CLEP American Literature Authors and Info 2

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Puritans
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Those who wanted to purify the Anglican Church of Roman Catholicism.
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Puritan Writings
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Sermons, religious poems, religious tracts, interpretations of God, diaries about religious experience.
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William Bradford
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Signer/Writer of the Mayflower Contract and writer of History of Plymouth Plantation.
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Anne Bradstreet
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The first published American Poet
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Edward Taylor
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The finest puritan poet
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Cotton Mather
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A famous puritan minister and supporter of Salem witch craft trials.
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John Smith
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His writing helped to lay the foundation for American Literature. Without his writing much of the History of early colonial America would be lost.
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Puritan Writers
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Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, Cotten Mather, John Smith, William Bradford
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Revolutionary Writers
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John Adams, Abigail Adams, J. Hecor St. Jean de Crevecoeur, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine
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Puritan Writing Period
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1607-1750
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Revolutionary Writing Period
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1750-1800
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Revolutionary Writings
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Public rather than private writings. Writings included letters, pamphlets, declarations, speeches, and essays.
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Abigail Adams
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Campaigned for women's rights and provided a fascinating look at life in the revolutionary period through her letters.
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J. Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur's
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Wrote Letters From an American Farmer which helped to establish our national identity by coining the term "melting pot" and giving us the notion that there's something special about "Americans".
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Ben Franklin
Ben Franklin
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He became the symbol of success gained by hard work and common sense. His Autobiography and Poor Richard's Almanac portrayed American as ambitious but agreeable.
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Thomas Jefferson
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Considered to be the finest writer of the Revolutionary Era, as the Declaration of Independence demonstrates.
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Thomas Paine
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Wrote the American Crisis, which helped propel us into war, remains a model of effective propaganda. "These are times that try men's souls."
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Parallel Structure
answer
The repeated use of phrases, clauses or sentences that are in similar structure.
question
Loaded Words
answer
Words that carry strong emotional overtones.
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Gothic
answer
The use of medieval, wild, or mysterious elements in literature.
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Washington Irving
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Called "the Father of American Literature" because he proved that memorable fiction could feature both American settings and American "types." Wrote short stories, travel books, and satires. His most famous works are the short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," "Rip Van Winkle," and "The Devil and Tom Walker." Became the first American writer to achieve an international reputation and was the central figure in the American literary scene between 1809 and 1865.
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Rip Van Winkle
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The man who missed his wake-up call created success from failure, becoming an American antihero.
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The Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow
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Has terrified generations of American children.
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The Devil and Tom Walker
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Presents an American twist to the traditional encounter-with-the-devil folktale.
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James Fenimore Cooper
answer
America's first successful novelist. Created the first American adventure story, the first American novel of manners, and the first American novel of the sea. Raised the American frontier experience to epic proportions and helped define the American character as we know it today. His most famous character was Natty Bumppo or Deerslayer/Hawkeye, and Letaherstocking, one of the most popular characters in literature.
question
Edgar Allen Poe
answer
Had a lousy childhood, problems with substance, wrote landmark criticism and memorable poetry. Also created the modern short story, psychotic murder stories and created the detective story. He was reviled in his day but is now quite famous.
question
Transcendentalism
answer
A philosophical movement that began around 1840. It stressed individualism, intuition, nature, and self-reliance.
question
Ralph Waldo Emmerson
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The key intellectual and philosophical voice of the 19th century America. Author of "The American Scholar," and "Self-Reliance," helped establish the philosophy of individualism, an idea that is deeply embedded in our culture. Wrote "Divinity School Address." Originated the unique American voice in poetry.
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Henry David Thoreau
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Resisted Materialism and chose a life of simplicity, close to nature.
