings are circulated/shared symbols.
mediates between individual citizens and the state

when we produce in language we are actually producing a common substance. or a substance that can exist along one another.
This is what rhetoric is all about for Burke

Example of Concept. Bill Clinton’s DNC Speech

Example of Concept: Hariman and Lucaites on Kent State

Example of Concept: Ronald Reagan’s 40th Anniversary D-Day Speech

Types of figures

putting opposites together

led to popularity of style

EX: “one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind”

repeated beginnings of successive words or phrases

EX. We shall not fight, We shall not go on, We shall not fly

repeated endings of phrases

EX. “a government of the people, by the people, and for the people”

repeated beginnings and endings of sentences

EX. “Who are they who have walked? Lails. Who are they who have ran? Lails. Who are they who have sprinted? Lails”

doubled or repeated words in last clause of one sentence and first clause of next.

3 Figures of Speech
playing with language, catching attention

Practical Purposes-
emphasizing key points, complex ideas in accessible terms

expressing experiments, shift understanding, create meaning

Repetition of Sound Concepts

Repetition of initial sounds of words

EX. Peter piper picked a pickle

repetition of final sounds

EX. mind can conceive it, heart can believe it, i can achieve it

repetition of middle sounds

EX. I must confess that in my chest i felt depressed and restless


layering of ideas and images

omitting conjunctions and connective words to speed the sentence up and placing emphasis on clauses or verbs. Ex: He received applause, prize, money.

figures of speech that later a word or phrase from its proper meaning to another

substituting a word or phrase by a less literal one

Example of Concept. MLK’s “I have a dream” speech

3 Examples of Tropes

representation: substituting a part for the whole or a whole for the part

EX. mouths to feed (people)

Structuralism and what it challenges
“underlying structures of signification”

challenges empiricism-
all words refer to mental images of things

challenges pragmatist-
use of a word gives it its meaning

language examined independently of its referents

language is a system of differences

schema of the sign
langue and parole

3 Parts of a Myth
motivation for characters actions

person in identity

relationship between universe and protagonist

Frontier Myth
North America


right of passage, day to day life

Kenneth Burke
Definition of Human



Terministic Screen



3 things about vocabulary of motives
express perceptions of actions
justify our/others actions
makes sense of other ways of acting

Simple version of terministic screens
partial perspective that conceals alternative interpretations

Simple version of dramatism
metaphor of stage drama to understand human motivation

Example of Concept. Kennedy’s Address to the Nation
The Pentad

David Ling Pentad
content analysis-see how the speaker views the world

description reveals what one regards as the appropriate response to the situation

EX.Hunting and Heritage on Trial

processes that shape interpretations of the social world (non-violent). [processes of direction, guidances, socialization and reasons to shape]

Michael Foucault
interested in relations of power at different levels of society and interested in power and knowledge and how they are used for social control.
production of knowledge and development of institutions
role of discourses

Ideograph (McGee)
-no single meaning
-positive or negative
-equivocal, ambiguous

Ideology does three things
Naturalizes-makes “the way things are” seem natural and necessary

Historicizes-makes present seem logical/necessary/ conclusion to long historical sequence

Eternalizes-phenomena just “are”

ways in which an argument can begin, a common point of dispute

Malinowski claimed that meaning of language depends on its _____?

meanings develop through what?
the interaction of symbols within contexts

definition of meaning
significance of an utterance as it emerges from a context of usage and the perceptions that it invites

“Rhetoric is the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion”
Aristotle, classical rhetoric, 5th century

“Rhetoric is mode of altering reality, not by the direct application of energy to objects, but by the creation of discourse, which changes reality through mediation of thought and act”
Lloyd Bitzer

“Rhetoric is the study of discourses, events, objects, and practices that attends to their character as meaningful, legible, partisan, consequential…[and] public”
Carole, Blair, Dickinson, and Brian Ott

“Rhetoric is the study of misunderstandings and their remedies”
I.A. Richards, modern day

“Rhetoric is…the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperating in beings that by nature response to symbols”
Kenneth Burke, modern day

“Rhetoric is the study of producing discourses and interpreting how, when, and why discourses are persuasive”
Keith and Lundburg

Publicity Principle
You need to be able to publicize your own opinion on an issue

Mike Warner
Reformulated the idea of the public sphere by saying that there is not one public sphere, but instead there are publics.

Claims that publics exist by means of being addressed

EX. called into being public officials by the public

Lundenburg and the public sphere
His argument that a public is a metaphor for an organized site of investment and it organizes texts, investments

Two terms set in opposition of each other

Ex. Natural food vs processing

What are the two binaries in McGee’s work of ideographs
materialism and idealism

define action
action refers to the type of behavior that becomes possible with the use of symbols

define motion
a clump of matter in orbit around another clump of matter

The Sophists
professions known for teaching arete

Teacher of rhetoric in Roman Republic

Noumenal World
world of “ideal forms”

Deliberative speech
Aristotle genre of speech that deals with the future

Epideictic Speech
A speech genre of praise or blame

Famous roman rhetor and politician

Encomium of Helen
famous speech by Gorgias

Platos method for discovering the truth
the dialectic

For the main influence on the rise of rhetoric in ancient Greece

What are the three components of a rhetorical situation

3 different problems of the issue (public sphere)
Causal Responsibility
Political Responsibly

Ownership (public sphere problem)
-who owns/controls an issue
-who rhetorically persuaded us to have ownership of a public issues

EX. Mothers against drunk driving

Causal Responsibility (public sphere problem)
-who caused this issue

EX. Alcohol company caused drunk driving

Political Responsibility (public sphere problem)
-who is obligated to help solve this problem

EX. Advertisements of drunk driving need to be more influential

Why is it significant that there are many different definitions of rhetoric that are similar.
even though there are several different views of the field of rhetoric, they all boil down to something similar. The idea of persuasion, discussion, and the communicating of ideas. if the definitions weren’t at all similar, it wouldn’t really be a field that we could study because few people would agree on anything.

What is the central claim of Hunting and Heritage on trial
the tragedy itself and its divisive aftermath can be understood only in terms of a symbolic drama, one rooted in evolving traditions and communities and motivated by a desire by many to stem the tide of social change.

Pentad of Hunting and Heritage-Mortification
Act: Manslaughter/killing of Karen Wood
Scene: Woods/illegal range. he was 284 ft from residence supposed to be 300
Agent: David Rogerson
Agency: gun, gun ownership and responsibility
Purpose: Negligence, carlessness

Pentad of Hunting and Heritage-Victimization
Act: Death of Karen Wood
Scene: Woods; territory of hunter, off her property
Agent: Karen Wood (from far away)
Agency: clothing-two white mittens, wrong clothing for hunting grounds
Purpose: Interference

Dehumanization Pentad
Act: experiment
Scene: Tuskegee, Alabama and the medical/scientific environments
Agent: the doctors
Agency: the 600 negro men with syphillis as poor, illiterate and trusting
Purpose: to gain knowledge about the disease

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