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__________ is the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence an audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior for the benefit of individuals, groups, and/or society as a whole.

A. Customer orientation
B. Social marketing
C. Communication channels
D. Special events

An example for programmatic strategies to increase participation is competitions. (T/F)
Which of the following is recommended as implementation nears, and the planning process comes to an end?

A. Administer a health risk assessment
B. Conduct a trial run of the program
C. Set program goals and objectives
D. Identify stakeholders

Before beginning an employer-sponsored exercise program, written documentation is not necessary if employees are verbally informed of their responsibility in meeting all of the pre-exercise clearance requirements. (T/F)
All of the following are ways to make incentives work for employee wellness program EXCEPT:

A. Incentive is highly valued
B. Delivery of the incentive is quick
C. Managers and leaders should not be involved
D. Self-efficacy of participants

Extrinsic Factors should be encouraged more than intrinsic factors. (T/F)
Repetitive stress injuries that occur over time usually due to performing the same movements day after day defines a category of conditions known as:

a. Percentage-cost inflation rates
b. Cumulative trauma disorders (CTD)
c. Modifiable risk factors
d. Improper ergonomics

Studies show that if an individual increases his/her exercise level and musculoskeletal flexibility, his/her personal risk of obtaining a CTD is significantly decreased. (T/F)
Which of the following is false about the Program Champion?
A. Success of the program depends on where the “Program Champion” sits in the company hierarchy.
B. They need to be respected and supported by co-workers
C. A broad base of support is needed for long term program survival
D. None of the above
Long-range plans cover 10-15 years (T/F)
F (Long-range plans cover 3-5 years)
What are NOT the most common pitfalls that compromise the integrity of any evaluation?

A. Unrealistic expectations
B. Identify Program Stakeholders
C. Improper scope and specificity in an evaluation
D. Inappropriate evaluation design
E. Inadequate financial resources

You can effectively design an evaluation unless you include input from the program stakeholders. (T/F)
Which of the following are considered major areas of risk?

A. Screening Procedures
B. Testing Services
C. Staffing/Instruction
D. All of the above

A liability waiver does not need to include medical information or who to notify in case of an emergency. (T/F)
Which of the choices below is an example of a predecessor activity?

A. Designing and printing materials for future display around the worksite
B. Teaching employees about stress reduction techniques before assessing them on impact learning objectives
C. Measuring and making mile markers for an up-and-coming worksite walking trail
D. All of the above

One example of a long-term goal is creating a healthier workforce. (T/F)
Which of the following are dimensions to consider when assessing a worksite’s suitability for Worksite Health Promotion?

A) Physical Make-up
B) Environmental Quality
C) Employee Centered Policies
D) Health Promoting Culture
E) All of the above

Big changes to the worksite’s environment are effective in changing health behavior. (T/F)
F (Small, gradual changes are effective in altering health behavior)
What dimension of the marketing mix is focused on the tools and techniques used to reach the target population?

A. Product
B. Price
C. Placement
D. Promotion

Preparation is the stage where the person is considering action but has not yet acted. (T/F)
Which of the following terms means an aggregate or functions involved in moving goods from producer to consumer?

A. Rewards
B. Product Placement
C. Marketing
D. Marketing Mix
E. Risk Management

The four Ps of the marketing mix are product, price, program, and promotion. (T/F)
F (Product, price, place, and promotion)
Outsourced vendors generally have the expertise needed to efficiently administer WHP due to?

A. Employee trust
b. Legal protection
c. Experience
d. Cost patterns

One of the fastest-growing movements influencing today’s WHP landscape is outsourcing. (T/F)
Which of the following is not a way to identify risk?

A. Consult with lawyers and risk managers dealing with personal injury cases
B. Inspect facilities/equipment for potential problems
C. Ask third party contractors what they feel is a risk
D. Interview/survey other health promotion managers

Involving other departments with the health promotion department is one way of identifying risk. (T/F)
Which of the following is NOT a type of budget?

