Child Growth & Development

question

Psychosocial Dwarfism
answer

A growth disorder observed between ages 2 and 15, caused by emotional deprivation.
question

Egocentrism (Piaget: Pre-Operational Stage. Resolves by Concrete Stage)
answer

Inability to distinguish between one’s own viewpoint and that of others.
question

Perception Bound (Piaget: Pre-Operational Stage)
answer

Being easily distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects.
question

Irreversibility (Piaget: Pre-Operational Stage)
answer

The inability to go mentally through a series of steps and then reverse direction.
question

Centration (Pre-Operational Stage)
answer

The tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important features.
question

Private Speech
answer

Self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior.
question

Metacognition
answer

Thinking about thought. Awareness of mental activities.
question

Emergent Literacy
answer

The gradual process through which young children actively construct literacy knowledge.
question

Self-Esteem
answer

The aspect of self-concept that involves judgements about one’s own worth.
question

Proactive (Instrumental) Aggression
answer

Aggression aimed at obtaining something, not done in anger.
question

Gender Constancy
answer

The understanding that an individual’s sex remains the same, despite changes in clothing, hairstyles and activities.
question

Permissive
answer

A child rearing style that is responsive but undemanding.
question

Secular trends in growth
answer

Changes in body size in children from one generation to the next.
question

Animism (Piaget: Pre-Operational Stage)
answer

The belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities or abilities such as thinking and feeling.
question

Myopia
answer

Nearsightedness; the most common vision problem of middle childhood.
question

Rough & Tumble Play
answer

A form of play involving friendly chasing and mock fighting.
question

Nocturnal Enuresis
answer

Bedwetting.
question

Cognitive Self-Regulation
answer

The ability to monitor progress towards a cognitive goal and redirect efforts if necessary.
question

Metalinguistics
answer

The ability to think about language as a system.
question

Learned Helplessness
answer

Attributions that credit success to luck and failure to low ability.
question

Unintentional Injury
answer

A non-deliberate but preventable injury arising out of poor supervision, inadequate safety precautions, etc.
question

School Phobia
answer

Severe apprehension about attending school.
question

Emotional Self-Regulation
answer

The ability to calm oneself down and redirect one’s own emotions.
question

Socio-Dramatic Play
answer

The make-believe or pretend play with others that is underway by age two and a half.
question

Resiliency
answer

The ability of a child to fare well despite various hardships.
question

Over Regularization
answer

Application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions.
question

Social Comparisons
answer

Judgements of appearance, abilities and behavior made in relation to those of others.
question

Reactive (Hostile) Aggression
answer

A form of aggression that is an angry defensive response to provocation and is meant to hurt another person.
question

Cooperative Play
answer

A form of true social play in which children focus on a common goal, although they don’t always get along in the process.
question

Perspective Taking
answer

The capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling.
question

Compared to the growth rate during infancy, the growth rate of the child during the preschool years A. Is about the same. B. Is slower. C. Is faster. D. Children vary so much, it is impossible to say.
answer

B. Is slower.
question

During the preschool years, the left cerebral hemisphere grows more rapidly than the right, therefore A. Reducing plasticity. B. Improving abstract mathematical thinking. C. Supporting the explosion of children’s language skills. D. All of the above.
answer

C. Supporting the explosion of children’s language skills.
question

Children who are more likely to suffer unintentional injuries are A. Boys. B. Temperamentally inattentive and irritable. C. Those growing up in crowded poverty-stricken environments. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

Antonio has recently turned 4. Which of the following fine motor tasks is he most likely to have mastered? A. Using a spoon, drinking from a cup, taking off his socks. B. Using a fork, buttoning large buttons, drawing a crude human figure. C. Cutting food with a knife, tying his shoes, printing his whole name. D. Assembling airplane models, printing small neat letters, putting together puzzle with 100 small pieces.
answer

B. Using a fork, buttoning large buttons, drawing a crude human figure.
question

What should adults do to support the motor development of preschoolers? A. Make sure they are enrolled in lots of special activities like ballet and gymnastics. B. Make sure they rehearse large and small motor skills until they get them right. C. Make sure they have plenty of opportunities for active outdoor play, and opportunities to practice self-help skills. D. Emphasize the importance of winning at games and sports.
answer

C. Make sure they have plenty of opportunities for active outdoor play, and opportunities to practice self-help skills.
question

During the preschool years, extreme emotional deprivation can lead to: A. Psychosocial Dwarfism. B. Non-Organic failure to thrive. C. Iron deficiency anemia. D. Obesity.
answer

A. Psychosocial Dwarfism.
question

Right-handed children are MORE likely than left-handed children to: A. Develop outstanding verbal skills. B. Be ambidextrous. C. Have a lower rate of mental disorders. D. Lie turned to the left while still in the uterus.
answer

