meaning is constructed habitually, in that it’s produced over time by habits, repeated in culture.
He offers the metaphor to explain why people interpret messages differently, based on the construction of symbols, meanings, and, therefore, reality.
what is done in language
what is performed
how it is rhetorically produced
what is being done
where the act curried
what is the context
who performed the act
the means of acting
how the deed was done
the end goal of this act
Concerned with how people manage symbols for social coordination. Through the analysis of how language is used, we gain insights into motives that impel human actors to do what they do and why.
was named this because it mirrors a play.
-part of the collective consciousness of a culture (“equality” in US and Soviet Russia have two different meanings)l
Ogden and Richards use the triangle of meaning to link signs and symbols with actual objects. There way is to connect all words to their meanings.
When we describe something metaphorically, we carry over a set of qualities from the thing.
“the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” -Lakoff and Johnson
Subsidiary Subject: what is applied to principle subject.
EX. you are a lion.
Principal is you. Subsidiary is Lion
A system of associated commonplaces consists of the standard beliefs that are shared by members of the same speech community when they use a term literally.
“america has given the negro people a bad check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds’ but we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt”
“Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.”
“Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children.”
arbitrary linking of two things
replace literal meaning with another meaning commonly associated with it
use words to connect things that are similar.
white house=the oval office
I am mad-I am furious
2. Inventor of (or invented by) the negative.
(this is a marker, not a table)
3. Separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making
(by desires and emotions we think and decide)
4. Goaded by a spirit of hierarchy
(we seek out and identify with symbols that confirm us better somehow) blondes, brunettes, rich and skinny
5. Rotten with perfection
Ex. If you are too thin, you can die from anorexia
What have you got to go on?
Presents the facts and opinions of data
Inference drawn as conclusion from data
Where you’re going with the argument
way in which we connect data and claim
why should this claim happen?
Evidence and argument to support warrant
Reasons why warrant should not hold
Things you squeeze into time
This year, this month
Ideologies naturalize, historicize, and eternalize (HEN)
What (and who) do these assumptions distort or obscure?
What are the power relations? How are they made to appear as if they are normal or good? What negative aspects are excluded?
Look for binaries, oppositions (good/evil, natural/unnatural, tame/wild, young/old). Which term of the binary is privileged, what is repressed or devalued by this privileging of one term over the other?
What people, classes, areas of life, experiences, are ‘left out’, silenced?
What cultural assumptions and what ‘myths’ shape experience and evaluation? What is mystified (e.g. a pastoral setting for cigarette smokers, a gentle rocking chair in a lovely room for motherhood)? I use “myth”, also known as “second-order signification,” in the sense in which it is used by Roland Barthes: as a sign which refers to a broad, general cultural meaning; see his Mythologies. An experience or event or thing is mystified when a broad cultural meaning obscures the particulars of that experience, event or thing; this obscuring usually covers up or ‘disappears’ contrary or inconvenient facts, as in the examples I have given. To demystify, pay attention to the particulars, the specifics, the concrete reality, with all its blemishes and contradictions.
What enthymemes can you see in the ‘logic’ of the text? In a general sense, enthymemes are statements which exclude the expression of key assumptions which ground conclusions — e.g. “Karen studies really hard. She’ll ace this exam for sure” Unspoken assumption: What it takes (all it takes?) to ‘ace’ an examination is hard study.
How does the style of presentation contribute to the meaning of the text? Style always contains meaning.
What ‘utopic kernel’, that is, vision of human possibility, appears to lie at the heart of the understanding of the ideology? The assumption is that there will be some vision of the good that drives that ideological perspective’s imagination of the world.
The agency → the negro men suffering from syphilis who were the means through which the doctors achieved their purpose
Purpose-of increasing their knowledge (researching) of syphilis for the “good of mankind” with no regard for the care and treatment of those men.
It means “mental habit”.
Whether the speaker has good sense/wisdom about what they are talking about. Whether they have experience and are well informed.
Hausser translates this as “practical wisdom”
It is not the emotion displayed but instead the emotion induced.
Hausser argues that emotions are judgements.
EX time and space
-Definition: the way in which we define something affects our judgment of it.
-Causes/Consequences: helps in evaluating claims.
-Procedure: what happens next.
-Value: what secures the judgments we make.
Ex. all swans are white so if you see a black swan it is not a swan because it is not white.
Sound if all statements are true, including the conclusion.
ACTS and STATES? Ex. heroism resides in his acts and his status as a soldier
An enthymeme is like a syllogism; however, there is a suppressed premise or conclusion
Example: White swan, white swan, white swan. in general all swans are white
when we identify with someone (find that our ways are the same) we are also forgoing its opposing views
structure of language
system of language
synchronic-frozen in time. given time.
EX. English, French, German
diachronic-language over time. change
EX. word. father
The two important features of ethos: Ethos is dynamic and Ethos is a caused response
Aristotle’s belief that a positive assessment of a rhetor’s character could well be the most potent of all the available means of persuasion
On the other hand, ethos is not something people have, it is a relationship someone has with their audience
Example: language we select, tone we make, and the nonverbal cues we present
Ethos is developed through the way we talk.
symbols are specialized types of signs, such as text
Arete aka “moral habit”
Eunoia aka “emotional habit”
The speaker should show excellence, good character.