A) Functional area
B) Operating
C) Intervention area
D) Line item

A bottom-up budget is one where you are given a a set amount of money. (T/F)
F ( this is top-down budget)
Present-value adjustment (PVA) helps account for possible inflation or deflation that may occur over a period of time. The reasons that dollars spent to fund a health promotion program are weighed less heavily than future benefits are:

A. Due to inflation, a dollar can usually purchase more health promotion resources this year than it can next year.
B. Economists depreciate the value of cost dollars at a lower discount rate than benefit dollars.
C. Cost dollars could be deposited in an interest-bearing account which would accrue a higher dividend than benefit dollars.
D. All of the above.

The following formula is used to calculate the net benefit for an intervention:

Net Benefit = [L$ + GP + PI] – C

L$ stands for direct benefit, GP stands for increase in general productivity (leading to greater output and income), PI stands for gain in working income due to reduced injury and illness, and C stands for the cost of the intervention. (T/F)

What must every proposal have in order to be effective?

A. The identified problem is clearly described and quantified
B. A practical strategy to address the problem is proposed
C. Expected benefits are based on real case studies and are likely to exceed programming costs
D. All of the above

An evaluation procedure used to determine if and when the financial value of positive outcomes may equal or exceed the financial cost of a WHP intervention is a break-even analysis.(T/F)
All items below are materials costs EXCEPT for:
A: Newsletters
B: Posters
C: Table Tents
D: Staffing
In-kind donations should be considered when developing a program. (T/F)
Elements of a job description are the following EXCEPT:
A. Knowledge and skills
B. Salary
C. Primary Responsibilities
D. Summary
True/False: Job descriptions can serve as a method of educating others about the responsibilities of the position.
Which is NOT a benefit of integrating an employee assistance program into a comprehensive health management program?

A. Maximizes resources, especially for smaller companies with limited finances.
B. Reduces the stigma associated with getting personal help.
C. EAP services could become underrepresented.
D. Helps meet the holistic needs of high-risk workers.

1 of 4 employees views work as views work as the greatest stressor in his or her life. (T/F)
How do ideas move throughout a population?

A) Marketing Mix
B) Continuous Monitoring
C) Diffusion of Innovation
D) Behavioral Segmentation

True or False: The four P’s of marketing are: Product, price, place, and promotion.
Which of the follow is not one of the variables discussed that are important when selecting communication resources?

A. Target group’s needs and interests
B. Preferred learning
C. Stakeholders opinion
D. Access to services

True or False: The main premise behind the zero-based budgeting is that health promotion practitioners are given a finite dollar amount to run their operation.
F (this is the top-down approach)
Which of the following is considered a fixed costs in a budget?

A. Employees’ salaries and benefits
B. Equipment rent or annual maintenance contract
C. Initial start-up cost for new programs
D. All the above

True/False, Fringes are a percent of salary for direct staff?
In regards to conducting Employee Health Screenings to identify risk factors, one study by researchers of Michigan State University in 2005 found that WHAT PERCENTAGE In W of the 153,000 American adults randomly selected achieved low risk status for four targeted lifestyle characteristics including nonsmoker, healthy body weight, healthy diet, and regular exercise.

A. 3%
B. 6%
C. 9%
D. 12%

When promoting a health fair, promotional materials should be placed in key areas at least one week before the event for maximum exposure. (T/F)
F (at least two week)
True/False The primary purpose of a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) is to determine whether a program is worth its cost.
Which of the following is NOT true about Break-Even Analysis:

A. It is helpful in pre-intervention planning for guiding a program
B. It is used as a forecasting tool to guide decision makers to evaluate resources
C. The fourth step in conducting a break-even analysis is to identify, measure, and calculate the cost of items
D. Can be used to insert scenarios to determine the cost/saving benefits

Incentives are becoming used more and more by employers to boost participation rates. (T/F)
Less than ___% of all high risk employees actually participate in worksite health promotion programs.

A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 12%
D. 20%

Impact Evaluations consist of short questionnaires, focus groups, individual communications, and break-even analysis (T/F)
F (This is the process evaluation)
Common tools used for impact evaluation are which of the following?

A. Health-claim cost reports
B. Absenteeism logs
C. Benefit-cost analysis
D. Health-risk appraisals
E. Both B and D
D. None of the above

The average number of years a person can expect to live free of any disability?

D. Disability-adjusted life expectancy

The additional cost that health care providers shift to paying individuals and employers to compensate for treatment provided to those who cannot or will not pay?

