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CNCSP 101 Final

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Conformity
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naive acceptance of and preference for the dominant culture’s values. deprecates own cultural group and idealizes dominant culture eg. prefer white dolls
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Dissonance
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Begins to question negatively held stereotypes about own minority group. conflictual attitudes towards own and other groups
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Resistance
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Guilt, shame, and anger at dominant group for denigrating own cultural background. Appreciation for self and own group, deprecating attitude toward dominant group. Ambivalent attitudes toward other minority groups
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Introspection
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Question ethnocentric bias for judging self and others. Positive self-identity that is proactive rather than reactive. May be able to criticize aspects of own group that are nonliberating. conflicted about negativity towards White culture while having positive encounters with Whites (not to be confused with the conformity stage)
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integrative awareness
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Appreciation for own culture and selective appreciation for White culture. Belief that there are desirable and nondesirable elements to all groups
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White racial conciousness
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-Proposed by Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson -Does not necessarily develop in stages -model describes types, and people can move among types as a result of dissonance
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if you have not explored racial concerns or committed beliefs, you might be
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-avoidant type: lack consideration of own White identity, avoidance of concern for racial/ethnic minorities -dependent type: holds views that are dependent of other’s views -dissonant type: uncertain about views, disparity between current views and experience
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If you have explored racial concerns and committed to beliefs, you might be:
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-Dominative type:believe that Whites are superior to minorities, rely on stereotypes for information about minorities, feel entitled to advantages of being white -Conflictive type: opposed to obvious racism and to remedies for racism -Reactive type: believe White Americans benefit from and are responsible for racial discrimination, feel anger, guilt, and shame directed towards racist society -Integrative type: comfortable with whiteness and comfortable interacting with visible ethnic/racial minorities. Value culturally pluralistic society and have sophisticated understanding of factors affecting racial/ethnic minority issues
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Biological sex
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our parts, hormones (M/F/intersex [middlesex])
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Gender identity
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how you identify (M/F/genderqueer)
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Gender expression
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how you present yourself to the world (masculine/feminine/androgynous)
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Sexual orientation
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who you’re attracted to/love (LGBTQ)
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Other dimensions of social identity
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social class, religion, physical ability
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Privilege
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-McIntosh-white privilege as an “invisible weightless knapsack”-shopping without being followed or harassed, financial reliability, race is featured, bandages match skin -Male privilege: elected representatives M esp with more powerful positions, more teacher attention, no period questioning of intellect, lack of household work -Heterosexual Privilege: no games like Fag Tag, religious community, no double-takes when handholding, not called straight, no fear of exposure -able-bodied privilege: no barriers to mobility, shopping alone, role model, not told youre an inspiration, no questioning of job attainment -Christian privilege: music, holidays off, not told religious greed, can display decorations -Cisgender privilege (bio sex = identified sex): not asked what genitals look like, how they have sex, musn’t defend medical decisions, don’t ask for “real name,” no lack of treatment in hospitals due to gender -Age privilege “not yet a senior”: no choices attr to mental incompetence of age, no cops pull over due to age, no putdowns on cards, can do what you want w/o asking what P of my age would be allowed to do, no products to lessen age -social class privilege: called sir/mam, success attributed to hard work, own class rep, no background investigated, child not ignored in school
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Costs of privilege
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-cognitive distortions (my accomplishments are b/c of me) -interpersonal costs (less interaction/awareness of P not in my group) -efforts to maintain membership in privileged group (hetero man muscles) -vulnerability to psych and beh problems: entitlement,distance from victims, lack of awareness of consequences for oneself and others, limited coping skills for facing disappointments and failures
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Resistance to Awareness of Privilege
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-denial -false envy -benevolence (doing good but replicating roles) -anger -defensiveness -resentment
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Barriers to seeking counseling: STIGMA
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“P seeking treatment is undesirable/unacceptable) -public=public views neg towards those seeking counseling -personal-neg rxns from those with whom we interact -self-stigma=personal feeling of unacceptability
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Barriers to seeking counseling: gambling
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-wish to handle problem by oneself -shame, embarrassment, stigma -unwillingness to admit problem -concern or lack of info about treatment itself
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Barriers to seeking counseling: for career concerns
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-devaluing of career counseling -public and personal stigma–>self-stigma
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Barriers to seeking counseling: adolescents
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-belief in own coping abilities (related to distortions in self-perception) -previous positive interaction with a psychologist related to help-seeking -homeless-hurt and anger at family and soc–>mistrust
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Help-seeking beh: individual differences
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-men (esp. those who embrace trad gender roles) perceive greater stigma in seeking counseling than women do -acculturation to European-based culture -cultural expectations regarding keeping personal and family issues private
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What is Psychotherapy?