He/She should develop good character through moral habits.
ex. Justice, courage, temperance, generosity, magnanimity, prudence, magnificence.
The speaker should show a concern for his/her audience.
They should always display goodwill toward your audience
ex. praise them, be thoughtful and inclusive
the content of the speech and how it is organized.
Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning
use examples to prove their claims.
MP: All students take courses.
mp: All who take courses get grades
Conclusion: All students get grades
Example: Bob is a student; therefore, Bob is registered in class. Suppressed premise is that All students register in classes.
There is a linking premise that is particularly targeted at a belief
The audience must link the expressed with the unexpressed, which joins the audience to the rhetoric.
All sound arguments are valid, but not all valid arguments are sound.
if the premises are true, then the argument is “cogent” (meaning the conclusion is likely to be true);
if the argument is “sound,” that means every part of the syllogism–but especially the conclusion, is true.
1. People don’t talk in syllogisms.
2. Syllogism is sensitive to difficult reasoning patterns.
Data: The batting averages and statistics of the team
Warrant: Historically connecting statistics with world series champions/successors
Backing: I got this information from a trustworthy source
Rebutal: unless something happens to a player. their health. someone gets hurt
Qualifier: this year
Analytic: helps us discover dimensions of a subject.
Heuristic: lead us to discover new things to say
2. Past and Future Fact
3. Degree: More or Less
Capacity to change
we refer to meanings not things.
Ex. The Wire Season 1 Snot Boogy. When the guy was a little kid, he had snot boogies, so his friends took the meaning of snot boogy and started calling him that.
through experiences, we tie words and things together
Ex. Duke. Different meanings are tied to duke here than they are over at duke
we can define something based on what it is not.
2. Pull out meanings of each part
3. Sort them/Rank them
we use metaphors to grasp ideas
Ex. time is money
meant to evoke. stands for unreality and relates to American dream.
“live on a lonely island of poverty”
meant to evoke feelings that they’re shipwrecked. being forgotten about and ignored
“we’ve come to our nations capitol to cash a check”
they refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.
when the constitution was written, they gave checks to everyone except African americans.
2. There can be motion without action
3. Action is not reducible (simplified) to terms of motion
As we listen to someone speak, we think how similar the person is to us.
sort of cleaning
mortifies themselves in something like fate
finding the bad guy and ruling them out
the community is victim and community is responsible
words that are produced effect the world that we see
2. Meaning is produced through metaphors
3. Meaning is produced through structure
interested in what is being signified and the meaning that goes with it
2. think-whatever comes to mind when you hear the word
3. Referent-live panda
there is a problem with mediating it through meaning.
mediated by concept, reference and thought
What fills the line is “fantasy”. through persuasive action, what we try to do is what fills that line
mediates between individual citizens and the state
This is what rhetoric is all about for Burke
led to popularity of style
EX: “one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind”
EX. We shall not fight, We shall not go on, We shall not fly
EX. “a government of the people, by the people, and for the people”
EX. “Who are they who have walked? Lails. Who are they who have ran? Lails. Who are they who have sprinted? Lails”
playing with language, catching attention
emphasizing key points, complex ideas in accessible terms
expressing experiments, shift understanding, create meaning
EX. Peter piper picked a pickle
EX. mind can conceive it, heart can believe it, i can achieve it
EX. I must confess that in my chest i felt depressed and restless
layering of ideas and images
substituting a word or phrase by a less literal one
EX. mouths to feed (people)
all words refer to mental images of things
use of a word gives it its meaning
language is a system of differences
schema of the sign
langue and parole
motivation for characters actions
person in identity
relationship between universe and protagonist
right of passage, day to day life
justify our/others actions
makes sense of other ways of acting
description reveals what one regards as the appropriate response to the situation
EX.Hunting and Heritage on Trial
production of knowledge and development of institutions
role of discourses
-no single meaning
-positive or negative
Historicizes-makes present seem logical/necessary/ conclusion to long historical sequence
Eternalizes-phenomena just “are”
Claims that publics exist by means of being addressed
EX. called into being public officials by the public
Ex. Natural food vs processing
-who rhetorically persuaded us to have ownership of a public issues
EX. Mothers against drunk driving
EX. Alcohol company caused drunk driving
EX. Advertisements of drunk driving need to be more influential
Scene: Woods/illegal range. he was 284 ft from residence supposed to be 300
Agent: David Rogerson
Agency: gun, gun ownership and responsibility
Purpose: Negligence, carlessness
Scene: Woods; territory of hunter, off her property
Agent: Karen Wood (from far away)
Agency: clothing-two white mittens, wrong clothing for hunting grounds
Scene: Tuskegee, Alabama and the medical/scientific environments
Agent: the doctors
Agency: the 600 negro men with syphillis as poor, illiterate and trusting
Purpose: to gain knowledge about the disease