C. Cost sharing
D.Cost shifting

Worldwide, inflation of health care costs continues to rise at least twice as fast as general inflation because many forces (demographic, economic, philosophical, cultural, political social, and administrative) exert tremendous influence in the global economy. T/F
Which of the following is NOT one of the assumptions discussed that correlates to the use of WHP programs:

A. Improve employees overall health
B. Reduce their demand for health care
C. Make employees happier
D. Reduce modifiable risk factors

According to the book, what is the negative consequence that has resulted from new technologies in the workplace?

A. More time spent at work
B. Physical inactivity
C. Chronic disease
D. Increased productivity

The disability-adjusted-life-expectancy (DALE) is most easily understood as the expectation of life lived in equivalent full health.T/F
Which of the following is NOT a prerequisite for building a comprehensive framework for health management in a company or business?

A. Health-plan benefits that are consumer driven and cost-effective.
B. Data monitoring strategic uses related to health and productivity.
C. Negative consequences for those employees who do not meet optimal health standards.
D. Policy, cultural, and environmental supports that enhance health and productivity.

Worksite health programs, when properly administered, can:

A. Improve moods of your boss and those in charge.
B. Contain employer healthcare costs.
C. Favorably affect the employer’s quality of life, health status, and overall productivity.
D. Both B and C
E. All of the above

Workers with high-risk profiles generally have high health care costs than those with low-risk profiles.T/F
Which of the following are economic factors behind rising health care costs?

A. Inflation
B. Cost shifting
C. New technology
D. Defensive medicine
E. All of the above

Which of the following is NOT a common risk factor for employees?
A. High Blood Pressure

B. Diabetes

C. Excess stress

D. Cigarette smoking

Elder care is one of the fastest growing needs of the workforce today.T/F
Which economic factor has a secondary type that covers the high cost of malpractice insurance for doctors and hospitals?

A. New Technology
B. Cost shifting
C. Overhead
D. Inflation

Dramatic changes in the workforce in terms of demographics, are notable in all of these countries/continents except:

A. Asia
B. Europe
C. North America
D. Australia

Some studies show that physical inactivity is one of the strongest predictors of excess health care costs for American manufacturing and service workers.T/F
Which of the following is not a primary influence of today’s health care costs?

A. Medical inflation
B. Employers’ actions
C. Cost shifting
D. New technology

What is the cause of the majority of employer health care costs?

A. Genetic risk factors
B. Aging workforce
C. Acute illnesses
D. Potentially modifiable lifestyle risk factors

Research shows that the average cost-sharing arrangement causes insured workers who really need health care to postpone treatment. T/F
According the the Employee Services Management (ESM) Association, approximately how many organizations exist with onsite fitness programs?

A. 100,000
B. 73,000
C. 50,000
D. 14,000

Which approach to worksite health promotion is based on the philosophy that an active, dynamic and integrated approach is essential to improving health at all risk levels?

A. health and productivity management (HPM)
B. population health management (PHM)
C. Healthy People 2020
D. multidimensional programs

Absenteeism and presenteeism are reportedly more driving factors for many European companies to initiate WHP initiatives than health care costs are. T/F
A combination of of educational, organizational, and environmental activities designed to improve the health and safety of their families best defines:

A. Population Health Management
B. Health and Productivity Management
C. Worksite Health Promotion
D. Integrated Health Management System

All of the following are one of the 5 reasons worksite health promotion program interventions take place EXCEPT:

A. to reduce hospital admission rates
B. to improve employee morale
C. to keep workers healthy
D. to attract and retain good employees

When it comes to productivity, healthy employees generally perform at the same level as unhealthy employees.T/F
According to the textbook, _______________ begins with forming a task force to highlight a company’s demographics, the existing and potential health related problems of its workplace, and employee interest in programs to improve health and well-being.

A. Assessment
B. Identification
C. Referring
D. Implementation

Key issues to consider when organizing a health-oriented employee committee include which of the following?

A. Ratio of management to non management members
B. Major roles defined for the committee (planning, implementing, and so on)
C. Level of influence of the committee (advisory only, policy making)
D. All of the above

Since worksite health promotion (WHP) may be a relatively new endeavor for many businesses, it is not necessary to be planned and positioned even more carefully than other business strategies. T/F
Which of the following is one of the federal laws that require employers and their business partners to follow specific guidelines when accessing, storing, and transmitting employees’ personal health data?