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Walden
answer
A guidebook for life, showing the reader how to live wisely in a world designed to make wise living impossible.
question
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
answer
Has become a primer for nonviolent protest, use by Gandhi, King, Mandela, and many others.
question
Herman Melville
answer
Ranked as one of America's top novelists, even though few of his contemporaries recognized his genius. Wrote the first great romances about the South Seas. Wrote some excellent short stories and poetry. He is the poster child for the misunderstood artist.
question
Moby Dick
answer
Considered America's greatest prose epic. It's a top contender for the best novel as well.
question
Uncle Tom's Cabin
answer
The most influential book of the 19th century. The first book to sell a million copies. One of the most effective documents in American Literature and helped fuel the Civil War.
question
Harriet Beecher Stowe
answer
The most famous American woman of her day. Author of Uncle Tom'sCabin which began the civil war.
question
Frederick Douglass
answer
An escaped slave who became one of the most effective orators of his day, an influential newspaper writer, a militant abolitionist, and a famous diplomat. His autobiography was an instant and enduring classic story of courage and appeared in there versions. He is one of the true heroes of America.
question
Walt Whitman
answer
Created new poetic forms and subjects to fashion a distinctly American type of poetic expression. He rejected conventional themes, traditional literary references, allusions, and rhyme. He used long lines to capture the rhythms of natural speech, free verse, and vocabulary drawn from everyday speech.
question
Emily Dickinson
answer
Along with Walt Whitman, she is considered one of the founders of Modern American Poetry. Her concrete imagery, forceful language, and unique style ushered in poetry as we know it today. She wrote 1,775 poems but published only seven of them during her lifetime.
question
Mark Twain
answer
He is widely thought to be the greatest American humorist and one of our greatest novelists. His most famous books include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi, ThePrince and the Pauper, and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. He used vernacular, exaggeration, and a deadpan narrator to create humor.
question
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
answer
A mythic tale of death, rebirth, freedom, and bondage, this novel is one of America's most influential.
question
Vemacular
answer
The ordinary language of people in a particular region.
question
Realism
answer
A literary movement that presented the details of ordinary life in art.
question
Naturalism
answer
A literary movement that traced the effects of heredity and environment on people who helpless to change their situation. Believes that the universe ins unpredictable, spontaneous, and discontinuos,. our fate is determined by our environment, heredity, and chance. Free will is an illusion. Life is a cruel joke.
question
Naturalists
answer
Believed that life is determined by environment, heredity, and chance. As a result, we live by the law of the jungle.
question
Jack London
answer
His most famous novel, The Call of the Wild, shows how a tame dog is forced to revert to his original primitive state. His short story "To Build a Fire" shows how life is marked by "survival of the fittest."
question
Frank Norris
answer
His best novel, Mcteague, helped transform American fiction from tentative realism to in-your-face naturalism.
question
Theodore Dreiser
answer
His novels where lambasted for their awkward style and overwriting, but expressed a brooding insistence on the essential tragedy of life. His An American Tragedy is a scathing portrait of the American success myth gone sour, as well as a universal story about the stresses of urbanization, modernization, and alienation.
question
Regional Writers
answer
Tried to capture the essence of a particular area, or its "local color."
question
Bret Harte
answer
Fashioned our impression of the Old West with such stories as "The Outcasts of Poker Flat." Inspired Joseph Stalin.
question
Mary Willkins Freeman
answer
Carved out her niche with stories that hauntingly explore the lives of isolated, poor, mature New England Women.
question
Sarah Orne Jewwett
answer
Immortalized rural Main. Wrote The White Heron
question
Kate Chopin
answer
Made her mark with stories of the Louisiana bayou,until she blew the lid off the pot with her story of a woman's sexual coming of age in The Awakening.
question
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
answer
Recorded her postpartum nervous breakdown in "The Yellow Wallpaper," exposing women's lot around the turn of the century.
question
Willa Cather
answer
Probed life on the Nebraska prairie , winning a Pulitzer Prize for her achievements.