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“interactions between a therapist/counselor and one or more clients/patients. The purpose is to help the patient/client with problems that may have aspects that are related to disorders of thinking, emotional suffering, or problems of behavior. Approach must be legally and ethically approved.” (Sharf, 2008) -“a partnership between an individual and a professional, such as a psychologist, who is licensed and trained to help people understand their feelings and assist them with changing their behavior.” (APA)
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Modes of psychotherapy
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-individual -couples -group -family
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goal-setting in psychotherapy
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-collaboration betw. helper and client -specific -achievable -positive -miracle question
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Theories of Change
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-all psychotherapy techniques are rooted in a theory of MOTIVATION and change -psychologists differ in their theories of change, approaches to psychotherapy may also be different -different presenting problems or client goals may also call for different techniques of psychotherapy
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Transtheoretical model of change general
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-developed by Prochaska & DiClemente (1983) -describes readiness to change and health beh -has been applied to addictive beh (smoking, alcohol & drug use), exercise, STI risk reduction, nutrition, sunscreen use, stress management, etc.
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Transtheoretical model of change five stages
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Change is a process involving progress through a series of five stages. 1. Precontemplation-people are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future (Con >pro) 2. Contemplation-people are intending to change in the next 6 months (Con =Pro) 3. Preparation-people are intending to take action in the immediate future, usually measured as the next month (Con</=Pro) 4. Action- people have made specific overt modifications in their lifestyles within the past 6 months 5. Maintenance- people are working to prevent relapse (Con<Pro)
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How to evaluate a theory of psychotherapy
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-how well does it fit my view of human development and change? -what is the evidence base?–draw on research and clinical expertise, easier to do some types of research with some types of theories -how applicable is it to the range of human experience?–nature and severity of disorder, individual diffs, culture, world view, spiritual belief system
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Psychodynamic history
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-historically driven from the work of Freud -modified and adapted drastically over the past 30 years -more specific branches include: object-relations, ego psychology, interpersonal therapy, self-psychology
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psychodynamic fundamental theory
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-we have a motivating unconscious -desire to love, connect, and be loved by others -we are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain -emotion precedes thought -psych problems are, in part, the result of unconscious INTERPERSONAL wishes and fears that are either unmet or inappropriate eg. I am depressed because I wish for a deeper connection with loved ones, but I fear that they will reject me, so I am left feeling depressed and lonely.
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Psychodynamic chars of treatment
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-tends to be longer-term or open-ended, although there are several empirically supported short term models -tends to be client-directed -relat betwen therapist and client is central and discussed frequently -ther techniques=free association, dream analysis, projective tests, hypnosis
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Psychodynamic goals of treatment
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-allow client to express their interpersonal wishes/fears and notice their ubiquity eg.”Once again, I feared that this relationship wouldn’t work, so I dumped him before I could get hurt.” -work toward understanding where these interpersonal wishes/fears came from -esp. child relats with sig CGs -help client explore new interpersonal patterns and expectations
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Behavioral fundamental theory
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-historically derived from the works of Pavlov and Skinner -all beh is learned, so all beh can be unlearned -goal is to reduce maladaptive beh (same chars of treatment as cog therapy)
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How we learn:classical conditioning (stimulus and response)
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-Pavlov’s dogs -pair a stimulus (eg. sound of bell) with food, and will eventually salivate to bell alone -Beh techniques=exposure based, systematic desensitization, flooding
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How we learn: operant conditioning/reinforcement (pos and neg)
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-presence of pos reinforcers or removal of neg reinforcers leads to incr in a beh -beh techniques= reinforcement based (beh modification), Antecendent-Beh-Conseqence
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Reinforcement and Punishment
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-incr a beh with pos reinf (add) or neg reinf (take away) -decr a beh with pos punishment (add) or neg punishment (take away) eg. smoking, excercise
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What makes reinforces effective?
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-immediate -consistent -tailored to the indiv -powerful enuf to motivate
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Shaping
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-reward successive approximations to desired beh -can be used to teach complex behs
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Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT)
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-based on operant and classical conditioning
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How we learn: Observational learning (social learning)
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-learn by observing the reinforcement others receive -beh techniques= *skills training-social skills, assertiveness
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cognitive behavioral
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-albert ellis (rational-emotive ther) and aaron beck (cog therapy) founded -thoughts and belifs precede feelings (A–>B–>C) =antecendent, belief, consequence A-B-C-D-E-F -disputing intervention -effect-an effective philosophy is developed -new Feelings and beh
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What kind of beliefs do we want to dispute?
