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COM 135- Exam 1

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According to several recent studies quoted in your text, the most important skills employers are seeking in college graduates are
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good speaking and presentation skills.
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One way public speaking and conversation are similar is that both are
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Audience-Centered
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Translating ideas and images in the speaker’s mind into verbal or nonverbal messages that an audience can understand is termed as
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encoding.
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An audience member is worried about an upcoming exam and is unlikely to remember much of what the speaker says. This is a type of
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Internal noise
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The environment or situation in which a speech occurs is known as
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context
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A speaker transmits a message through two channels:
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visual and auditory
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Smiles, head nods, eye contact, and clapping from audience members are all forms of
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Feedback
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This is another term for the use of words and symbols to achieve a goal.
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rhetoric
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Most speakers who procrastinate in preparing their speeches
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will feel more speaker apprehension
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According to the National Communication Association, this is fundamental to responsible thinking, decision-making, and the development of relationships and communities within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media. This is
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ethicial communication
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When a person decides not to overestimate or falsify an insurance claim just to have the extra money, this action is based on the individual’s
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code of ethics
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Speakers who bring in false claims and tug at the emotions of the audience, instead of using sound evidence and logical arguments, are examples of
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unethical speakers
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Eric wanted to use an excerpt from a Nightline episode, as both an audiovisual aid and a source for his speech. But he only agreed with and wanted to use one of the two guests’ interactions with Ted Koppel, so he edited out the second guest and showed the edited videotape. Was this ethical?
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No; this kind of “sound biting” violates the ethical guideline of using sound evidence and reasoning.
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In a persuasive speech, you tell a hypothetical story in your introduction and represent it as actually happening to you. Is this appropriate?
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.No, because you are violating an ethical principle which requires that speakers be honest.
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Hypothetical illustrations within a speech are
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acceptable to show what might happen, as long as the speaker is clear that it is hypothetical
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With regard for those “gray areas” of ethics pertaining to the use of sources in a speech, your text suggests
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when in doubt, document all of your sources in a speech.
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Ralph found an excellent source for his speech on organic gardening. He brought the author’s scientific evidence on earthworms and ladybugs into his speech outline. Is this ethical?
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Yes; this is ethical as long as Ralph cites his source orally within the speech.
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In a speech on breast cancer, you decide to use the latest information from the National Breast Cancer Foundation website, www.nationalbreastcancer.org. What is the proper way to cite this source in your speech?
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The National Breast Cancer Foundation in 2004 stated…”
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When speakers consider beliefs, values, and moral principles when writing and presenting a speech, they are
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speaking ethically.
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Information such as age, race, gender, education, and religious views are part of
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demographics.
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To gather formal information about audience members’ attitudes, beliefs, and values, you can
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ask open-ended and closed-ended questions on a survey.
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In discovering that the audience members have similar cultural characteristics, are about the same age, and have relatively the same education level—although they don’t have the same socioeconomic background—the speaker is trying to discover
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common ground
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A good speaker should ethically use the information gathered in an audience analysis so that the message will be clearly understood by them. According to your text, this process is called
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audience adaptation
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What is ethnocentrism?
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the attitude that one’s own cultural approach is superior to those from other cultures
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That portion of a person’s background that relates to a national or religious heritage is known as
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ethnicity.
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Audience members who place more importance on nonverbal than verbal messages from a speaker might be from _____ cultures, whereas those placing more emphasis on what was said than the nonverbal messages might be from _____ cultures.
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high-context; low-context
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As defined by your text, analyzing the audience’s income, occupation, and education refers to
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socioeconomic status
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It is important to know the approximate education level of your audience because
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people with more education usually have a larger vocab
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A segment of your audience that you most want to address or influence is the
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Target audience
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When you discover the listener’s needs, interests, and expectations prior to selecting a topic, you are fulfilling which guideline for selecting a topic?
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consider the audience
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When you make a list of your own interests, and just begin writing as many topics related to these as you can think of without stopping to consider them, you are using a technique known as
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brainstorming
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Emily has been asked to speak to a group of her colleagues at work about a new project, but she wonders, “What do these people already know about this project, and are they excited about it?” These questions reflect Emily’s
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concern about the interests and knowledge of her audience.
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For his graduation ceremony, when Brady decided to give his valedictory address on the topic of opposition to the rising costs of university tuition, Brady failed to
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consider the occasion
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When searching for a speech topic, Web directories, such as Yahoo, are helpful because
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they have a list of topics divided into categories and subcategories.
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During your speech you ask your audience to sign a petition increasing the student parking areas. Your general goal is
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to persuade
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“At the end of my speech, my audience will be able to list the three different types of Reggae music,” is an example of a
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specific purpose
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A complete declarative sentence that summarizes your speech is known as the
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central idea
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Allison has written and rewritten the central idea of her speech on “Dog Care.” She finally comes up with “Dog care is very difficult.” What is the problem with this central idea?
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her central idea is too vague
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Searching for logical divisions in a subject is a strategy for determining your
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main ideas
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The method a speaker uses to arrange his/her main ideas is termed as the
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organizational pattern
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Organizing ideas within a speech according to the order in which they occurred or should occur employs
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a chronological pattern
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For her informative speech, Abegail wanted to tell her audience what they need to consider when purchasing a new computer. Which organizational pattern lends itself best to this topic?
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topical
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If a speech is organized to identify a situation and then discuss the impact of that situation occurring, the speaker has used
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cause and effect pattern
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When you present the most important or convincing idea first in your speech, you are using the principle of
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primacy
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In his speech on varying explanations of how the earth came into existence, Eduardo begins with opinions, moves to inferences, and uses scientific facts in support of his last point. What principle of supporting material organization is Eduardo reflecting in his speech?