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question
Puritans
answer
Those who wanted to purify the Anglican Church of Roman Catholicism.
question
Puritan Writings
answer
Sermons, religious poems, religious tracts, interpretations of God, diaries about religious experience.
question
William Bradford
answer
Signer/Writer of the Mayflower Contract and writer of History of Plymouth Plantation.
question
Anne Bradstreet
answer
The first published American Poet
question
Edward Taylor
answer
The finest puritan poet
question
Cotton Mather
answer
A famous puritan minister and supporter of Salem witch craft trials.
question
John Smith
answer
His writing helped to lay the foundation for American Literature. Without his writing much of the History of early colonial America would be lost.
question
Puritan Writers
answer
Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, Cotten Mather, John Smith, William Bradford
question
Revolutionary Writers
answer
John Adams, Abigail Adams, J. Hecor St. Jean de Crevecoeur, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine
question
Puritan Writing Period
answer
1607-1750
question
Revolutionary Writing Period
answer
1750-1800
question
Revolutionary Writings
answer
Public rather than private writings. Writings included letters, pamphlets, declarations, speeches, and essays.
question
Abigail Adams
answer
Campaigned for women's rights and provided a fascinating look at life in the revolutionary period through her letters.
question
J. Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur's
answer
Wrote Letters From an American Farmer which helped to establish our national identity by coining the term "melting pot" and giving us the notion that there's something special about "Americans".
question
Ben Franklin
Ben Franklin
answer
He became the symbol of success gained by hard work and common sense. His Autobiography and Poor Richard's Almanac portrayed American as ambitious but agreeable.
question
Thomas Jefferson
answer
Considered to be the finest writer of the Revolutionary Era, as the Declaration of Independence demonstrates.
question
Thomas Paine
answer
Wrote the American Crisis, which helped propel us into war, remains a model of effective propaganda. "These are times that try men's souls."
question
Parallel Structure
answer
The repeated use of phrases, clauses or sentences that are in similar structure.
question
Loaded Words
answer
Words that carry strong emotional overtones.
question
Gothic
answer
The use of medieval, wild, or mysterious elements in literature.
question
Washington Irving
answer
Called "the Father of American Literature" because he proved that memorable fiction could feature both American settings and American "types." Wrote short stories, travel books, and satires. His most famous works are the short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," "Rip Van Winkle," and "The Devil and Tom Walker." Became the first American writer to achieve an international reputation and was the central figure in the American literary scene between 1809 and 1865.
question
Rip Van Winkle
answer
The man who missed his wake-up call created success from failure, becoming an American antihero.
question
The Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow
answer
Has terrified generations of American children.
question
The Devil and Tom Walker
answer
Presents an American twist to the traditional encounter-with-the-devil folktale.
question
James Fenimore Cooper
answer
America's first successful novelist. Created the first American adventure story, the first American novel of manners, and the first American novel of the sea. Raised the American frontier experience to epic proportions and helped define the American character as we know it today. His most famous character was Natty Bumppo or Deerslayer/Hawkeye, and Letaherstocking, one of the most popular characters in literature.
question
Edgar Allen Poe
answer
Had a lousy childhood, problems with substance, wrote landmark criticism and memorable poetry. Also created the modern short story, psychotic murder stories and created the detective story. He was reviled in his day but is now quite famous.
question
Transcendentalism
answer
A philosophical movement that began around 1840. It stressed individualism, intuition, nature, and self-reliance.
question
Ralph Waldo Emmerson
answer
The key intellectual and philosophical voice of the 19th century America. Author of "The American Scholar," and "Self-Reliance," helped establish the philosophy of individualism, an idea that is deeply embedded in our culture. Wrote "Divinity School Address." Originated the unique American voice in poetry.
question
Henry David Thoreau
answer
Resisted Materialism and chose a life of simplicity, close to nature.
question
Walden
answer
A guidebook for life, showing the reader how to live wisely in a world designed to make wise living impossible.