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Acc to ellis, irrational thots -distort reality -are illogical -prevent you from reaching your goals -lead to unhealthy emotions -lead to self-defeating beh
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Cog devm’t model
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childhood–>devmt schemas and beliefs–>critical incidents–>activation of schemas/beliefs–>authomatic thots–>emot,physio responses, behs
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Cognitive fundamental theory
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-we develop ideas that serve as “rules” about how we think about ourselves, our world, and our future -beh problems are caused by rules that are too simplistic, rigid, or based on erroneous assumptions (‘schemas’) -schemas can lead to : *overgeneralizations eg. everyone hates me *all-or-none thinking eg. My life is over if __ -core beliefs: absolute statements abt the self, others or the world and the future are treated as if they are absolute facts -depressive triad-neg thots about the self, world/envt, & future
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Cognitive chars of treatment
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-automatic thoughts record -relatively short term (8-16 sessions) -problem focused and therapist directed -therapist might assign hw and set agenda for ea. session -hw assgnments might involve practice/writing assgmts
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Cognitive goals of treatment
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1. uncover client’s core beliefs that are overly rigid, concrete, or inappropriate 2.combat problematic thought patterns by challenging and replacing them 3. thus, reduce client symptoms of dysfunction
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Family Systems fundamental theory
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Problematic behs -serve a purpose -are patterns handed down across generations a change in one member effects all members -the “identified Pn” -individual’s functioning is a manifestation of the way the family functions
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Key Family Systems Theorists
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-Virginia Satir-dyfunctional comm -Jay Haley- Strategic/Solution focus -Murray Bowen-Multigenerational family therapy -Salvador Minuchin–structural fam therapy–immeshed or diffuse family mapping *structural therapy focuses on rules and boundaries
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Group Therapy
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-any helping process occurring in a group -can mix types: Support, psychoed/skills training (anger management, DBT, social skills), interpersonal, expressive (art, dance, music) -there MUST be a trained therapist present to call a self-help group “group ther”
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Yalom’s 12 group therapy factors
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-universiality: not alone -altruism:help ea. other -installation of hope: can see who’s overcome -imparting info: from other members -corrective recapitulation of the family experience: group=family -devm’t of socializing techniques -imitative beh: modeling -cohesiveness -existential factors: take responsibility for one’s axns (group members can call ea. other out) -catharsis: relief from distress, shame, guilt by sharing -interpersonal learning: gain feedback from others -self-understanding: greater insight into one’s problems
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Humanistic/client centered chars of therapy
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-egalitarian client-therapist relationship -foster potential for psych growth -new awareness/meaning is basis for subsequent beh change
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humanistic/client centered core therapeutic conditions
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-genuineness-clinician’s self-awareness and honesty -congruence-therapist encourages messages in which non-verbal comm matches verbal content -immediacy-therapist is present and focuses on what’s going on in therapy -unconditional pos regard-therapist accepts, cares about, and likes client -empathic understanding-communicating accurate understanding of client
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humanistic/client centered chars of treatment
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-helping skills related to core therapeutic conditions=open Qs, reflection, limited interp -ST or LT duration -relat more important than techniques
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Feminist therapy
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Basic tenants -egalitarian relat -recognition of societal contributions to psych distress and disorders -systematic and societal change Brown, Fem therapy= advancing feminist resistance, transformation, and soc change in daily personal life and relats
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Multicultural counseling
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-cultural competence-seeing client in context of their diversity -ther awareness, kn, skills, relat
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Common factors among psychotherapies
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client chars -pos expectation, hope, faith -distressed or incongruent client -Pn actively seeks help therapist qualities -pos descriptors -cultivates hope-enhances expectations -warmth, pos regard change processes -opps for catharsis-ventilation -new behs -rationale-informing theory treatment structures -use of techniques -focus on “inner world” of emotions -adherence to theory Relat elements -development of alliance-relat -engagement -transference
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Integrative and eclectic approaches to therapy
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-integration of techniques, ideas, and theories of several dif forms of psychotherapy -most “master therapists” from different orientations are more similar in technique than different
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Why is it important to have a theoretical orientation?