According to the textbook, WHP personnel prefer to receive medical claims in data formats composed of ________(s), since this is the most revealing type of classification.


According to the textbook definition, the term specificity refers to the range and variability of needs identified at the employee, environmental, or organizational level. T/F
F (this is scope)
When gathering appropriate data, ______ and ________ needs to be accurately identify the employee- and employer- based needs.
A. Funds and Specificity
B. Scope and Specificity
C. Scope and Claims
D. None of the above
Which of the following is NOT a needs identification tool?

A. Health Culture Audit
B. Environmental Check Sheet
C. Risk Reduction
D. Major Diagnostic Claims

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coded claims reveals the most information. T/F
The origin of today’s Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was based on which of the following concept(s):

A. Risk Identification
B. Risk Assessment
C. Risk Reduction
D. All of the above

Benefits of web-based HRAs include all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Immediate generation of personal report
B. Requirement of personal or at work internet access
C. Faster Completion Time
D. Ease of revision

It is recommended that WHP practitioners rely exclusively on high-tech tools and protocols in order to better connect with clients.T/F
Defined as a discipline concerned with identification of the individual’s changing risks of disease and recognition of his earliest deviations from health.

A. Health status
B. Preventative measures
C. Prospective medicine
D. Risk prevention

Health Risk Assessments will ask employee’s information is all the following except:

A. Favorite color
B. Personal and family medical history
C. Health habits
D. Safety habits
E. Major life experiences

In preparing an Interest Survey Form (ISF), program planers should strive to limit it to one page and consider whether a specific or genetic format is most appropriate? T/F
When using an Interest Survey From to asses employees it is best when:

A. The information is no longer than one page
B. The information is short and precise
C. It is displayed in a generic format
D. All of the above

To enhance responses from your Interest Survey Form, inform employees __ times before distributing it

A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

A simple way to determine appropriate incentives is to ask people what would motivate them to participate in a health promotion program. T/F
A _________ is a short, succinct, and inspiring statement of what the organization intends to become and to achieve at some point in the future.

A. Mission Statement

B. Vision Statement

C. Program Goal

D. Program Objective

A _________ is a statement indicating an organization’s philosophy, purpose, and goals for achieving its vision.

A. Mission Statement
B. Vision Statement
C. Program Goal
D. Program Objective

A vision statement reflects the goals of worksite health personnel and the organization’s identity. T/F
All of the following are true about mission statements EXCEPT:

A. It is multidimensional
B. It describes the step that moves your planning process from the present to the future
C. It is a short statement of what the organization intends to become
D. It reflects the organization’s purpose, goals, and commitment

Which answer choice below is not part of goal criteria?

A. Measurability
B. Repeatability
C. Achievability
D. Compatibility

The vision statement of a program is more broad than the mission statement. T/F
A stepping stones, or rungs in a ladder, enable program planners to achieve a particular goal.

A. Mission Statement

B. Vision Statement

C. Objective

D. Gantt Chart

When writing an objective planners should strive to do the following EXCEPT?

A. Establish short-term objectives for monitoring progress in the initial phase of the intervention
B. Establish long-range objectives to determine whether initial level of progress have sustained
C. Use long list of objectives despite having a short-term endeavor
D. Include objective that identify specific resources need to achieve goal and have a specific time frames when appropriate

An effective tool commonly used in worksite setting to organize and align objective-driven takes into an operational framework is called Gantt chart. T/F
Falsely calling in sick is considered an uncontrollable absences (usually scheduled)? T/F
In order to make sound programming decisions for a WHP, a program planner should _______?

A. Take time to understand the needs and interests of the population
B. Assess their resources
C. Determine what types of incentives, activities, and ongoing programs will yield the highest dividends for managing employee and organizational health.
D. All of the above

All of the following statements about disease management are true, EXCEPT:

A. This approach has typically been used to concentrate on employees at high risk for a particular disease.

B. DM has been somewhat effective in reducing health care in the short term.

C. The main emphasis of DM programs is the importance of employee screening and disease prevention for low risk employees.

