Church History Final Exam Study Guide

beggar; a member of a religious order (as the Franciscans) combining monastic life and outside religious activity and originally owning neither personal nor community property : friar.

A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.

“And from the Son”; a Latin word added to the creeds in the Westerns Church to state that the Holy Spirit arises from both Father and Son. The notion, which was not accepted by Orthodox Christianity, contributed to the separation between the Western and Eastern Churches.

Lay Investiture
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.

Buying and selling of church offices

undue favoritism to or excessive patronage of one’s relatives

City in east-central France which gave birth to monastic reform in 910. The first abbey began with twelve monks committed to renewing the rule of St. Benedict.

Fourth Lateran Council
1215, called by Pope Innocent III, was a summons to spiritual reform; among things established: secrecy of the confessional, Real Presence, fixing the number of the sacraments at seven, enforcement of clerical celibacy

Eastern Schism
the break between the Eastern and Western Church (finalized in 1054), mainly over questions of Papal and Church authority

1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade; a series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.

AKA Cathars or “pure ones”; Pope Innocent III launched a “Crusade” against them and their heretic Christian movement;a religious movement that preached a dualistic religion of good and evil forces. They rejected the God of the Old Testament and also rejected the divinity of Christ. They preached a radical simplicity that struck a chord with followers who were growing concerned about the worldliness of the Church

Ascetic Christians that regarded the church as corrupt. Advocated simple lives. Allowed the laity to administer sacraments. Did not hesitate to criticize the Church. Condemned as heretical.

Ninety-Five Theses
Luther’s 95 criticisms of the church, mostly about indulgences

Augsburg Confession
Codification in 1530 of Luther’s doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith alone, end to monasticism and celibacy, consubstantiation. Luther’s friend, Philip Melancthon, worked on this codification with him.

Institutes of the Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.

Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 14): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.

Defender of Faith
Title given by the pope to England’s Henry VIII prior to England’s break from the Catholic church.

Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

Western Schism
Period from 1378-1417 when there were rival claimants to the title of Pope in Rome and Avignon. Parties within the Church were divided in their allegiances among who was the rightful pope.

Avignon Papacy
the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome

A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn’t involved in people’s lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience

18th century movement led by French intellectuals who advocated reason as the universal source of knowledge and truth

A sect of Catholicism originating with Cornelius Jansen that emphasized the heavy weight of original sin and accepted the doctrine of predestination; it was outlawed as heresy by the pope.

a form of religious mysticism requiring withdrawal from all human effort and passive contemplation of God

the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience

A sharing in the decision-making process and authoritative positions taken by the leadership of Church. The bishops and pope, working together under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, chart the course for the future journey of the pilgrim people of God.

the doctrine of the ecumenical movement that promotes cooperation and better understanding among different religious denominations: aimed at universal Christian unity

A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement; also a movement in the church in which it adapts to modern ways while still keeping its teachings intact.

Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Bernard of Clairvaux
Abbot of the monastery of Clairvaux in France who distinguished himself as a mystic and theologian, emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.

Dominic de Guzman
founded the Dominicans, wanted to defend church teachings from heresy and wanted to show that anyone could preach.

Francis of Assisi
1181-1226 Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick

Leo the Great
Prevented Attila the Hun’s sacking of Rome and asserted Papal Supremacy.

Thomas Aquinas
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology

Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.

Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.

Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Native peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor

Matteo Ricci
(1552-1610) Jesuit that wanted to bring Christianity to China, was popular in the Ming court and studied Chinese traditions/language/religion

St. Francis Xavier
Portuguese Jesuit who, by 1550, baptized thousands of souls in India, Indonesia and Japan – in areas of Portuguese influence. Followed da Gama & Albuquerque. Also helped St. Ignatius establish the Society of Jesus

St. Peter Claver
Spanish Jesuit who helped African American slaves in Columbia; accused of sacrilege because he gave them Holy Communion and they were considered sub-human

St. Bernadette Soubirous
Mary appeared to her in Lourdes, France and told her to build a church on a hidden stream and that she was the Immaculate Conception (this happened only a little while before the Pope declared the doctrine)

Pope Leo XIII
Traditonal but strongly pastoral pope that addresses social issues brought on by the Industrial Revolution

Pope Pius X
Supported a traditional Catholic Church; against all modern interpretations of the Church; published Code of Cannon Law

Pope Benedict XV
Current Pope Emeritus, previously Cardinal Ratzinger

Pope Pius XI
First sovereign of Vatican city after it became its own official state

Pope Pius XII
Pope during the second world war; accused of being silent and not helping, but actually did many things (like faking baptismal certificates and hiding people in monasteries) to help those being persecuted.

Pope John XXII
He called bishops together in 1962 for Vatican Council II to make several changes to the way the Church celebrates the liturgy.

Pope Paul VI
Concluded Vatican II and advocated for human rights and was against things like abortion and birthcontrol

Pope John Paul I
had one of the shortest reigns in papal history (33 days), did not want to be pope

Pope John Paul II
(1978-2005)A Polish pope in Germany who called for human rights in an effort to end communism and succeeded. He also urged his people to tear down the Berlin Wall. He was much loved,the first non German pope in hundreds of years, and holds the second longest reign.

Also Know
Social Encyclicals, Developments of Vatican II, The Council of Trent, the difference between “Revolt” and “Reform,” Old and New Evangelization, and a little extra about JPII, Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis

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