D. Lie turned to the left while still in the uterus.
question

Which of the following is NOT associated with enrollment in child care in the United States? A. Measles. B. Ear Infections. C. Colds. D. Diarrhea.
answer

A. Measles.
question

Children’s exploration of writing begins with A. Making scribble marks on paper. B. Copying words written by adults. C. Tracing letters with stencils. D. Printing their names.
answer

A. Making scribble marks on paper. [Emergent Literacy]
question

Four year old Michael reverses the letter E when he prints his name. His parents should A. Make him practice printing the letter correctly. B. Not worry; letter reversals are common well into second grade. C. Have him tested for dyslexia. D. Have his eyes examined.
answer

B. Not worry; letter reversals are common well into second grade.
question

The teacher is counting the children to go out on the playground “1,2…” As she points to the second child he says indignantly, “I’m not two, I’m three! I’m a big boy!” This is evidence of that his thinking is A. Reversible & Conserving. B. Animistic & Magical. C. Egocentric & Centered. D. Static & Transformative.
answer

C. Egocentric & Centered.
question

A teacher in a constructivist classroom (one based on Piaget’s theory of learning) will A. Drill children on correct answers. B. Arrange situations that allow discovery learning. C. Give children long verbal explanations of concepts. D. All of the above.
answer

B. Arrange situations that allow discovery learning.
question

Samantha is putting together a puzzle. As she works, she talks to herself thus: “No, that’s big, it goes here. This piece is upside down.” Choose the best statement about her speech. A. Piaget would say she is trying to communicate clearly to someone else in the room. B. She is probably repeating what an adult told her. C. Vygotsky would say that she is guiding herself through the task. D. All of the above.
answer

C. Vygotsky would say that she is guiding herself through the task. [Private Speech]
question

New research in regards to Piaget’s theory suggests that A. Children’s cognitive development may be more continuous rather than defined by exclusive stages. B. Some of Piaget’s questions contained too much new information fro preschoolers to handle. C. Preschoolers’ life experience and culture affects their grasp of concepts. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

Raji and Lyla are playing in the home center. They have dressed all the baby dolls to go to daycare. Raji says, “I’m going to be so late for my job.” Lyla responds, “Here honey, let me take that baby for you.” What is the significance of this play? A. The girls are trying out their ideas about the adult world and about their future roles as women. B. They are stretching their understanding of other people’s points of view as they attempt to speak in the voices of the characters they are playing. C. They are practicing the skill of cooperating in a social setting. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

Research shows that children whose parents read storybooks to them A. Are delayed in their ability to read for themselves. B. Have greater success in school. C. Are no different from children whose parents don’t read to them. D. Are entertained, but receive no lasting advantage from it.
answer

B. Have greater success in school.
question

When asked by the teacher how many chairs are in the book circle, Brendan counts them and says, “We have 6.” He is displaying the mathematical concept of A. Cardinality (last number=sum of group). B. Reversibility. C. Ordinality. D. Ratio.
answer

A. Cardinality (last number=sum of group).
question

Which of the following statements is true about preschools which place a heavy emphasis on academic learning compared to preschools that are child centered?A. Children in child centered preschools demonstrate better social skills. B. Academic preschools produce no lasting advantage in academic achievement. C. Children who attend academic preschools are more likely to experience school burn-out in the elementary years. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

4 year old Robbie says, “I runned fast.” This is the result of A. Overregularization. B. Expansion. C. Ignorance. D. Poor grammar modeling by adults.
answer

A. Overregularization.
question

Your friend is thinking of hiring an expensive magician to entertain at his son’s fourth birthday. Your BEST advice to him is A. To do it because children at that age need entertainment to have fun. B. To have elaborate magic tricks, but save money by doing them himself from a book. C. To splurge on the magician, because kids of all ages love the challenge of figuring out how magic tricks work. D. To save his money and skip the magic, because children of this age find magic tricks no more surprising and wonderful than many real life events..
answer

D. To save his money and skip the magic, because children of this age find magic tricks no more surprising and wonderful than many real life events..
question

In preschool, children have NOT yet realized that A. There are only 2 sexes. B. Activities, clothing and jobs do not determine one’s gender. C. They are either male or female. D. Girls act, play and dress differently than boys.
answer

B. Activities, clothing and jobs do not determine one’s gender.
question

When asked how well he draws pictures, a 4 year old is likely to say that he is A. Better than some kids, but worse than others. B. A poor artist. C. A great artist. D. Unconcerned about whether he is good or not, because he enjoys drawing and that is the important thing.
answer

C. A great artist.
question

Kenzie, a 3 year old, engages in a lot of solitary play. She enjoys playing with blocks, puzzles and painting by herself. She is most likely A. Socially unskilled. B. Depressed. C. Rejected by her peers. D. A bright child with normal social skills.
answer

