# College Physics Ch. 1-2

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What are the fundamental physical quantities?

Distance, time, mass.
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Distance

A measure of space in one dimension. Measured in meters.
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Time

A process that repeats over and over at a regular rate. Measured in seconds.
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Mass

A measure of how much matter is contained in it. Measured in grams.
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Period

The time for one complete cycle of a process that repeats. Abbreviated as a capital T. Measured in units.
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Formula for period

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Frequency

The number of cycles of a periodic process that occurs per unit time. Abbreviated as f. Measured in Hertz.
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Formula for frequency

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What is an oscillation?

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What is the frequency of a pendulum when the period is less than one second?

The frequency is always greater than 1 hertz.
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Speed

Rate of motion. Rate of change of distance from a reference point. The distance something travels divided by the time elapsed. Measured in meters per second.
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Formula for calculating average speed.

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Formula for calculating instantaneous speed.

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Velocity

Speed in a particular direction.
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What is the difference between speed and velocity?

Velocity is speed in a particular direction. Measured in meters per second.
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Formula for velocity.

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Distance formula when speed is constant.

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What is a vector?

A physical quantity that has both a numerical size (magnitude) and a direction associated with them.
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What is a scalar?

A physical quantity having only magnitude, not direction.
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The process process of adding two or more vectors together. The result of the vectors is called the resultant.
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Acceleration

Rate of change of velocity. The change in velocity divided by the time elapsed.
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Formula for acceleration.

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3 types of acceleration.

Speed increase – linear Speed decrease – linear Direction change – centripetal
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Centripetal acceleration.

The acceleration of an object in a circular direction. Centripetal means ‘center-seeking’
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Formula for centripetal acceleration.

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What is the relationship between acceleration and velocity when something moves in a circle with constant speed?

It’s acceleration is perpendicular to its velocity.
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What is zero velocity?

A situation in which no motion occurs.
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Formula for velocity when acceleration is constant.

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What is ‘g’?

The acceleration due to the force of gravity. 9.80m/s^2. Abbreviated as ‘g’ Can be substituted for ‘a’ in acceleration equations.
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Newton’s first law/Inertia

The tendency of an object in motion to remain in motion, or an object at rest to remain at rest, unless acted upon by a force.
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Newton’s second law and formula

A force acting on a mass causes it to accelerate.
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Weight/mass formula.

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Newton’s third law

To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions.
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Force

A push or a pull acting on a body. Usually causes some distortion of the body, a change in its velocity, or both. Force is a vector. Measured is the newton (N).
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How many newtons is one pound?

4.45 Newtons
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How many pounds is one newton?

.225 lbs
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Weight

The force of gravity acting on a body. Abbreviated W
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Friction

A force of resistance to relative motion between two bodies or substances in physical contact.
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Static friction

Friction when there is no relative motion between two objects.
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For and object to move with constant velocity what has to happen?

The net force on it must be zero.
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Centripetal force

Force directed toward the center of an objects path.
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Newton

The force that would give a mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second per second.
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Weight formula

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Law of universal gravitation