Civics Ch. 5 (test 6) Essay

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political party
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a group of people who seek to control the government through the winning of elections and holding of public office
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shared beliefs
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members should belief in the same general political philosophy
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program
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members should have a plan for turning their belief into law after winning office
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chance of success
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the party should have a realistic chance of winning an election or gaining support of their programs
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republicans and democrats
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two main political parties
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third parties
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“pressure groups”
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1st amendment
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political parties are protected by this
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faction
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a small dissented group within a larger group
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despotism
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the exercise of absolute power
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organize a political majority
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each party attempts to focus on views that a majority of Americans can support at a particular time
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provide electable candidates
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main job of political parties is to nominate candidates capable of winning office
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educate voters
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parties work to inform voters about issues facing the country
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party platform
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the party’s official position on all issues
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finance election campaigns
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parties help candidates raise money by putting them in touch with wealthy party members from across the country
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run the government
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the party that wins appoints officials into the government; parties that hold the presidency are responsible for the state of the country
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partisanship
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the strong support of a party and its policy standards
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watchdog role
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parties watch over the conduct of pubic business and make sure business is being conducted properly; particularly the job for the party out of power
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multiparty system
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a system where there are multiple major parties and several minor parties competing for office; weak because one party rarely wins a majority of seats
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more choices broader representation of electorate
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strengths of multiparty system
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electorate
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all of the potential voters within a country
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coalition
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temporary alliance of political parties to form a working majority in government; not a long term solution
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two
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the election laws in the US encourage how many parties
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single-member districts
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only one winner in a district
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incumbent
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current office holder
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plurality
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the most votes received
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size of the nation
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this makes it difficult for new parties to have success at the national level
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one-party system
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system in which only the party in power is allowed to run for future office
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ideology
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political views
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bigger and more diverse election-oriented candidate-based elections
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three results of a two-system party on American politics
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federalists anti-federalists
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first two unofficial political parties
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federalists democratic-republican
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first two official parties
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Alexander Hamilton
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founded the federalist party
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national government
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the federalist party wants a stronger _____ ________
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federalist
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rich and wealthy Americans made up this party
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Thomas Jefferson
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founded the democratic-republican party
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central government
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the democratic-republican party wanted a weak ___ _____
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democratic-republican
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party of the common man
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13
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the democratic-republican party won ____ of 15 elections between 1800-1856
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federalist party
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no longer existed by 1816
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Era of Good Feelings
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time period in which there was no major opposition to the democratic-republican party
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Andrew Jackson
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changed the name of the democratic-republican party to democratic party in 1828
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wig party
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main opposition of the democrats from 1828-1856
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Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
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leaders of the Wig Party
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spoils system
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giving government jobs to friends, family, and political benefactors
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Abraham Lincoln
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leader of the republican party
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south
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the only area of the country that was consistently democratic
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FDR
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leader of the democratic party due to his presidency
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7
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the democratic party won __ of 9 elections form 1932-1964
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New Deal Society
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the expansion of federal government programs to help those in need in society
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7
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how many elections have republicans won since 1968
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5
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how many elections have democrats won since 1968
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congress
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usually in the hands of the opposing party
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democratic party
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larger, more active federal government; higher taxes, larger social safety net, less militaristic foreign policy, pro-choice, pro-gun control, against free trade agreements, environmental protection
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donkey
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symbol of the democratic party
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doves
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what is the democratic party know as (bc of military views)
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republican party
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smaller federal government, fewer taxes, smaller social safety net, more militaristic foreign policy, pro-life, anti-gun control, free trade agreements, business over environment
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elephant
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symbol of the republicans
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GOP
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another name for the republican party
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hawks
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what is the republican party also known as (bc of military views)
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democratic party
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known as the party of the “little guy”
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republican party
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fashioned itself as one of “equal opportunity”
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third parties
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a minor party in American politics
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spoiler
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a party takes enough votes to cost the election for one of the main parties
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single-issue party
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party concerned about only one issue
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ideological party
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party that is based on a political ideology that is more extreme than the two main parties
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independent candidates
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based around a particular person rather than a particular party
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politcal labels
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these are never totally precise because issues change over time
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left-wing
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liberal group; want government take over for the means of production
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right-wing
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conservative; wants the government gone
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French Revolution
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where do the terms right and left wing come from
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radicals
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believe that it takes drastic measures to fix things and the fixing needs to happen immediately
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liberals
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believe in active government to provide help for individuals; typically democrat
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moderate
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this group accepts the government; view it as necessary
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conservatives
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want a small government; ultimate goal is to give individuals personal freedom; typically republican
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split ticket
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type of voting that supports candidates from both parties; voting in one election but choosing two different parties
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crossover
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voting for someone opposite of your party

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