CIS 3380 exam 3

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Analog signals
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are continuous waves that transmit info by altering the characteristics of the waves. -they have two parameters: amplitude and frequency.
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Digital signals
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are discrete pulses that are either on or off, representing a series of bits (0s and 1s) -can be interpreted by computers
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Modem
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is to convert digital signals to analog signals- a process called modulation – and analog signals to digital signals – a process called demodulation.
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Twisted pair wire
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is the most prevalent form of communications wiring; it is used for almost all business telephone wiring. -Advantages: inexpensive, widely available, easy to work with. -Disadvantages: Slow, subject to interference, easily tapped
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Coaxial Cable
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consists of insulated copper wire. It is commonly used used to carry high speed data traffic as well as television signals. -Advantages: higher bandwidth than twisted-pair, less susceptible to electromagnetic interference. -Disadvantages: expensive and inflexible, easily tapped, somewhat difficult to work with
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Fiber optics cable
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consists of thousands of very thin filaments of glass fibers that transmit info via light pulses generated by lasers. Used as a backbone for a network. -Advantages: very high bandwidth, relatively inexpensive, difficult to tap -Disadvantages: Difficult to work with
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Protocol
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The set of rules and procedure governing transmission across a network
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Packet switching
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The transmission technology that divides blocks of text into packets.
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Intranet
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A private network that uses internet software and TCP/IP protocols. -intranets support discovery, communication, and collaboration inside an organization.
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Extranet
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A network that connects parts of the intranets of different organizations. – it enables business partners to communicate securely over the internet using virtual private networks.
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Domain name system (DNS)
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The system administered by the internet corporation for assigned names that assigns names to each site on the internet.
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Domain names
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The name assigned to an internet site, consisting of multiple parts, separated by dots, which are translated from right to left.
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Top level domain (TLD)
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the right most part or zone of an internet name. -is the domain at the highest level in the hierarchical domain name system of the internet.
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Discovery
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The internet enables users to access or discover info located in databases all over the world. By browsing and searching data sources on the web, users can apply the internets discovery capability to areas ranging form education to government services to entertainment to commerce.
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Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)
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(Internet telephony) phone calls are treated as just another kind of data. It is the use of the internet a the transmission medium for telephone calls. -your analog voice signals are digitized, sectioned into packets, and then sent over the internet.
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E-business
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(electronic business) in addition to buying and selling goods and services, e-business refers to servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and performing electronic transactions within an organization.
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E-commerce
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The process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or info via computer networks, including the internet.
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(B2C) Business to consumer
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electronic commerce, the sellers are organizations and the buyers are the individuals.
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(B2B) Business to business
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electronic commerce, the sellers and the buyers are the businesses.
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(C2C) Consumer to consumer
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electronic commerce, an individual sells products or services to other individuals.
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(B2E) Business to employee
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electronic commerce, an organizations uses EC internally to provide info and services to its employees.
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(G2C) E-government
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is the use of internet technology in general and e-commerce in particular to deliver information and public services to citizens and business partners and suppliers of government entities, and those working in the public sector.
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Forward auctions
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Auctions that sellers use as a selling channel to many potential buyers; the highest bidder wins the items.
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Reverse auctions
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Auctions in which one buyer, usually an organization, seeks to buy a product or a service, and suppliers submit bids; the lowest bidder wins.
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Disintermediation
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Elimination of intermediaries in electronic commerce.
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Viral marketing
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Online word of mouth marketing
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Group purchasing
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the aggregation of purchasing orders from many buyers so that a volume discount can be obtained.
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(B2B) Buy side marketplace
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model in which organizations buy needed products or services form other organizations electronically, often through a reverse auction.
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Sell side marketplace
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(B2B) model in which organizations sell to other organizations from their own private e-marketplace and or from a third party site.
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Electronic Cards
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There are a variety of electronic cards, and they are used for different purposes
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Electronic credit cards
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allow customers to charge online payments to their credit card account. These cards are used primarily in B2C and in shopping by small to medium enterprises
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Smart Cards
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contain a chip that can store a considerable amount of information more than 100 times the amount contained on a stored value money card. They are multipurpose you can use them as credit, debit, loyalty and more.
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Stored value money cards
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allow you to store a fixed amount of prepaid money and then spend it as necessary. These cards are used to pay for photocopies in your library, for transportation, and for telephone calls.
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Virtual credit cards
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allows customers to shop online. can be used only once
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Purchasing cards
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are the B2B equivalent of electronic credit cards. payments are settled within a week.
