chpt 6 and 7

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amae
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Japanese for a nurturing concern for and dependence on another
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collectivism
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a dimension of culture; refers to interdependence, groupness, and social cohesion
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Confucian work dynamism
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a dimension of culture; persistence, commitment, and organizational identity and loyalty; relabeled by Hofstede as long-term versus short-term orientation Countries high in Confucian work dynamism are Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, popularly referred to as the Five Economic Dragons.
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feminity
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a dimension of culture; both women and men being concerned with quality of life, interpersonal relationships, and concern for the weak
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gaijin
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Japanese for foreigner or \”outside person\”
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individualism
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a dimension of culture; refers to the rights and independent action of the individual
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long-term orientation
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fostering of virtues, particularly perseverance and thrift, oriented toward future rewards
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masculinity
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a dimension of culture; refers to distinct traits of being assertive, tough, and focused on material success
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mitigated speech
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deferential or indirect speech between individuals of perceived high power difference
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power distance
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a dimension of culture; the extent to which the less powerful members of a culture expect and accept that power, prestige, and wealth are distributed unequally
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shinto
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the former state religion of Japan linking the people to ancestors and gods
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short-term orientation
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a dimension of culture; the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular respect for tradition, preservation of face, and fulfilling social obligations
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uncertainty avoidance
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a dimension of culture; the extent to which people are made nervous by unstructured or unpredictable situations
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activity orientation
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use of time for self-expression and play, self-improvement and department, and work
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change
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substitution of the new for existing
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conformity
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compliance or acquiescence
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emic
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knowledge learned from the inside; that is, the norms of culture known by its members (seldom consciously discussed)
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equality
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being alike or the same in some rank, ability, quantity, and so forth
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hyperindividualism
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excesses of individualism, disregard for others, and withdrawing into individual private shells
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materialism
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emphasis on material objects, needs, and considerations over spiritual values
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mutability
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a state of changeability or variability
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need for achievement
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the desire to excel because of the feeling of accomplishment it brings
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rationality
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mental powers to form conclusions and sound judgements; intelligent and dispassionate thought
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scientific method
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identifying a problem, gathering data, and formulating and testing a hypothesis
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worldview
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philosophical ideas of being; a culture’s beliefs about its place in the cosmos and the nature of humanity
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Hofstede’s dimensions of culture
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Individualism-collectivism masculinity-femininity power distance uncertainty avoidance long-term orientation-short-term orientation indulgence-restraint IPULMI
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The Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner dimensions
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1. Universalism versus particularism 2. Individualism versus communitarianism 3. Specific versus diffuse 4. Neutral versus emotional 5. Achievement versus ascription 6. Sequential time versus synchronous time 7. Internal direction versus outer direction I U SANS I
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Internal direction versus outer direction
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belief in controlling the environment versus belief in the influence of the environment
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Sequential time versus synchronous time
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planning and staying on schedule versus flexible schedules
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Achievement versus ascription
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You are what you do versus you are how others view you.
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Neutral versus emotional
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control versus expression of emotions
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specific versus diffuse
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separation versus integration of personal and professional lives
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Individualism versus communitarianism
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the individual versus the group
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Universalism versus particularism
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rules and laws versus circumstances and relationships
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Environmental sustainability
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(not Hofstede) 1. The World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) defined sustainability as \”development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.\” 2. The World Economic Forum (2011) framed sustainability in terms of the quality of environmental systems, stresses on those systems, the vulnerability of human populations to environmental degradation, the social and institutional capacity to respond to stresses, and global stewardship. 3. Yale University’s Center for Environmental Law and Policy publishes the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) Finland, Norway, Uruguay, Sweden, and Iceland rank highest the U.S ranks 45th. 4. Individualist, feminine, egalitarian values appear to constitute \”green\” or \”sustainable\” values.
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Indulgent cultures
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a higher percentage of very happy people, a higher importance placed on leisure, more extroverted personalities, lower death rate from cardiovascular diseases.
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restrained cultures
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a lower percentage of very happy people, a perception of helplessness, more neurotic personalities, higher death rates from cardiovascular diseases.
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Indulgent-Restraint
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Indulgence scores are highest in Latin America, parts of Africa, the Anglo world and Nordic Europe restraint is mostly found in East Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Muslim world.
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Cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance
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are active, aggressive, emotional, compulsive, security seeking, intolerant
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Cultures with low uncertainty avoidance
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are contemplative, less aggressive, unemotional, relaxed, accepting of personal risks, and relatively tolerant
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uncertainty avoidance and religion
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Orthodox, Roman Catholic Christian – high Judaic, Muslim – medium Protestant Christian, Eastern religion – low.
