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Child Psychology- Chapter 13 Review

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Research has found that compared to younger children, older children tend to _______ when engaging in moral reasoning.
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use more complex rationalizations
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Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
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withdrawn-rejected.
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Stella’s parents observed that she has begun to participate in moral arguments on issues of right and wrong. Her matured moral thinking is due to:
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concrete operational thinking and peer experience.
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Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn’t. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
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preconventional
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What factors determine whether a child is well liked or not?
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culture and cohort
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Alisha’s family was experiencing multiple problems, including her mother’s illness, her father’s loss of employment, and two relatives having moved into their home. Through the stress, her grades remained high and her study skills good. Most likely, Alisha was:
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using school achievement as an escape from the stress of home.
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Why is it so important that children learn a sense of industry or competence?
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It provides a crucial defense against emotional problems.
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According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
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repression of his psychosexual needs
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Research on twins in Sweden found:
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conflict itself impacts a child’s well-being.
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Which of the following attributes is typical of school-age children?
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Their self-concept becomes more logical and specific.
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Kristopher is extremely sure of himself. He gets angry when his teachers or friends try to offer him constructive criticism and is extremely impulsive. When he takes a test in school, rather than studying, he bases his answers on “what feels correct.” Which of the following statements best explains Kristopher’s behavior?
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He is lacking in effortful control.
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By the age of 10, which of the following sentences regarding friendships is true?
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Both boys and girls want to have best friends.
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Because John’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, John is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping him keep his positive attitude?
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his circle of friends and their activities
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Children’s “increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control” all contribute to their sense of:
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autonomy
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The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is:
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Veru, who is disliked by most childrend because she is so uncooperative
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Researchers found that if the mothers of monozygotic twins were more negative toward one of their twins, that twin:
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become more antisocial
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Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan’s math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:
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genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on some abilities.
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Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are:
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low income and high conflict.
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Children may struggle to develop moral values if they are slow to develop:
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theory of mind.
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Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a:
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blended family
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Which of the following methods listed in the text is effective in stopping bullying in schools?
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using a whole-school strategy
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The crucial question regarding family structure is:
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Whatever the structure, does it fulfill the five essential functions for school-age children?
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Most bullies pick on:
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members of their own sex.
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When using time-out for discipline, the amount of time out recommended is always the same, no matter how old the child is.
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African Americans
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Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she’s afraid the other kids will call her a snitch. This is an example of Kohlberg’s stage ______ of moral development.
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3
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According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her psychosocial conflict of stage four, she will come to view herself as:
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inferior
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One study found that ____ percent of a group of children believed that no child should be excluded from joining a club or team because of gender or race.
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98
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A Hawaiian longitudinal study found that the resilience of poverty-stricken children whose parents were mentally unstable was dependent on:
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an easygoing temperament. high IQ. realistic goal orientation, persistence, and learned creativity.
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According to your text, the most important overall family function is to provide:
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love and encouragement
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Ideally, social comparison helps children to:
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value their own abilities
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During middle childhood, children show psychosocial maturation by their ability to:
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tell time and have set times for activities. complete more homework assignments take care of pets.
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___________ cognition, which gives children the ability to observe and use logic, propels them to think about morality.
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concrete operational
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Daily hassles:
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can have a cumulative effect on children.
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The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to that of middle-school children is that:
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young children’s egocentrism makes them less affected by other children’s acceptance or rejection of them.
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Family income can have a positive or negative effect on the function and structure of the family, but what is important is:
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whether or not the income increases stress on the family.
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Freud referred to middle childhood as the period of:
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latency
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According to your text, two-thirds of all U.S. families with school-aged children:
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have two parents
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A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children younger than age 18 is referred to as a:
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nuclear family
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A family in which both parents have offspring from earlier relationships is called a(n) ____________ family.
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blended family
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A characteristic of the culture of children is that:
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they may spout curses, accents, and slang.
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The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is:
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Kohlberg
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Recent research on shared and nonshared environmental factors and their influence on children’s developing temperaments has found that:
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parents’ attitudes have a direct effect on children’s behavior.
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As friendships change during the school years, children are most likely to:
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demand more of their friends
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Children who move and change neighborhoods in middle childhood:
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suffer academically and emotionally.
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Family structure refers to:
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legal and genetic relationships of family members.
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According to the text, high self-esteem is:
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not universally valued nor universally criticized.
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Identify the typical child in Erikson’s fourth stage, the crisis of industry versus inferiority:
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Marisol can’t wait to begin her first karate class.
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Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is a(n):
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aggressive-rejected child.
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During Erikson’s crisis of industry versus inferiority, children:
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attempt to master many skills.
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The type of moral reasoning that focuses on moral principles is called:
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postconventional.
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According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation are:
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low income and high conflict.
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According to the text, _____ involvement particularly helps African American children in communities rife with social stress and racial prejudice.
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church
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During the ______, Freud believed that children’s emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet.
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latency stage
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According to Kohlberg, the crucial factor in determining what stage of moral reasoning a person is using is:
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the reasons for his or her answers to questions about a moral dilemma.
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The term “culture of children” refers to:
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the particular habits and styles that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.