chp 8 psych

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Research on young children’s false eyewitness recollections has indicated that
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it is surprisingly difficult for both children and professional interviewers to reliably separate the children’s true memories from false memories.
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In the study led by Elizabeth Loftus, two groups of observers were asked how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word “smashed” in relation to the accident later recalled
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broken glass at the scene of the accident.
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Words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land. This best illustrates
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context-dependent memory.
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Jamille is taking French in school. She gets her best grades on vocabulary tests if she studies for 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
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the spacing effect
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Elevated levels of stress hormones most clearly contribute to developing
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flashbulb memories
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Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates
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motivated forgiving
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As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre’s false recollection best illustrates
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source of amnesia
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Which neural center in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage?
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hippocampus
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The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions among
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sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
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Hermann Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
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rapid and subsequently slows down.
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To help resolve the controversy over reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, the major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that
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adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable.
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For a moment after hearing his dog’s high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog’s yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.
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echoic
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Encoding a written word semantically rather than on the basis of the word’s written appearance illustrates a distinction between
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deep and shallow processing.
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Procedural memories for well-learned skills such as how to ride a bicycle are typically ________ memories.
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implicit
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The process of encoding refers to
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getting information into memory
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Memory to recall, recognition, and relearning
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fill in the blank, multiple choice, how much less work it takes to learn info you’ve study before
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memory
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of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of info and skills
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encoding, storage, and retrieval
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info that gets in our brains, holds the info that can be retrieved, reacting and recalling the info
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sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
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stimuli are recorded by our senses and held, encoding through rehearsal, retrieved later
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working memory
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short term memory
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Explicit memory and effortful processing
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facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall, studying and rehearsing, thinking about then storing info in long term
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automatic processing and implicit memory
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without our awareness that we are building a memory, and the ones we are not full aware of and thus don’t talk about
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echoic memory and George Sperling with iconic memory
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auditory sensory memory, did the experiment where he showed a group of letters for visual sensory memory
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capacity of short term memory and working memory
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7 +/-2 info bits (5-9 letters) and a myth that we can handle 2 streams of similar info simultaneously
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spacing effect and testing effect
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use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter session and having to answer questions about the material
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shallow processing and deep processing
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memorizing the appearance or sound of words and remembering better
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memory storage- implicit and explicit memory
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retaining info in the brain- cerebellum(forms and conditioned responses) and front lobes and hippocampus(how we hold stories)
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Flashbulbs memories
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refer to emotionally intense event that become burned in as a vivid seeming memory (not as accurate)
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Hermann Ebbinghaus retention curve
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discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned info is initially rapid and subsequently slows down
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Priming
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triggers a thread of associations that brings us to a concept
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Context-dependent memory, state-dependent, and mood- congruent
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we retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory, we were in when we formed the memory, refers to the tendency to selectively recall details that are consistent with ones current mood
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serial position effect
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the tendency to move likely recall the first terms (primary effect) and last items (recent effect)
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storage decay
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material encoded into long term memory will decay if the memory is never used recalled and re stored
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retrieval failure to include retroactive and proactive interference
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occurs when new stimuli/ learning interferes with the storage and retrieval of previously formed memories, occurs when past info interferes with learning new info
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motivated forgetting to included repression
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choosing to forget (compulsive gamblers) to hiding the memories
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misinformation effect with car accident by Elizabeth Loftus
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incorporating misleading info into ones memory event. she used the words hit and smash to change ones image of the accident
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Source Amnesia
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thinking you remember but the memory is something someone told you (the hot air balloon picture)

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