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uncertainty avoidance and history
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History of Roman codified laws – high Confucian tradition – lower
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high power distance cultures
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children are expected to be obedient toward parents; people are expected to display respect for those of higher status; power and influence are concentrated in the hands of a few rather than distributed throughout the population ex. the United States is becoming higher in power distance
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two indicators of power distance
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income and wealth distributions
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power distance and Geographic latitude
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Higher latitudes are associated with lower power distance.
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power distance and Population
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Large populations are associated with high power distance.
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power distance and Wealth
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National wealth is associated with low power distance.
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power distance and history
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Countries with a Romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French) and Confucian cultural inheritance countries score medium to high countries with a Germanic language (German, English, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) score low.
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masculine culture
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masculine cultures those that strive for maximal distinction between what women and men are expected to do cultures that place high values on masculine traits stress assertiveness, competition, and material success
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feminine culture
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permit more overlapping social roles for the sexes cultures that place high value on feminine traits stress quality of life, interpersonal relationships, and concern for the weak (nurturing)
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masculinity-femininity (geography and birthrates)
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Geography: Feminine cultures are somewhat more likely in colder climates Birth rates: In feminine cultures, the woman has a stronger say in the number of children; in masculine cultures, the man determines family size
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Individualism-collectivism and wealth
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There is a strong relationship between a nation’s wealth and individualism.
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collectivism and birth rates
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Countries with higher birth rates
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Individualism-collectivism and history
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Confucian countries are collectivist; regions heavily populated by European migrants (North America, Australia, and New Zealand) are individualist.
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Individualism-collectivism and Geography
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Countries with moderate and cold climates tend to show more individualism.
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individualist culture
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the interest of the individual prevails over the interests of the group; ties between individuals are loose; people look after themselves and their immediate families; what a person does defines that person; direct communication style. (Example: USA)
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collectivist culture
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the interest of the group prevails over the interest of the individual; people are integrated into strong, cohesive in- groups that continue throughout a lifetime to protect in exchange for unquestioning loyalty; who a person is connected with defines that person; indirect communication style. (Example: Asian countries)
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etic
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knowledge of the culture learned from the outside, often leaving some aspects puzzling
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Value-orientation theory
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human being-nature orientation or worldview activity orientation time orientation human nature orientation relational orientation HATHR
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human being – nature orientation or worldview
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Huntington (1993, 1996): eight major cultural zones, including Western Christianity, the Orthodox world, the Islamic world, and the Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, African, and Latin American zones The European conservative Protestant worldview dominates U.S. culture; among the world’s industrialized nations, the United States is the most religious.
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Three parts of worldview
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Individual-and-nature relationship: in the United States, people typically make a clear and separate distinction between human life and nature, valuing nature but clearly placing a higher value on human life. Science and technology: in the U.S., people have a strong faith in the scientific method of solving problems; it’s a common belief that events have causes, causes can be discovered, and humans can and should alter the relationship. Materialism: if there is one value that most of the rest of the world attributes to the United States, it is materialism, or the belief that possessions are important in life.
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activity orientation
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Work: People in the United States have a special feeling about jobs, defining self and others by occupation; work becomes part of one’s identity. Efficiency and practicality: People in the United States are perceived as placing such a high value on time that \”efficiency experts,\” whose emphasis is on getting things done on time, cause lives to be organized so that the most can be accomplished (United States is less likely to make short-term sacrifices for long-term gain because progress is judged so much by monthly and quarterly goals) Progress and change: People in the United States generally believe that change is good, the new is better than the old. The willingness to accept change also explains why the U.S. has one of the highest moving rates in the world. The belief that progress and change are good is associated with technological developments and advancement.
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time orientation
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In the United States, time is viewed as a commodity (\”time is money,\” \”how much time do you have?\” \”don’t waste time,\” \”budget your time\”). When time is viewed in a linear fashion, it obviously has a past, a present, and a future; most will admit to being motivated by the future in how to act in the present.
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human nature orientation
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What does it mean to be human? What is human nature? What are human rights and responsibilities? Goodness: It has been argued that the Puritan ancestry of the United States suggests that people are born evil but have the potential to be good, and that to achieve good, one must discipline the self; others argue that the contemporary belief in the U.S. is that people are born with a potential for both good and evil. Rationality: If you believe that humans have the potential for both good and evil, you also believe that humans have free will and therefore responsibility for their actions; consistent with the belief in the scientific method, the fundamental reason for the rise of the West was an extraordinary faith in reason (science, democracy, capitalism). Mutability: the belief that human nature can be changed by society
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relational orientation
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perceptions of the self and the ways society is organized; persons of diverse cultures tend to have differing perceptions of the self. ex. U.S. culture people tend to define the self in terms of one’s role and responsibilities in the society rather than relationships Individualism, Self-motivation, Social organization: equality is an important cultural myth in the United States, although beliefs may appear contradictory to actions; people in the United States tend to emphasize conformity to modern or future-oriented norms.

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