D. DM does not address the critical need for disease management for persons with multiple health conditions.

Shifting the focus of traditional health promotion to a more holistic approach essentially means more emphasis can be places on the supportive factors for overall health and happiness, not just risk factors for illness and disease. T/F
Which of the following is a precautionary measure used to handle the possibility of heart attacks during exercise at most health clubs and fitness centers?

A. Staff members trained in and capable of administering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
B. Automated external defibrillators (AED)
C. An in-house communication system to immediately notify emergency medical personnel
D. All of the above

Which of the following may take the most planning and budgeting expertise?

A. Marketing
B. Employee salary rates
C. Purchasing equipment
D. Paying energy bill fees

More worksite health programs are shifting their focus from physical fitness programs based on fitness centers to a holistic, wellness-oriented approach that is centered on lifestyle. T/F
Worldwide, over one-half of all workers are overweight and obese, and about two-thirds of all workers eat unhealthy diets. What are the consequences associated with these statistics?

A. Higher health care costs
B. Longer hospital stays
C. Increased risk for health care claims related to cardiovascular health, cancer, stroke, and gastrointestinal issues
D. Lost wages and productivity
E. All of the above

What are good resource(s) to use for planning nutrition education in the worksite?
A. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
B. The Food Network Channel
C. The American Dietetic Association website
D. All of the above
E. Only A & C
F. Only B & C
G. Only A & B
Worksite environment is a strong motivating factor that can promote healthier eating habits and weight management. T/F
Which of the following is NOT considered a successful lower-back program?

A. Injury prevention and health promotion.
B. Intervention and treatment for injured employees.
C. Providing 15 min breaks and pain killers.
D. Rehabilitation and a return to work protocol.

All of the following are effective incentives for promoting healthy back practices at the worksite EXCEPT:

A. Ignoring the pain because it’ll eventually go away.
B. Awareness and knowledge.
C. Practice.
D. Implementation and Follow-Ups.

Back health is the secondary cause of absenteeism in companies. T/F
Employees tend to take a more genuine interest in prenatal programs that include which of the following?

A. Mandatory Participation
B. Motivational Factors
C. Personal Incentives
D. Social Support

Which of the following does the Information Phase of a prenatal education program NOT include?

A. Nutrition Education
B. One-on-one screenings
C. Signs and Symptoms of Labor and Birthing
D. Recommendations of Postnatal Home Care

Many companies have mandatory participation policies for pregnant employees to qualify for 100% of employer-paid maternity benefits. T/F
Which of the following is NOT a general element of a successful intervention program for smoking cessation?

A. Receiving consistent and repeated advice from a team of supporters to quit smoking.

B. Setting a specific end date.

C. Trying to quit without any support.

D. Providing follow-up visits.

Which of the following Nicotine Replacement Therapies is a plastic cylinder with a cartridge that delivers nicotine when you puff on it?
A. Gum/lozenges

B. Inhaler

C. Nasal spray

D. Patch

Smokers are absent an average of 2 to 5 days more per year and incur approximately 15% higher health care costs than nonsmokers. T/F
What is a half-and-half smoking policy?

a. Bans smoking at work stations only

b. Allows smoking at the beginning of the day and bans it at the end

c. Allows smoking during lunch breaks only

d. Gives employees 6 months to quit smoking

Which of the following is NOT a tool often used to quit smoking?

a. Nicotine Replacement Therapies

b. Prescription drugs without nicotine

c. Counseling

d. Vaporizers

Successful smoking cessation programs include a variety of different sources to turn to for help. T/F
_____ ____, is an individualized care at home or in a outpatient facility, which is also the most common type of managed care used in treating HIV disease and capable of saving as much as $50,000 per case.

A. Inpatient hospitalization

B. Progressive care

C. Case management

D. Informational care

Although various approaches are being used at worksites regarding HIV disease education/prevention, some experts feel that _________ education among employees is most effective.
A. Peer-to-peer

B. Video presentation

C. Self-management

D. News/articles

Although men are stricken in greater numbers, women are contracting HIV at a proportionately higher rate. T/F
In the early stages of medical self-care and consumerism, employers distributed resources to aid their employees. Which of the following are examples of such resources?

