Chp 1: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Negative Feedback
a self-corrective mechanism that underlies most homeostasis, in which a bodily change is detected and responses are activated that reverse the change

Vasoconstriction
the narrowing of a blood vessel due to muscular constriction of its tunica media

Theory
An explanatory statement, or set of statements, that concisely summarizes the state of knowledge on a phenomenon and provides direction for further study

Hypothesis
An informed conjecture about a phenomenon that is capable of being tested and potentially falsified by experimentation or data collection

Differentiation
Development of a relatively unspecialized cell into one with a more specific structure and function.

Vasodilation
The widening of a blood vessel due to relaxation of the muscle of its tunica media and the outward pressure of the blood exerted against the wall.

Cell
The

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smallest subdivision of a tissue considered to be alive; consists of a plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm and, in most cases, a nucleus.

Dynamic Equilibrium
A state of continual change that is controlled within narrow limits, as in homeostasis and chemical equilibrium.

Adaptation
An evolutionary process leading to the establishment of species characteristics that favor survival and reproduction

Stimulus
A chemical or physical agent in a cell’s surroundings that is capable of creating a physiological response in the cell; especially agents detected by sensory sells, such as chemicals, light, and pressure.

Bipedalism
The habit of walking on two legss; a defining characteristic of the family hominidae that underlies many skeletal and other characteristics of humans.

X Ray
A high-energy, penetrating electromagnetic ray with wavelenghts in the range of 0.1 to 10 nm; used in diagnosis and therapy.

Anatomy
The study of the structure of the body.

Cytology
The study of cell structure and function.

Human
Any species of primate classified in the family hominidae, characterized by bipedal locomotion, relatively large brains, and usually articulate speech; currently represented only by homo sapiens but including extinct species of homo and Australopithecus.

Physiology
The study of the functional processes of the body.

Abdominal Cavity
The body cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvic brim.

Body
The entire organism.

in situ
In the normal anatomical location.

Anatomical Position
A reference posture that allows for standardized anatomical terminology. A subject in anatomical position is standing with the feet flat on the floor and slightly apart, arms down to the sides, and the palms (supine) and eyes directed forward.

Position Emission Tomography
A method of producing a computerized image of the physiological state of a tissue using injected radioisotopes that emit positrons. PET scan.

Receptor
A cell or organ specialized to detect stimulus, such as a taste cell or the eye.

Computerized Tomography
A method of medical imaging that uses x-rays and a computer to create an image of a thin section of the body, CT scan

Organ
Any anatomical structure that is composed of at least dwo different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structures around it. Many organs are microscopic and many organs contain smaller organs, such as the skin containing numerous microscopic sense organs.

Serous Membrane
A membrane such as the peritoneum, pleura, or pericardium that lines a body cavity or covers the external surfaces of the viscera; composed of simple squamos mesothelium and a twin layer of areolar connective tissue.

Evolution
A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over a period of time; the mechanism that produces adaptations in human form and function.

Parietal
Pertaining to a wall, as in the parietal cells of the gastric glands and parietal bone of the skull.

Characteristics of Organisms (9)
Organization, cellular composition, metabolism, responsiveness, homeostasis, development, evolution, variability, feedback

Positive Feedback
A self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction. Eg. Production of Oxytocin during labor.

Organism
A single, complete individual.

Tissue
A mass of similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function

situs inversus
The organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed between right and left.

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