D. A bright child with normal social skills.
question

In the third stage of his theory, Erikson suggested that parents can help ward off too much guilt in preschoolers by A. Helping them with new tasks and activities. B. Not setting limits for them. C. Establishing a trusting relationship with them. D. Punishing them if they talk back.
answer

A. Helping them with new tasks and activities.
question

As young children become aware of gender stereotypes, overt aggression A. Decreases in girls as well as boys. B. Increases in both boys and girls. C. Decreases in boys but not girls. D. Decreases in girls but not boys.
answer

D. Decreases in girls but not boys.
question

4 year old Lance is LEAST likely to describe himself in terms of A. Hair color. B. Things he owns. C. Inner traits. D. Everyday behaviors.
answer

C. Inner traits.
question

By what age do children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions? A. 1-2 years. B. 2-3 years. C. 4-5 years. D. 6-7 years.
answer

C. 4-5 years.
question

Donny and Vinnie are playing with the same objects near each other, but not talking to each other or interacting. This is _________________ play. A. Parallel. B. Cooperative. C. Nonsocial. D. Associative.
answer

A. Parallel.
question

Inductive discipline involves A. Ignoring the child’s behavior. B. Withdrawing affection from the child. C. Pointing out the effects of their behavior. D. Using physical punishment.
answer

C. Pointing out the effects of their behavior.
question

Research consistently shows that punishment A. Does not promote lasting changes in children’s behavior. B. Is a very effective method of discipline. C. Is especially good for promoting long term discipline goals. D. Works just as well as modeling in teaching moral behavior.
answer

A. Does not promote lasting changes in children’s behavior.
question

Androgens
answer

Male hormones that contribute to the changes associated with puberty. Hormones affect the brain in a way that they can think more logically.
question

Asthma
answer

Air quality.
question

Malocclusion
answer

Poor tooth alignment. Lose teeth first and get second set of teeth.
question

Neurotransmitters
answer

Chemicals that allow the brain to function.
question

This is characteristic of the handwriting of a 6 year old: A. Writing with the whole arm instead of just the hand. B. Mastering the simple vertical and horizontal strokes of uppercase letters before mastering the small curved stroke of lowercase letters. C. Irregularities in the height and spacing of letter. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

Preschoolers and young school age children do not have a good understanding of the causes of illness because A. They are superstitious. B. Nobody tells them anything. C. They have little knowledge of biology and their bodies on which to build an understanding. D. They do not listen to explanations adults give them.
answer

C. They have little knowledge of biology and their bodies on which to build an understanding.
question

Health education has little impact on the health related behaviors of school age children because A. Their weak time perspective does not help them relate present behavior to future consequences. B. They generally feel well, so they don’t care much about health concerns. C. Much correct health information they receive (example: nutrition information) is contradicted by other influences like TV advertising. D. All of the above.
answer

D. All of the above.
question

Nocturnal enuresis is not uncommon in the early school years. The term refers to A. Sleepwalking. B. Bedwetting. C. Nightmares. D. Late night indigestion.
answer

B. Bedwetting.
question

Which is NOT a factor associated with Childhood Obesity? A. Normal baby fat. B. Heredity. C. SES. D. Amount of physical activity.
answer

A. Normal baby fat.
question

Researchers suspect that the increase in the secretion of androgens at around age 7 or 8 A. Causes boys to suddenly get much taller than girls. B. Causes increases in appetite in both sexes. C. Causes improvements in brain organization. D. All of the above.
answer

C. Causes improvements in brain organization.
question

Which of the following children is most likely to exhibit a secular trend in physical growth? A. Caitlin, the daughter of a professional couple in Columbia, MD. B. Michelle, the daughter of a homeless mom in Baltimore County. C. Maria, the daughter of slum dwellers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. D. All of the above.
answer

A. Caitlin, the daughter of a professional couple in Columbia, MD.
question

Which part of the body grows more rapidly in the early school age years than in the toddler years? A. The brain. B. The head. C. The legs. D. The hair.
answer

A. The brain.
question

Which of the following are particular health concerns for the school age years? A. Asthma, Obesity, Malocclusion. B. Ear infections, Measles, Colic. C. Appendicitis, Gastroenteritis, Kidney stones. D. Acne, Anorexia, Mononucleosis.
answer

A. Asthma, Obesity, Malocclusion.
question

The superiority shown by school age boys over girls in a wide range of motor abilities can be primarily attributed to A. Greater strength. B. Differences in parental expectations. C. Differences in natural ability. D. Differences in height.
answer

B. Differences in parental expectations.
question

When asked to sort hearts, stars and diamonds in a variety of colors, 8 year old Jennette will A. Sort by shape. B. Sort by color. C. Sort by transitive inference. D. Sort in a variety of ways, including classes and subclasses.
answer