A. Medical Referrals
B. Newsletters
C. Videocassettes
D. All of the above
E. Only B and C

According to reports from worksites using medical self-care and consumer-education interventions, how much are they saving when providing these efforts and resources to employees?

A. Saving $5 or more for every $10 spent on efforts
B. Saving $3 or more for every $5 spent on efforts
C. Saving $3 or more for every $1 spent on efforts
D. They have reported spending more than saving money towards these efforts

The more preventative care and health services that are integrated within the organization, the greater the effect. T/F
Approximately what portion of American workers are seriously distressed about a personal financial situation?

A. 1 in 2

B. 1 in 4

C. 1 in 8

D. 2 in 10

Which is NOT a factor in influencing organizations to offer financial-wellness programs?

A. High participant interest

B. Linking health and finances

C. To ensure employee retention

D. To attract high-risk populations

Currently, only 50% of all employees fully fund their 401(k). T/F
Reasons for Health Promotion in the Workplace: (T/F)

– continuity in the workforce
– social support for health and health promotion activities
– life span human development issues
– policy support
– environmental support
– ability to evaluate

Continuity in the Workforce

– many adults are employed by corporations large and small
– people tend to work for these companies or similar industries across their life course
– changing life style behaviors related to health takes time and opportunity
– readiness to change is a key factor (Transtheoratical model for change)

(after reading, type T)

Social Support for Health Promotion

– co-workers
– family members (include gym membership?)

– physical activity
– cancer screening (cancer ~ death?)
– eating well
– responsible alcohol use


Life Span Human Development Issues

– inter-individual differences (others = “internet”)
– intra-individual differences (intra = self)
– the intersection of Inter and Intra- individual differences
– life span (biological, genetics)
– vs. life expectancy (lifestyle, quality of life)
– delaying the onset of disease enhancing quality of life


Life Span Development Issues

– delaying the onset of disease (chronic, diabetes, osteoporosis, more gears toward women)

– improving the quality of life

– compressing the period of infirmity across the life course

– the impact of life events (find ways to support those who are going through that)

– learning across the lifespan

(Answer is T)

Policy Support

– corporations can develop and enforce policies that influence health and support health promotion (opportunity for employees to modify the schedule that fits best for them)

– flex time example

– history of smoking policies (CVS smoking policy)

– safety belt


Policy Support – Sample policies

– Control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
– Safety belt use in company cars
– Support of “well days” versus sick days (well days, instead to chose smoke break, walk break/doctor check up, or mental wellness days)
– Flex time policies
– Alcohol use policies
– Medical screening support policies
– Work life issue policies (child care, maternity leave, etc.)
– Fitness center reimbursement programs
– Ergonomically appropriate work stations (adjustable chair/desk)
– Inclusion of family members in health promotion programs
– Emergency Assistance Programs (EAP) – substance abuse
– Discouragement of excessive overtime
– Conflict resolution (document everything)

(T for answer)

Environmental Support

– related to policy support

– on-site fitness centers
– healthy cafeteria menus
– safe walking/jogging/cycling tracks
– accessible/safe stairways
– ergonomically sound workstations
– relaxation areas
– blood pressure monitor on site
– noise level monitoring
– light, ventilation and temp control
– healthful food selection in vending machines
– readily accessible health info

Ability to Evaluate Programs

– evaluation of fixed benefits
– morale
– concern for employees
– recruitment and retention of employees
– general visibility
– policy changes (if policy change, inform workers)
– environmental support change
– productivity
– absenteeism
– health care costs
– behavior change

access the employees why they don’t participaten ( T/F )

First step in planning your program:

Needs Assessment

– be curious about your population of interest
– don’t assume that you know who they are
– do research to discover who they are

Primary data -?
Secondary data- already have some sort of health assessment

What else do you need to know about program planning?

