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Combined PSYC 210 Test 1 Study Guide

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Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called:
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mirror neurons
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In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.
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experimental
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According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David’s family on his development is part of his
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microsystem
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Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon
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American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents.
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The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances
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historical
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Han’s parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han’s parents to understand that Han:
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will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States.
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According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:
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our unconscious motives and drives
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If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:
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longitudinal research.
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According to Erik Erikson, children in the industry vs. inferiority stage try to
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master new skills.
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Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development is called
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preoperational.
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When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process:
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accommodation.
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In which of the following disorders is it possible to tell whether or not someone is a carrier?
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Tay-Sachs disease
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Tay-Sachs disease
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from nine weeks after conception until birth
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If a person inherits genes that predisposes him or her to alcoholism but is raised in Saudi Arabia, how is that person likely to behave in terms of alcohol consumption
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Since alcohol is a cultural taboo in Saudi Arabia, the person will not likely become alcoholic.
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What is the most common X linked condition?
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color blindness
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An organism’s entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:
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genotype.
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Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are: Answer
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produced by many genes
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A reproductive cell (i.e., a sperm or ovum) is called a:
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gamete
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In genetic terms, if you are a “carrier” it means you have:
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recessive genes in your genotype that are not expressed.
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Genetic disorders that are dominant are:
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always expressed.
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What is the natural sex ratio at conception?
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approximately 50/50
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In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:
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about 12 hours.
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Any birth that occurs 35 or fewer weeks after conception is considered to be:
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preterm
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The process that is involved when a sensory system first detects an external stimulus is
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sensation.
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Sam is able to grab objects but he sometimes closes his hand too early or too late. Sam is probably about:
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4 months old
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The average newborn triples his weight by
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1 year.
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According to Jean Piaget, the two elements of adaptation are:
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assimilation and accommodation
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The principle of object permanence is demonstrated by an infant’s:
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searching for a toy that has fallen from sight.
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Newborns prefer
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speech over most other sounds
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The reflex that allows newborns to grip so tightly is the
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Palmar grasping reflex.
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According to Piaget, during the sensorimotor stage, infants’ main task is to
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use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
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By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan’s rapid speech development mainly to his:
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parents’ talking to him frequently.
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The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the:
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prefrontal cortex
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The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
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vision.
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As infants acquire language, they say more ______ than any other parts of speech.
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nouns
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The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand
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how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan
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An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:
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An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:
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Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all a part of the:
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macrosystem
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A major contextual influence on development is:
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Social Class
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You and your high school classmates are part of the same
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Cohort
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According to Freud’s theory, development in the first six years occurs in three
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psychosexual stages
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In Erikson’s psychosocial theory, resolutions to developmental crises depend on the interaction between the individual and:
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the social environment
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Who helped initiate behaviorism by saying, “Let us limit ourselves to the things that can be observed . . .”?
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John B. Watson
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In classical conditioning, an organism learns
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to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one
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Identify an example of classical conditioning
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feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies
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A dog learns to “shake paws” on command because it has been given dog biscuits for doing so. This is an example of:
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operant conditioning
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After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred.
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modeling
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A major pioneer in cognitive theory was
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Piaget
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Molecules of DNA are referred to as:
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Chromosomes
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Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes
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23 pairs
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The sperm and the ovum are
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gametes
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When two human reproductive cells combine at the moment of conception, the result is a:
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. zygote
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A person’s sex is determined by:
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the 23rd pair of chromosomes
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An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:
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be female
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An allele is:
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a normal vairation of a particular gene
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Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of his blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?
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. through his DNA
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The period of the fetus lasts:
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the nine weeks after conception until birth
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The placenta
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surrounds and protects the developing organism
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Approximately what percentage of zygotes successfully become implanted
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40 percent
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The head begins to take shape in the ______ week after conception
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fourth
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With excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as:
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22 weeeks after conception
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Teratology refers to:
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the study of birth defects
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Maria used a prescription medicine for two weeks while she was pregnant. The potential damage:
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depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine
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The average newborn doubles her birthweight in
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. four months
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Children reach half their adult height by age:
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2 years
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The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:
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head-sparing
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typical newborn will sleep
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17 hours or more a day.
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Jake sleeps in his parent’s bed and awakens often during the night. According to recent research, Jake:
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sleeps just as much as an infant who sleeps alone
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Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. As an adult, he is incapable of normal stress responses because stress hormones in his brain were:
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overproduced.
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Trent is an infant who lacks many of the new toys and videos that promote brain development. He spends much of his day in a playpen with kitchen items for toys, listening to his grandmother sing while his mother works outside the home. Given his situation, Trent’s brain development will most likely:
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proceed normally due to the self-righting tendency
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Jean Piaget was most interested in
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studying how children think
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When we revamp our old ways of thinking because of new information, Piaget calls this
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accommodation.
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An example of stage-three behavior is
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making noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back
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During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to
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use senses and motor skills to understand the world
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The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was:
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F. Skinner
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The usual order of the development of spoken language is:
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reflexese, booing, babbling, spoken words
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An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n):
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visual cliff
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At 6 weeks, Jessica’s most recent emotional reaction is likely to be
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a social smile
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The emotion of pride usually appears at what age?