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-all psychotherapies are a conceptual scheme that provides a plausible explanation for the Pn’s symptoms and provides a ritual or procedure for resolving them -must be accepted by client and therapist -must be consistent w/ worldview, assumptive base, attitudes and values of client -client must believe in the treatment or be led to believe in it -emotly charged confiding relat -healing setting-trust prof to work on client’s behalf -predictable ritual or procedure –> active participation of client and therapist based on rationale
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Termination
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-anticipation-be planful and make an ending therapeutic -transition esp important for clients w/ issues of loss, devmt, transition -therapist can: –bring it up –reinforce client’s strengths and growth –plan for future challenges –explore client’s perspective on what they gained –ritual (letter to self, summary of growth) –how to deal with gifts and tokens –transition ther relat (pot to return, client asks any Qs)
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Guest Speaker: Darren (CAPS guy)
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-psychodymanic theory focuses on affect and emotion -exploration of attempts to avoid distress thots-psych defenses -identify recurring themes and patterns -discussion of past expers-sig relations -focus on interpersonal relats -focus on therapy relat -hardest thing is paying attn so strictly for LT
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Guest Speaker: Rape Culture
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-rape culture= a culture that normalizes sexual violence via attitudes, media, words -SV=#1 violent crime on college campuses -1 in 4 W raped -1 in 9 M raped -15/16 rapists walk -prevention:bystanders are indivs w/ opp to help, do nothing, or amplify
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Guest Speaker: School Psych
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-formal and informal assessments (IQ test vs. talking to Pn) -prevention & intervention, research & program devm’t -school counselor vs. school psychologist *counselors=mental health provider only *school psych=varied schedules, activities -job outlook great!–not enuf grads to meet demands -3 ways to become: masters(2 yrs. common in W. US), specialist (3 yrs. most common), doctorate degree -all req 1 yr. internship-no big pay dif
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Guest Speaker: Roberta, Red Cross
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-ACR is international-inverted swiss flag as sign -impartial-charted by US, not relig/gov affil -responsible for clients, staff AND volunteers -confidence and flexibility builder -survivor guilt, comfort -not therapy, but normalization *don’t say everything will be okay *validate their experiences
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What is not characteristic of psychodynamic therapy?
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Reflecting a client’s feelings
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Transference
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unconscious redirection of feelings from one P to another based on childhood –towards something new countertransference=a therapist’s rxns to a client based on past issues they may need to resolve
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Genograms
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pictoral display of a person’s family relats and med history, allows to see hereditary patterns and psych factors in family ther
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ABC model of relat between cog and emot
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A is always antecedent/activating event B is behavior or belief C is consequence
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Which is NOT expected to happen in therapy
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the therapist becomes friends with the client
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What is TRUE about paying for therapy?
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a. Insurance companies are required to cover an unlimited number of therapy sessions for each client. b. Medicare covers some mental health services, but Medicaid does not. c. Large businesses charge higher insurance co-pays for psychological than for medical services. d. Insurance may cover some mental health disorders, but not others. Correct
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How long does a typical therapy session last?
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50 minutes
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A client who recognizes the benefits of quitting smoking but hasn’t decided whether or not to do so might be described in terms of which stage of readiness for change?
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a. Maintenance b. Contemplation Correct c. Precontemplation d. Preparation for change e. Action
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ST, measurable treatment outcomes are known as… a. Interventions b. Theoretical orientation c. Treatment plans d. Objectives e. Goals
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a. Interventions b. Theoretical orientation c. Treatment plans d. Objectives Correct e. Goals
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Which of the following individuals emphasized that people can learn from observing others? Select one: a. Wolpe b. Thorndike c. Skinner d. Bandura
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d
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Your instructor wants to increase students’ participation in class. She gives a piece of candy to students each time they ask a question or share an insight. Students respond by speaking more in class. This is an example of… Select one: a. Operant conditioning b. Modeling c. Classical conditioning d. Systematic desensitization
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a
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The primary goal of behavior therapy is Select one: a. Increase self-acceptance b. Reduce maladaptive responses c. Increase insight d. Reduce irrational beliefs
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b
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If a client is afraid of cats, and a therapist has them watch cat videos on youtube repeatedly, the therapist is using which behavioral technique? Select one: a. Assertiveness training b. Reinforcement c. Flooding d. Punishment e. Relaxation training
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c
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Which of the following is NOT a technique associated with behavior therapy? Select one: a. Paradoxical Intention b. Relaxation Training c. Selective Abstraction d. Desensitization
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c
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Assumptions individuals hold about other people and the world are called Select one: a. Irrational beliefs b. Maladaptive cognitions c. Automatic thoughts d. Cognitive schemas
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d
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Which of the following is NOT a way in which cognitive therapists assess client problems and cognitions? Select one: a. Questionnaires b. Free association c. Thought sampling d. Self-monitoring
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b
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The greatest amount of research on cognitive therapy is focused on treatment for what disorder? Select one: a. Depression b. Eating Disorders c. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder d. Autism Spectrum Disorder e. Anxiety Disorders
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a
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“Because I struck out twice during the game, I am a terrible baseball player,” is an example of which cognitive distortion? Select one: a. Catastrophizing b. Negative Prediction c. Personalization d. Mind Reading e. Overgeneralization
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e
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Which of the following is NOT a rationale for family therapy? Select one: a. Clients are able to work out real life interpersonal problems in session. b. Family therapy is effective for a range of disorders. c. Family therapy helps clients to uncover unconscious motivations. d. Clients report high satisfaction with family therapy.
