Clinical Manifestations of Cancer

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Pain
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-Little to no pain in early stages -Occurs in 60-80% of those who are terminally ill -Influenced by fear, anxiety, sleep loss, fatigue -Mechanisms include: pressure, obstruction, tissue destruction, and inflammation
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Fatigue
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-Most frequent reported symptom of cancer and treatment -Causes: sleep distrubances, biochemical changes, psychological facts, activity level -Described as: tiredness, weakness, lack of energy, depression, no motivation, etc
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Cachexia
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-Most severe form of malnutrition assoc. w/Cancer -Symptoms include: Anorexia, alteration in taste, Weight loss, altered carb metabolism, satiety
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Anemia
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-Commonly assoc. w/malignancy -Causes: chronic bleeding, malnutrition, and medical therapies (Chemotherapy)
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Leukopenia and Thrombocytopenia
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Direct tomor invasion of bone marrow causes both: -Leukopenia: decreased leukocyte count -Thrombocytopenia: decreased platelet count- major cause of hemorrhage
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Infection
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-Most significant cause of complications a death in those w/malignant disease -Causes: reduced lymphocyte count (via chemo), surgery, and leukopenia(radiation to bone marrow)

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