question
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
answer
Has become a primer for nonviolent protest, use by Gandhi, King, Mandela, and many others.
question
Herman Melville
answer
Ranked as one of America's top novelists, even though few of his contemporaries recognized his genius. Wrote the first great romances about the South Seas. Wrote some excellent short stories and poetry. He is the poster child for the misunderstood artist.
question
Moby Dick
answer
Considered America's greatest prose epic. It's a top contender for the best novel as well.
question
Uncle Tom's Cabin
answer
The most influential book of the 19th century. The first book to sell a million copies. One of the most effective documents in American Literature and helped fuel the Civil War.
question
Harriet Beecher Stowe
answer
The most famous American woman of her day. Author of Uncle Tom'sCabin which began the civil war.
question
Frederick Douglass
answer
An escaped slave who became one of the most effective orators of his day, an influential newspaper writer, a militant abolitionist, and a famous diplomat. His autobiography was an instant and enduring classic story of courage and appeared in there versions. He is one of the true heroes of America.
question
Walt Whitman
answer
Created new poetic forms and subjects to fashion a distinctly American type of poetic expression. He rejected conventional themes, traditional literary references, allusions, and rhyme. He used long lines to capture the rhythms of natural speech, free verse, and vocabulary drawn from everyday speech.
question
Emily Dickinson
answer
Along with Walt Whitman, she is considered one of the founders of Modern American Poetry. Her concrete imagery, forceful language, and unique style ushered in poetry as we know it today. She wrote 1,775 poems but published only seven of them during her lifetime.
question
Mark Twain
answer
He is widely thought to be the greatest American humorist and one of our greatest novelists. His most famous books include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi, ThePrince and the Pauper, and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. He used vernacular, exaggeration, and a deadpan narrator to create humor.
question
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
answer
A mythic tale of death, rebirth, freedom, and bondage, this novel is one of America's most influential.
question
Vemacular
answer
The ordinary language of people in a particular region.
question
Realism
answer
A literary movement that presented the details of ordinary life in art.
question
Naturalism
answer
A literary movement that traced the effects of heredity and environment on people who helpless to change their situation. Believes that the universe ins unpredictable, spontaneous, and discontinuos,. our fate is determined by our environment, heredity, and chance. Free will is an illusion. Life is a cruel joke.
question
Naturalists
answer
Believed that life is determined by environment, heredity, and chance. As a result, we live by the law of the jungle.
question
Jack London
answer
His most famous novel, The Call of the Wild, shows how a tame dog is forced to revert to his original primitive state. His short story "To Build a Fire" shows how life is marked by "survival of the fittest."
question
Frank Norris
answer
His best novel, Mcteague, helped transform American fiction from tentative realism to in-your-face naturalism.
question
Theodore Dreiser
answer
His novels where lambasted for their awkward style and overwriting, but expressed a brooding insistence on the essential tragedy of life. His An American Tragedy is a scathing portrait of the American success myth gone sour, as well as a universal story about the stresses of urbanization, modernization, and alienation.
question
Regional Writers
answer
Tried to capture the essence of a particular area, or its "local color."
question
Bret Harte
answer
Fashioned our impression of the Old West with such stories as "The Outcasts of Poker Flat." Inspired Joseph Stalin.
question
Mary Willkins Freeman
answer
Carved out her niche with stories that hauntingly explore the lives of isolated, poor, mature New England Women.
question
Sarah Orne Jewwett
answer
Immortalized rural Main. Wrote The White Heron
question
Kate Chopin
answer
Made her mark with stories of the Louisiana bayou,until she blew the lid off the pot with her story of a woman's sexual coming of age in The Awakening.
question
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
answer
Recorded her postpartum nervous breakdown in "The Yellow Wallpaper," exposing women's lot around the turn of the century.
question
Willa Cather
answer
Probed life on the Nebraska prairie , winning a Pulitzer Prize for her achievements.