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“soft” to “hard” evidence
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Words and gestures, that allow you to move smoothly from one idea to the next throughout the speech, are known as
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signposts
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Words and phrases, such as “In addition,” “In other words,” and “Therefore,” are examples of
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verbal transistions
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A planned pause in a speech may be used as
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a nonverbal transistion
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Telling your audience your main ideas before you begin to develop your speech is a
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preview
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The first step in an introduction is
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to get the audience’s attention.
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According to the authors, the most obvious purpose that you must accomplish in a speech introduction is
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to introduce the topic of your speech.
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Credibility is
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the attitude listeners hold toward a speaker.
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This signpost may enumerate the ideas and points that will be presented in the speech. This signpost is known as
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a preview
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An anecdote is a
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brief entertaining story or illustration.
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In an introduction, you may ask a question that doesn’t require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is a(n)
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rhetorical question.
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Thanking someone for inviting you to speak, as part of your introduction, is termed as a
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personal reference
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What is the purpose of the technique when a speaker makes reference to the introduction in the conclusion?
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providing a sense of closure
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When Gloria said, “So we must all do something to end domestic violence; we must all be prepared to confront this issue in our own neighborhoods and homes, so that we become part of the solution, not part of the problem,” you recognize this as
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a statement to motivate the audience to respond
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Terms like “finally,” “in conclusion,” and “in closing” are examples of devices
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that provide closure for a speech
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Conventional use of numbered and lettered heading and subheadings to indicate the relationships among parts of the speech is known as a
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standard outline form
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In an outline, Roman numerals are used to indicate
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the main ideas
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According to the text, what is the purpose of using complete sentences in a preparation outline?
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This will help you judge the coherence of the speech.
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What, according to your textbook, is the major benefit of using standard outline form?
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It points out relationships between ideas and supporting material.
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What is one of the features of the standard outline form?
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use at least two subdivisions, if any, for each point
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Before presenting your speech in front of a full audience, you practice and discover that your speech is too long. What should be done?
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edit the speech by reviewing the specific purpose—you may be trying to accomplish too much in the speech
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When should a speaker edit their speech?
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As the speaker is practicing from the preparation outline and discovers that there is too much information.
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A general rule of thumb when estimating the time frame for your introduction and conclusion is to remember that
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the introduction and the conclusion should each represent 10 percent of your speaking time.
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The delivery outline
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should be brief and have speaking notes
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Marissa’s speaking notes were filled with drawings, words, and symbols. Is this a fine method for creating speaking notes?
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Yes; it is fine to prepare your notes in any form as long as they make sense to you.
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What is most important when a speaker is communicating emotional feelings, attitudes, likes, and dislikes to an audience?
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nonverbal communication
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Delivering a speech in a conversational style from a well-developed and researched outline is termed
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extemporaneous delivery
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When asked to deliver a speech at the last moment, the type of delivery style you will use is
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impromptu
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The ability to monitor your audience’s response and adjust your message accordingly is a benefit of
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good eye contact
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Which of the following statements is the best guideline for using gestures in a speech?
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make your gestures appropriate to the situation and audience
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An attitude that one’s own cultural approaches are superior to those of other cultures is termed
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ethnocentrism
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In a crowded arena, you notice that when others laugh, clap, or cheer on the speaker, you are more likely to follow along with their actions. This is an example of
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emotional contagion theory
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When it comes to public speaking, people have certain expectations as to how you should communicate. This represents the
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nonverbal expectancy theory
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Without uttering a word, an audience can be quieted by holding up the palm of your hand to calm a noisy crowd. This is the nonverbal function of
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substituting
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When Kelsey says, “How many of you have ever donated money to causes that support the homeless?” as she extends the palms of her hands toward the audience. Kelsey’s nonverbal communication serves what function?
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regulating
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In a speech with the general purpose “to inform,” a speaker’s goal is to
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teach others new info
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When a speaker shows the audience that the information presented will affect them directly, he/she is fulfilling which goal of information speaking?
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to maintain interest
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An informative speech that discusses how something works, or describes a process with a particular outcome, is a speech about
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procedures
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An informative speech about an event typically follows this pattern of organization.
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chronological
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To express your ideas so that the intended message is accurately understood by the audience is known as
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clarity
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This term means comparisons and is usually good for giving listeners the big picture before going into great detail:
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analogies
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In her speech about small pox, Jessica previewed her ideas in the introduction, summarized key points throughout the speech, and provided a visual outline on an overhead. What public speaking principle did Jessica apply?
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She used the principle of speaking with clarity
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An effective way to keep an audience’s attention is to tell a story. According to your text, what are three elements that make a good story?
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conflict, dialogue, action
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Sheena presented her informative speech on the life of Marie Curie. She had decided to cover Curie’s early life and marriage, her scientific achievements despite the prejudice against her as a woman, and finally, the importance of Curie’s discoveries on our lives today. She concluded her introduction by previewing all the main points, then used an internal summary as a transition to each of the main ideas. In her conclusion, she summarized her main ideas, emphasizing the importance of Marie Curie’s life. What strategy to enhance audience recall was Sheena using?
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tell a suspenseful story
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When Kiko reviewed the main points in her informative speech, she slowed down her rate of speech, decreased her volume, made sure to articulate each word clearly, and paused between each point. What technique of enhancing audience recall did Kiko effectively employ?
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reinforcing key ideas verbally