– actual needs of employee (ex: onsite gym, stress reduction, convenient to them)
– perceived needs of employees (data might show high bp, but that’s a perceived need)
– about the organization for which you will be designing and implementing the program (understand what the company do, and how they do business, know desires/goals of the company for the WHP)
– about the physical, cultural, and social environments within and surrounding the company

(After read, type in answer T)

Corporate culture (culture sensitivity)
“cliques” within organization

-align goals and mission of the company

ex: morning people? presents of certain people could make them feel differently when participating in a group

(answer type T)

Assessing the needs of employees (T/F)

– social
– epidemiological
– educational and ecological

Social Assessment

-to uncover perceived needs
– quality of life indicators (collect data through survey “people have the best and worst experience will fill out survey”, focus groups “people who said they’d like to participate”, interviews, observations) ex: find outgoing people, observe and later ask them to possibly be team leader?
– Why is this info useful? ( to help tailor and market the program effectively, link health to what employees care about, health is a skill used to reach a certain quality of life)
– What are Quality Of Life indicators in your life? (diet/nutrition, social relationships, stress level, etc.)

(After reading this, answer is T)

Epidemiological Assessment

– to uncover the actual needs:
genetics (keep in mind of different genetic makeups)
behavior and lifestyle
environment + social environment
overall health

– collect data through workforce demographic information, employee health records (general records like bp/weight, etc.), health care claims and costs, worker’s comp and cost data, HRA


Educational & Ecological Assessment (T/F)

– knowledge ≠ behavior
– attitudes -STAGE
– beliefs -OF
– values -CHANGE
– perceptions (could be a barrier)
– skills
– influence form others
– availability and accessibility of resources
– collect data through surveys, focus groups, interviews, observations

Health Risk Appraisals

– most commonly used
– a way of learning how lifestyle behavior affect one’s health
– may combine information from different sources
– goal to facilitate participants establishing health priorities
– understand impact of health habits (what’s important to the participant)


What Health Risk Appraisals is not

– not a diagnostic or treatment tool
– not a substitute for physical provided exams
– most effective for seemingly healthy adults prior to onset of any symptoms

results from doctors, bp, hormone levels are diagnostic tool


Employee Interest Surveys

– provide opportunity to combine health needs information with what employees want
– must also consider what employers can provide
– may have to begin with small program and build

“how likely would you attend… program?”


Nutritional or diet assessment
– most often used to promote cardiovascular health, assessments are often complex

two foci
– encourage individual change
– encourage environmental change

most common formats
– 24 hour recall
– 3 day food diary

(answer type T)

Back injury prevention

– assessments usually occur after injury or pain is reported
– description of the injury itself
-effect on the employee
– how injury or pain impacts daily or work life (medical attention, PT, long term disability)


Physical fitness assessments

– body compositions
– cardiorespiratory endurance
– flexibility testing
– muscle strength and endurance


Before distributing any survey

– consider the literacy of your audience
– have a representative group of workers read over the survey to obtain feedback
– make sure the survey is not too long
– consider ways to increase response rate
– if company is very large and resourse are limited, you may want to consider surveying a sample of the employees, consult a statistician to determine an appropriate sample size


Data collection

– what is already known? what data currently exist?

– don’t create more work for yourself than necessary

– what is the difference between primary (interviews, surveys) and secondary data (data already exist like health demographic, inexpensive)?

– what is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data?


Additional benefits to a thorough assessment

– generate awareness of the upcoming program
-stimulate employee interest
– foster early investment in the program
– increase likelihood of employees taking ownership of program
– building a foundation for success


Goals are broad statements that indicate what you hope to accomplish, create the setting for what you are proposing

focus on how a situation will be changed as a result of a successful program, not what a program will do.


Goals for Healthy People 2020

Increase quality of years of healthy life
Decrease/eliminate health disparities


Objectives clarifies the program’s instructional intent, objectives make evaluation efforts possible, and it alerts the learner to the desired outcomes. (T/F)
Issues in setting objectives and selecting interventions/methods

issues to consider:
maturity level of the learner
content to be covered
materials and equipment available
time allotment
group size
time of day


Program objectives

What we are seeking to change in:
ultimately behaviors

short&long term programs


List at least 4 benefits of implementing health promotion in the workplace.

1. Continuity in the workforce, healthier lifestyle for adults at work means increase in productivity and reason to continue working (but also to enjoy and feel more satisfied at work).

2. Increase social support for health and health promotion activities (such as support from co-workers and family members).

3. Increase life span, better quality of life, delay the onset of disease.

4.Policy support, where corporations can develop and enforce policies that influence health and support health promotion

5. Lower cost of health care costs for employers/companies.

Describe how major demographic, technical, and economic trends influence work performance today.