D. Sort in a variety of ways, including classes and subclasses.
question

After viewing a magic trick in which a coin leaps out of a child’s ear, 8 year old Peter’s most likely response is to A. Laugh delightedly and clap his hands. B. Believe the coin is alive. C. Be frightened. D. Say “Hey- teach me how to do that!”
answer

D. Say “Hey- teach me how to do that!”
question

Children use memory strategies consistently A. Starting in preschool. B. By the mid-elementary years. C. At about the time they reach puberty. D. When they have mastered formal operations.
answer

B. By the mid-elementary years.
question

When compared to test scores of children of many other industrialized nations, the reading, math and science test scores of children in the U.S. A. Are worse. B. Are better. C. Are about the same. D. Cannot be compared.
answer

A. Are worse.
question

Which is NOT true about children who learn two languages in early childhood? A. Bilingual children do better than other children on tests of selective attention and analytical reasoning. B. Bilingual children will always mix up the 2 languages. C. Bilingual children take three to five years to become competent in a second language if they already speak one. D. Bilingual children show no special problems with language development.
answer

B. Bilingual children will always mix up the 2 languages.
question

Kevin needs to remember the words tree and toast. If he uses the memory strategy of elaboration, he would A. Think of words that rhyme with both. B. Imagine a tree with toasters growing on it. C. Write the words over and over on a piece of paper. D. Say the words over and over to himself.
answer

B. Imagine a tree with toasters growing on it.
question

Serena understands that she and her friend each still have 6 raisins even though her friend spreads her raisins all over the placemat. On the other hand, when the teacher gives Serena and a boy each an equal size ball of play dough, Serena believes she has less than the boy when he rolls his play dough into a long snake. This illustrates A. Transitive inference. B. Successful conservation. C. Horizontal decalage. D. Classification.
answer

C. Horizontal decalage.
question

In cultures in which children are used to sharing toys and snacks equally with other children, they will acquire conservation A. Early. B. Late. C. At the same rate as children from all other cultures. D. With no horizontal decalage.
answer

A. Early.
question

Recent research indicates that kindergarteners have higher math and reading achievement when they are in ________ classes. A. Small= 13-17 students. B. Regular= 22-25 students. C. Regular= 22-25 plus a teacher’s aide. D. Large-30-35 students.
answer

A. Small= 13-17 students.
question

A math problem tells students that Dustin’s house is bigger than April’s and Tracey’s house is bigger than Dustin’s and asks which is the biggest of the 3. What age child is this problem appropriate for? A. 5 or 6. B. 7 or 8. C. 9 or 10. D. 11 or 12.
answer

D. 11 or 12.
question

According to Erikson’s theory, the negative outcome for children in middle childhood is A. Mistrust. B. Inferiority. C. Guilt. D. Shame. *3rd stage- initiative v guilt *4th stage- industry
answer

B. Inferiority.
question

There is a strong positive correlation between A. Social self esteem and school achievement. B. Academic self esteem and being liked. C. Academic self esteem and school achievement. D. Athletic self esteem and school achievement.
answer

C. Academic self esteem and school achievement.
question

Daniella does well in math and is mastery oriented. She is likely to attribute her success to A. Good Luck. B. Easy tests. C. Ability she has increased through effort. D. Being smart.
answer

A. Luck.
question

Over middle childhood, sibling rivalry tends to A. Increase B. Decrease C. Level off D. Disappear
answer

A. Increase
question

Sean, a 9 year old is most likely to fear A. The dark. B. Monsters. C. Thunder. D. Terrorists.
answer

D. Terrorists.
question

Damon’s sequence of distributive justice is A. Benevolence, equality, merit. B. Merit, equality, benevolence. C. Merit, benevolence, equality. D. Equality, merit, benevolence.
answer

D. Equality, merit, benevolence.
question

Children are able to recognize that people can feel more than one emotion at a time A. By age 8 B. As adolescents C. As toddlers D. As preschoolers
answer

A. By age 8
question

Which statement about gender stereotyping in middle childhood is NOT true? A. Girls tend to believe that boys are smarter than they are. B. Boys are allowed to violate gender rules more freely than girls. C. Children regard certain academic areas as masculine or feminine. D. School age children do understand that gender roles define what people are expected to do, rather than what they are able to do.
answer

B. Boys are allowed to violate gender rules more freely than girls.
question

The capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling is called A. Social referencing. B. Self-conceptualization. C. Perspective taking. D. Intermodal perception.
answer

C. Perspective taking.
question

The rate of divorce in the United States is A. The lowest in the world. B. The same as in most western nations. C. The highest in the world. D. Second only to Sweden.
answer

C. The highest in the world.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member