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Children and Their Development (Kail Ch 9) Essay

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A system that relates sounds (or gestures) to meaning
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Language
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The sounds of a language
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Phonology
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The study of words and their meanings.
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Semantics
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The rules used to describe the structure of a language.
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Grammar
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The rules that specify how words are combined to form sentences.
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Syntax
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The study of how people use language to communicate.
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Pragmatics
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The unique sounds that can be joined to form words that are the basic building blocks of language.
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Phonemes
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The type of speech in which adults speak slowly with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness.
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Infant-Directed Speech
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Vowel-like sounds that are produced by young babies
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Cooing
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Speech-like sounds that have no meaning but consist of a consonant and vowel combined.
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Babbling
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A pattern of rising or falling pitch
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Intonation
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A language learning style in which children’s vocabularies are dominated by the names of objects, persons, or actions.
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Referential Style
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A language learning style in which children’s vocabularies include some names but many social phrases that are used like a single word.
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Expressive Style
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A period of time when children learn new words at a very rapid pace.
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Naming Explosion
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Children’s ability to make connections between new words and referents so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meaning for the new word.
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Fast Mapping
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A common mistake in early word learning in which children define a word too broadly.
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Overextension
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The ability to remember speech sounds briefly
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Phonological Memory
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A common mistake in early word learning in which children define a word too narrowly
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Underextension
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Speech that consists only of words that are directly relevant to meaning
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Telegraphic Speech
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Words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical
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Grammatical Morphemes
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Applying grammatical rules to words that are exceptions to the rule.
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Overregularization
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View that children are born knowing that nouns usually refer to people or objects and that verbs are actions; they use this knowledge to infer grammatical rules.
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Semantic Bootstrapping Theory
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The term phonology refers to the
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sounds of a language
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The term semantics refers to the
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study of words and their meanings.
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Grammar refers to the
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rules used to describe the structure of a language.
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The basic building blocks of language that are used to form words are called
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phonemes
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Infants who are younger than 6 months of age
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do not need to experience speech sounds in their environments to be able to discriminate them.
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When 7-to 8-month-olds hear a word repeatedly in different sentences, later they
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pay more attention to that word than to words they haven’t heard previously.
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Young infants seem to identify words by paying
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more attention to stressed syllables rather than unstressed syllables.
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Which of the following is true of infant-directed speech?
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Infant-directed speech seems to attract the infant’s attention.
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Mario Svirsky and his colleagues studied the impact on language development of cochlear implants in profoundly deaf children. They found that
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children who received cochler implants acquired language at the same rate as children with normal hearing.
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the production of syllables that contain vowels and consonants is called.
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babbling
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Which of the following statements is true of the development of babbling?
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Intonation is added to later babbling.
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When young children are learning new words, they
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systematically consider all possible hypotheses about the connection between the word and the correct referent.
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According to the rules that young children use to learn the meanings of new words, when Ravisha points to a picture of a boy in a blue shirt and says “boy,” her 13-mont-old son will assume that the word “boy” refers to the
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boy
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the influence of the environment on language development?
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Questioning children wile reading to them encourages them to identify meanings of new words.
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Children with expressive language-learing styles
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have vocabularies that consist of many social phrases.
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When Utsav is riding in the car with his mother, he will point at buses, vans, bikes, and trucks and say “car.” This is an example of
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an overextension.
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Defining a word too narrowly is known as
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an underextension.
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Bilingual children
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are more likely than monolingual children to understand that words are simply arbitrary symbols.
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The production of two-word speech
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often is called telegraphic speech.
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Children’s use of grammatical morphemes is based primarily on
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the use of rules.
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Which of the following is an example of overregularization?
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mans
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The order in which children acquire grammatical morphemes depends on the
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complexity of the morpheme with the acquisition of simpler morphemes occurring before that of more complex morphemes.
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Which would occur first in language development?
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adding “s” to a word to form a plural
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According to the linguistic view which of the following statements reflects how children acquire grammar?
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Humans seem to be innately prepared to process language and learn grammar.
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Turn-taking
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is apparent in preschoolers who expect that a comment will be followed by a response.
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When 4-year-olds describe a toy to a 2-year-old, they
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use simpler grammar than they do with an adult listener.
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Children
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who are African-American are more likely to use African-American English with African American peers.
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In the case of understanding metaphor, young children
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can understand simple metaphors but not ones based on abstract relations.
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Children’s understanding of sarcasm
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usually occurs when a mocking or overly enthusiastic tone of voice is present.
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According to this theory, children are born knowing that nouns usually refer to people or objects and that verbs are actions; they use this knowledge to infer grammatical rules.
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semantic bootstrapping theory.