Demographic shifts described the increased aging workforce, that more women are entering the workplace, increase of the proportion of people of color working in many countries is rising and the number of people who have to work two jobs is growing

Demographic shifts influence work performance today because our demographic changes allow us to continuing seeking for ways to provide care to the ever changing population. For example, such as the rising of the aging workforce population where eldercare is one of the fastest growing needs in workplace. In addition, mental health issues in workplace can significantly influence a company. Last but not least, the increase Hispanic-American population in the US work with lower-paying, service sector of the economy.

At work technologies influence which work is done. Especially in today’s society, millions of workers make their living laboring in front of computerized keyboards in predominantly sedentary jobs. This influence work performance today because workers live a sedentary lifestyle where they are more likely to go to the doctor’s office, affect the employers and also affect their work performance. In addition, new technologies also lead to innovative but costly treatments.

Economic trends also influence work performance today because of the rising cost. For instance,cost shifting adds 25% to 33% more to the average health care bill. In addition,there are practices involve the hidden tax that doctors and hospitals shift to employers and paying customers to compensate for patients who cannot or do not pay their bills.

According to Chapter 1 in your textbook, these are the top 5 common [health] risk factors ranked by business leaders: (T/F)
1. Excess stress

2. High blood pressure

3. Cigarette smoking

4. Back injuries

5. Overweight

According to the publication, Healthy Workforce 2010 and Beyond, research is showing that it’s more cost-effective to invest in preventive health practices, such as screenings, immunizations, health risk appraisals, behavioral coaching, and health awareness/education, rather than spending resources exclusively on the small minority of employees/dependants who are responsible for high-copst health claims.

A. company size
B. number of work locations
C. demographics
D. health benefit design
E. health and safety related policies
F. budget
G. organizational culture
H. all of the answer choices listed are correct

What are the two major, interrelated phases which are necessary in determining employees’ needs and interests for achieving designated employee and employer goals?

A. identification and evaluation
B. assessment and development
C. development and implementation
D. implementation and evaluation
E. identification and assessment

This refers to the range and variability of needs identified at the employee, environmental, or organizational level.

A. specificity
B. employee interest survey
C. prospective medicine
D. scope
E. health risk assessment

This refers to the type and prevalence of identified needs.

A. specificity
B. scope
C. employee interest survey
D. health risk assessment
E. prospective medicine

This was originally based on a three-step concept of risk identification, risk assessment, and risk reduction.

A. specificity
B. scope
C. health risk assessment
D. employee interest survey
E. prospective medicine

To make the best use of an Interest Survey Form (ISF), one needs to compare the results with other data and do follow-up research. (T/F)
A short, succinct, and inspiring statement of what an organization aspires to become.

A. Mission Statement
B. Vision Statement
C. Goal
D. Objective

A statement indicating an organization’s philosophy, purpose, and goals for achieving its vision.

A. Objective
B. Mission Statement
C. Vision Statement
D. Goal

Actions that must be successfully completed in order to achieve a particular goal.

A. Vision Statement
B. Goal
C. Mission Statement
D. Objective

An observable and measurable end result with one or more objectives to be achieved within a specified time frame.

A. Objective
B. Vision Statement
C. Mission Statement
D. Goal

The Gantt chart can be used to assign, track, and monitor various objective-based tasks required to complete a project. (T/F)
A system of coordinated health information, health promotion, and health care interventions and communications for populations with chronic health conditions.

A. Integrated programming
B. Collated wellness programming
C. Comprehensive (global) health management
D. Disease management

An integrated system of programs, policies, incentives, activities, and health care services provided to improve the health status, on-the-job productivity, and overall well-being of all employees.

A. Collated wellness programming
B. Disease management
C. Comprehensive (global) health management
D. Integrated programming

Combining individual health strategies into a single multidimensional program.
A. Disease management
B. Comprehensive (global) health management
C. Integrated programming
D. Collated wellness programming
The overall level of success achieved by a particular worksite health promotion program depends on the ability of the programmers to strategically align supply-side resources to the specificity of the demand-side needs and interests of employees. (T/F)
Worksite health promotion programs are only popular in the United States. (T/F)

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