CJ 540 Midterm

Kara interviews five drug users and discovers that four regularly carry weapons. Based on this information, she argues that all drug users carry weapons. This is an example of:
Overgeneralization
Examining the effect of a drug court program on offenders’ drug use in order to make a recommendation as to whether more states should establish drug courts is an example of:
Evaluation Research
All of the following are true except:
a. Quantitative data are usually numerical.
b. Qualitative data usually focuses on words instead of numbers.
*c. A research project could not use both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate a phenomenon.
d. Qualitative methods are used for exploration research.
Exploratory research is generally concerned with:
Uncovering detailed information about a new or understudied phenomenon
Studying the effect that abusing animals as a teenager has on a person’s likelihood of being a perpetrator of domestic violence as an adult is an example of:
Explanatory Research
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey is used to determine trends and patterns in violence-related behavior. It is an example of:
Descriptive Research
An individual is told that an auto manufacturing company has changed its business plan to make quality vehicles, but he refuses to believe this because he has had poor experiences with this company’s vehicles in the past. This is an example of:
Resistance to Change
A researcher uses interviews, surveys, and content analysis to study a research question. This is an example of:
Triangulation
A researcher is interested in examining juvenile drug use because his older brother had a substance abuse problem when he was a teenager. His motivation to pursue this research is:
Personal Motivation
In an effort to reduce violence, a high school principal is interested in adopting a zero tolerance rule at his school whereby students who bring weapons to school will automatically be expelled. He interviews other school administrators with and without zero tolerance rules. This study is driven by:
Policy Motivations
The four major stages in the research circle are
Theory, hypothesis, data, and empirical generalization
A researcher argues that individuals with low self-control are more likely to commit crimes than individuals with high self-control. The independent variable in this proposition can be stated most clearly as:
Level of self-control
According to deterrence theory, punishment for a deviant act reduces the likelihood that a person will repeat the act. A researcher decides that it must therefore be likely that tougher gun control laws would reduce the gun crimes of repeat offenders. This is an example of:
Deductive Reasoning
If there is a negative relationship between income and crime, crime might be reduced by:
Increasing income
A positive relationship implies that:
Decreases in the independent variable result in decreases in the dependent variable.
An observer of street corner groups finds that more acts of vandalism are committed by same-sex groups than by mixed-sex groups. She speculates that the propensity to commit publicly deviant acts is a product of competition for recognition among peers of equal status. This speculation is an example of:
Inductive Reasoning
Paternoster et al.’s (1997) follow-up study to the Sherman and Berk domestic violence experiment examined the theory that people comply with the law out of a sense of moral obligation, if and when they believe the law is applied fairly. If this statement is true, then:
Arrestees who feel they are treated fairly should be less likely to re-offend than those who feel otherwise.
For the hypothesis “if gun control laws are stricter, crime will decrease,” ____________ is the independent variable and _____________ is the dependent variable.
strength of gun control laws, criminal activity level
When evaluating a potential research question, it is important that:
The study is given feasible resources.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the literature review?
The literature review should include the implications of the previous research as they relate to the present study
Researchers must set aside all personal biases and prejudices if research is to be approached:
Objectively
In order to ensure openness and honesty in research, all of the following should be, if not published, at least open to public scrutiny except:
Participants’ Names
One year after completion of Milgram’s obedience study, interviews with the subjects conducted by a psychiatrist found evidence that:
No traumatic reactions to the study were found.
Most universities require researchers to have all research involving human subjects authorized by the:
Institutional Review Board
Which of the following groups is not considered to be a vulnerable population, subject to special protection?
The Elderly
Which of the following groups can give only assent, but not informed consent, to participate in a study?
Children
Of the following violations to general ethical rules, which is the most common and most acceptable, if properly addressed?
Deceiving Subjects
Which of the following is not a current ethical standard?
Subjects should be financially compensated for their time and effort.
The ethics of Zimbardo’s prison study have been debated because researchers:
Permitted several “prisoners” to experience severe psychological negative reactions before ending the experiment
Which of the following is not an aspect of the requirement that subjects give informed consent to participate in research?
Subjects must be fully debriefed after the study
Target Population
ENTIRE group you want to generalize your research to
Population
members of Target Population from which sample is actually selected
Sampling Frame
list of members of Study Population from which sample is selected. List of Sampling Units
Sampling Unit
Any single unit sampled from the Population
Probability Sampling
Method that allows us to know in advance how likely it is that any element of a population will be selected for the sample
Simple Random Sampling
True random sample is obtained through the Equal Probability of Selection Method (EPSEM)
Systematic Random Sampling
Select first element randomly (from the list), and then select every Nth element. Periodicity is when the sequence becomes patterned
Stratified Random Sampling
To ensure that various groups will be included in the sample. Useful when researchers need to make sure that small groups are included. Proportionate and Disproportionate!
Cluster Sampling
naturally occurring, mixed group of elements of the population; each element appears in one and only one cluster at one time. AKA MULTI STAGE
Availability Sampling (Nonprobability Sampling)
Elements are selected because they are easy to find; SURVEYING STUDENTS IN A CLASSROOM
Quota Sampling
quotas are set to ensure that the sample represents certain characteristics in proportion to their prevalence in the population; 50% MEN 50% FEMALE
Purposive Sampling
Each sample element is selected for a purpose, usually because of the unique position of the sample elements; DIRECTORS OF SHELTERS FOR HOMELESS ADULTS
Snowball Sampling
Useful for hard-to-reach or hard-to-identify populations for which there is no sampling frame, but the members of which are somewhat interconnected; DRUG DEALERS-INFORMANTS USUALLY USED.
To develop a measure of self-control that has high content validity, a researcher should use:
Questions that encompass the full meaning of self-control
Research often shows that self-reports underestimate the true levels of drug use. To measure the interitem reliability of self-reported drug use, a researcher should examine the extent to which:
Different questions about drug use provide similar answers
If a probation officer checks self-reports of drug use with urine tests, she is using
Criterion validation
High school seniors in a small town are asked a series of questions to measure the frequency of their drinking and driving. The students give consistent answers to the series of questions, but police records indicate that drinking and driving is much more common than indicated by the students’ responses. This suggests that the measure of frequency of drinking and driving is:
Reliable but not valid
Jackson wrote a proposal to study the impact of birth order on aggressiveness. One of his first steps was to review definitions of aggressiveness in other research studies. This illustrates the first step in the process of:
Conceptualization
Before their release, prison inmates are asked to fill out a risk assessment questionnaire that assesses the likelihood that an inmate will re-offend. A researcher later corroborates the risk assessments with official arrest statistics. This is an example of:
Criterion Validation
Alternate forms reliability is different than test-retest reliability because:
Different versions of survey questions are used.
The extent to which measures indicate what they are intended to measure is one aspect of:
Validity
Operationalization is the process of:
Specifying the method that will be used to indicate the value of a variable
A researcher conducts a study and then conducts the study a second time and achieves very similar results. This study has:
Test-Retest Reliability