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Online advertising
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Direct response marketing, or telemarketing, contacts individuals by direct mail or telephone and requires them to respond in order to make a purchase. The direct response approach personalizes advertising and marketing. but however it can be expensive, slow, and ineffective. -they can be updated any time at minimal cost and kept current -internet ads can be interactive and targeted to specific interest groups/individuals
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Advertising methods
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-banners -pop up ad -permission marketing -viral marketing
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Banner
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Electronic billboards, which typically contain a short text or graphical message to promote a product or a vendor.
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pop up ad
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An ad that is automatically launched by some trigger and appears in front of the active window
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pop under ad
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an ad that is automatically launched by some trigger and appears underneath the active window
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permission marketing
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Method of marketing that asks consumers to give their permission to voluntarily accept online advertising and email
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Viral marketing
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online word of mouth marketing
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Infrared
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A type of wireless transmission that uses red light not commonly visible to human eyes -common applications of infrared light are found in remote control units for tv, VCRS, DVD, and CD players -used for short distance connections between computers and peripheral equipment and local area networks
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Geostationary earth orbit (GEO)
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orbit 22,300 miles directly above the equator. -satellites stationary relative to point on earth -few satellites needed for global coverage -transmission delay -most expensive to build and launch -longest orbital life LIMITATION: their transmission take a quarter of a second to send and return
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Radio transmission
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uses radio wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers. Advantages: travel easily through normal office walls, easy and inexpensive, can transmit data at high speeds Disadvantages: can create electrical interference problems, snooping, signal can break up.
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Short range wireless networks
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simplify the task of connecting one device to another -eliminate wires
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Bluetooth
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is an industry specification used to create small personal area networks. Chip technology that enables short range connection between wireless devices
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Ultra wide band (UWB)
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A high bandwidth wireless technology with transmission speeds in excess of 100 mbps that can be used for applications such as streaming multimedia from, say, a personal computer to a tv
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Near field communications (NFC)
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The smallest of the short range wireless networks that is designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards
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Hotspot
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A small geographical perimeter within which a wireless access point provides service to a number of users.
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mobile computing
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a realtime connection between a mobile device and other computing environments such as the internet –
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Wireless broadband (WiMax)
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Worldwide interoperability for microwave access. has a wireless access range of up to 31 miles and a data transfer rate up to 70 mpbs. Secure system, offers features such as voice and video. Can provide long distance broad band wireless access to rural areas and other locations that are not currently being served.
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Mobile commerce
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refers to electronic commerce transactions that are conducted in a wireless environment, especially the internet
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Telemetry
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is the wireless transmission and receipt of data gathered from remote sensors. Has multiple mobile computing applications. -doctors can monitor patients and control medical equipment from a distance. -find my iphone.
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Radio frequency identification (RFID)
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technology allows manufacturers to attach tags with antennas and computer chips on goods and then track their movement through radio signals. Replaced barcodes
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documentation
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written description of the functions of a software program
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Computer programs
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the sequences of instructions for the computer, which comprise software.
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System software
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is a set of instructions that serves primarily as an intermediary between computer hardware and application programs. loads itself when computer is turned on.
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Open systems
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refers to a group of computing products that work together. in an open system the same operating system with compatible software is installed on all computers that interact within an organization.
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Open source software
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software made available in source code form at no cost to developers.
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Operating systems
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The main system control program which supervises the overall operations of the computer, allocates CPU time and main memory to programs, and provides an interface between the user and the hardware.
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Graphical user interface (GUI)
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System software that allows users to have direct control of the hardware by manipulating visible objects such as icons and actions, which replace command syntax
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Application software
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The class of computer instructions that directs a computer system to perform specific processing activities and provide functionality for users.
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Server virtualization
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a technology that uses software-based partitions to create multiple virtual servers on a single physical server.
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Grid computing
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A technology that applies the unused processing resources of many geographically dispersed computers in a network to form a virtual supercomputer.
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Cloud computing
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A technology in which tasks are performed by computers physically removed from the user and accessed over a network, in particular the internet.
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Benefits of cloud computing
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Making individuals more productive, facilitating collaboration, mining insights from data, developing and hosting applications, cost flexible, business scalability, improve utilization of hardware, market adaptability, and product and service customization
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Risks of cloud computing
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legacy spaghetti, cost, reliability, privacy, security, and the regulatory and legal environment.
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Infrastructure as a service model
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cloud computing providers offer remotely accessible servers, networks, and storage capacity
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Platform as a service model
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customers rent servers, operating systems, storage, a database, software development technologies such as java and .net, and network capacity over the internet.
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Software as a service
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cloud computing vendors provide software that is specific to their customers requirements

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