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1 1/2 years
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When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
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separation anxiety
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The Western value of independence is clearly exhibited in
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Erikson’s stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt
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Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
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compliant
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Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called
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synchrony
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Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler
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willing to explore
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Josh is 15 months old. His parents are happy in their marriage and financially stable. Most likely, Josh’s attachment type will be:
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secure
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A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
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social referencing
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The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between
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40-50 pounds
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The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age:
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13
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Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured
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prefrontal cortex
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Young children who engage in active play much of the day tend to exhibit:
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mastery of fine and gross motor skills
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Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence
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preoperational
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One of Vygotsky’s most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:
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children can master some tasks with the help of others
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Erikson’s stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:
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initiative versus guilt
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One difference between shame and guilt is that:
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guilt come from within the child
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From birth to about 6 weeks, newborns signal their needs to caregivers through crying and body movements. According to your text, which stage of attachment is this?
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reattachment
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The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of
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6 months.
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When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to
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engage in physical play.
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In the research performed by Tronick & Weinberg, mothers were instructed to interact normally with their infants’ facial expressions, and then on cue to show no emotional reaction at all. This procedure is called the:
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still-face technique
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Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at:
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9 months.
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In the Strange Situation, a sign of secure attachment is:
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smiling at Mother when she returns to the room
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In Erikson’s theory, the infant’s earliest task is described as that of:
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learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs.
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In terms of Erikson’s theory, a toddlers’ failure to develop self-rule over his/her own actions is most closely identified with
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shame and doubt
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A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
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social referencing.
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Instructions are transmitted to the cell via pairs of four chemicals.
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True
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Culture may be understood as a meaning and information system passed through generations that allows people to meet basic needs and derive meaning from life.
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True
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Humanism has been criticized for having a “theory of evil.”
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False
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A research question becomes a hypothesis when it is restated as a prediction or idea that can be tested.
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True
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Alcoholism is an example of a purely physical addiction.
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False
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A researcher who watches college students during an exam and counts how many students bite their nails is conducting a scientific observation.
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True
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Sensitive and critical periods are the same thing.
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False
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A critical period of development is a time when a particular development must happen if it is ever going to happen.
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True
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Sociocultural theory can best be understood in the context of a nurture approach.
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True
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Theories are facts.
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False
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Geneticists have yet to make significant progress on the map of the human genome.
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False
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Stem cells are cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form.
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True
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Selective Adaptation explains how humans have remained unchanged throughout the last 150 years.
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False
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Birth defects decrease with IVF.
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False
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According to Freud, the development of even young infants involves sexual pleasures.
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True
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The technique for conditioning behavior called “reinforcement” usually results in a halting of the desired behavior.
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False
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Within operant conditioning, what might appear to be a punishment could actually serve as a reward.
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True
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The term cohort refers to individuals born in the same geographical region and within the same social class.
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False
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According to Erikson, if a young adult is able to find love and companionship in a relationship with another person, he or she will resolve the sixth crisis of development by achieving intimacy. If he or she is not able to do this, he or she will resolve the sixth crisis by achieving a sense of inferiority.
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False
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Gina wants a glass of milk but all of the glassware is in the sink waiting to be washed. She finds a clean empty fruit jar and pours milk into it. Gina solved her problem by using the process of accommodation.
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True
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Researchers have little ethical responsibility for how media or politicians might interpret their research.
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False
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Fraternal twins are more common than identical twins.
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True
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Occasionally, genetic tests are conducted to determine whether a pair of twins are monozygotic or dizygotic because of their similarities.
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True
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One reason that the discovery of mirror neurons is so valuable to our understanding of human behavior is because it indicates that merely observing incidents may be like experiencing them.
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True
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Cognitive theories emphasize the…
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4 operational stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Emphasizes thinking and ideas. IOW: Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions.
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Which occurs about 7 days after conception?
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The cell mass, now called a blastocyst, forms two distinct parts.
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Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are best known for their contributions to what theory?
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Psychoanalytic Theory
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The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was.
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Ivan Povlov
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Cohort refers to a group of people who.
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are defined by the shared age of its members. its members shared age.
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According to sociocultural theory, the zone of proximal development refers to the skills that.
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the learner can understand with guidance; where interaction between the teacher and learner results in knowledge never before grasped or skills not already mastered.
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The sum total of all the genes a person inherits is called the.
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Genotype
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The period of the fetus lasts.
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from the beginning of the 9th week after conception until birth.
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Which of the following is not considered a major contextual influence on development?
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Genetics is a major influence. Use deductive reasoning for the rest.
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What begins about 14 days after conception?
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Embryonic Period Begins
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About what percentage of zygotes successfully become implanted?
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40%
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The chromosomal make up of a normal male is:
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YY: Female is: XY
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The psychosocial stage in which people try to see their lives as a worthy and justifiable whole is?
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integrity vs. despair.
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A major pioneer in Cognitive theory was:
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Piaget
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The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are.
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the baby’s color, heartbeat, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and respiratory effort.
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Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes?
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23 pairs
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The psycho-social stage that occurs at the same time as Freud’s anal stage is:
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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
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The sperm and the ovum are?
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Gametes
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Which of the following is the best description of what the study of human development attempts to understand?
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how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan
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Phenotype refers to.
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observable physical properties of an organism
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About a week after conception the outer layer of the multiplying cells forms a protective circle or shell that will become the…
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The human blastocyst implant in the wall of the uterus
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The longest period prenatal development is the…
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Embryonic Period
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A re-enforcer is…
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the process by which a behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.
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Within hours after conception, the zygote travels toward the uterus down the…
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fallopian tube
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Which psychoactive drug slows fetal growth the most?
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Tobacco d.) tobacco