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c
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The field of family therapy grew considerably in which decade? Select one: a. 1940’s b. 1950’s c. 1960’s d. 1970’s
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c
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What theory challenged family therapy to understand family systems within larger societal systems of power? Select one: a. Humanistic b. Behavioral c. Feminist d. Multicultural e. Sociological
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c
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Which of the following accurately describes the relationship of marriage and family therapy and group therapy? Select one: a. Many authors have described the use of group work in marriage and family therapy. b. There is strong research support for multifamily group therapy. c. Group therapy that uses family therapy concepts may be particularly useful for female clients. d. Marriage and family therapists generally get trained in how to conduct group therapy
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c
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Which of the following is NOT a way in which family therapy and group therapy are compatible? Select one: a. Both are derived from psychodynamic theories. b. Both provide opportunities to practice new behaviors with other people. c. Both conceptualize systems in stages of development. d. They both deal with interpersonal systemic patterns.
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a
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Which of the following is NOT a technique that was used in the women’s group described by Getz (2002)? Select one: a. Genograms b. Role plays c. Family sculpture d. Dream analysis
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d
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According to Madden (2005), “big questions” in couples therapy can be used for all of the following purposes EXCEPT: Select one: a. Articulating the clients’ views about the source of their problems b. Identifying the clients’ expectations about relationships c. Determining which partner needs to change in order to improve the relationship d. Conveying to the clients that the therapist is aware of the courage it takes to seek therapy
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c
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ccording to Madden (2005), “small questions” in couples are useful in what way? Select one: a. Gathering baseline information about marital functioning b. Increasing clients’ curiosity about and engagement with each other c. Identifying the details of a relationship that are working well d. Establishing the therapist’s role as questioner
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b
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Most helping professionals choose their theoretical orientation based on which of the following? (select all that apply) Select one or more: a. The helper’s training program’s theoretical orientation b. The evidence base for the theory c. The helper’s personality and life philosophy d. The helper’s therapist’s theoretical orientation e. The helper’s experience with clients
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abce
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Which of the following has the greatest influence on therapy outcomes? Select one: a. Client characteristics and presenting concern b. Client expectation that therapy will be helpful c. Techniques associated with a particular theory d. Therapeutic relationship
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d
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Termination is likely to impact clients in all of the following ways EXCEPT Select one: a. Stimulate insight and behavior change b. Increase in symptoms that brought them into therapy c. Understand process of therapy d. Understand experience of personal growth
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b
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Which of the following feelings are clients likely to have in response to termination? (check all that apply) Select one or more: a. Independent b. Resistant c. Accomplished d. Satisfied e. Agitated
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acd
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Clients are considerably more likely than therapists to say they are terminating due to Select one: a. Cost of therapy b. Disapproval of family members c. Lack of interest in therapy d. Successful achievement of goals
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d
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Denial is a type of a. psychodynamic therapy intervention b. transference c. manifest content d. collective unconscious e. defense mechanism
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e
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Psychodynamic therapy focuses primarily on accessing clients’ _____ a. superego b. behaviors c. unconscious d. thoughts
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c
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All of the following theories have their origins in psychodynamic approaches EXCEPT a. object relations b. gestalt c. cognitive behavioral d. self-psychology
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c
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Thoughts and feelings the client has about the therapist are called a. common factors b. id c. transference d. the unconcious
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c
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Someone who has recently stopped smoking cigarettes despite strong cravings for them is likely in which stage of the transtheoretical model of change?
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Action
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According to the transtheoretical model of change, when someone shifts from the action stage to the contemplation stage, they are a. changing b. progressing c. failing d. regressing e. introspecting
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d
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The disadvantages of healthy behavior change outweigh the advantages a. for exercise, but not for smoking cessation b. for people with high self-efficacy c. for Europeans who have quit smoking d. for people in the precontemplation stage
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d