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Child Development Final – MC Sect. 1 Essay

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According to Piaget, the most obvious change during the preoperational stage is the increase in
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representational activity.
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Piaget acknowledged that ___________ is our most flexible means of mental representation.
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language
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Piaget believed that through __________, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.
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pretending
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Tripp pretends to drink from a toy cup. Tripp’s sister, Anna, takes the same cup and tells Tripp, “This is a hat.” Tripp refuses to place the cup on his head to pretend that it is a hat. Tripp is probably
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younger than 2 years of age.
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In early pretending, toddlers
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use only realistic objects.
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Five-year-old Matthew and 6-year-old Jessica like to pretend that they live or work in a zoo. Often, Matthew will pretend to be an animal, such as an elephant and Jessica will pretend to be the zookeeper. This is an example of __________ play.
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sociodramatic
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Children’s creation of _________________ was once viewed as a sign of maladjustment, but current research challenges this assumption.
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imaginary companions
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Three-year-olds Artie and Kurt had identical boxes of raisins at snack time. When Kurt poured his raisins out onto the table, Artie was sure that Kurt had more raisins. This demonstrates that Artie lacks
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conservation.
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During a conservation-of-liquid task, when asked why he thinks there is more water in the taller glass, 5-year-old Gus points out that the water level is higher in the taller glass than in the shorter glass but neglects to mention that this change in height is compensated by changes in width. This example demonstrates a limitation of preoperational thought known as
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centration.
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During a ________ task, 4-year-old Marissa is asked whether there are more oranges or fruits in a group of two apples, one banana, and three oranges. She will most likely say ________.
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class inclusion; there are more oranges
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Four-year-old Martha uses shorter, simpler expressions when interacting with her 2-year-old brother. This example suggests that Piaget may have
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overestimated preschoolers’ egocentrism.
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Preschoolers’ ability to reason about transformations is evident on
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tasks that require reasoning by analogy.
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Follow-up research indicates that by the second half of the first year, children have formed a variety of global categories, such as animals and vehicles. These findings challenge Piaget’s assumption that
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preschoolers’ thinking is wholly governed by appearances.
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When young children converse with adults, they ask
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more than one question per minute, on average.
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Which of the following is true about parents’ answers to their children’s questions?
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Parents adjust the complexity of their answers to fit their children’s maturity.
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According to research, preschoolers’ poor performance on appearance versus reality tasks occurs because they
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have trouble with the language of these tasks.
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Vygotsky’s theory stresses the __________ of cognitive development.
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social context
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Most research indicates that young children use private speech
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when tasks are appropriately challenging.
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Children who freely use private speech during a challenging activity are _________ than their less talkative agemates.
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more attentive
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According to Vygotsky, which of the following is within a child’s zone of proximal development?
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a task that a child cannot yet handle on her own, but can do with the help of an adult
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Becca is making cookies all by herself after making them with the help of her mother many times in the past. Becca has learned this new skill through
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guided participation.
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Which of the following is more likely to be seen in a Vygotskian, than a Piagetian, classroom?
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activities to foster peer collaboration
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Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as an important source of cognitive development because it
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is rich in private speech.
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Which of the following is a common criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?
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It says too little about how basic cognitive skills contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes.
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Sustained attention typically begins to improve in toddlerhood because children’s ability to __________ improves.
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inhibit impulses
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Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because they are not skilled at using
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memory strategies.
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After a family camping trip, Rollie’s mother asks him to tell his grandmother about the trip. Rollie’s response represents
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autobiographical memory.
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Children with autism
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have narrow and overly intense interests.
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Studies of literacy development show that
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the more informal literacy experiences young children have, the better their later reading skills.
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Eighteen-month-old Jazmin is offered sets of animal crackers. Each set contains 1, 2, or 4 crackers. Jazmin consistently picks the set with the most pieces, displaying a beginning grasp of
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ordinality.
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Research using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) indicates that
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preschoolers who develop well intellectually have homes rich in educational toys and books.
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Formal academic training during early childhood
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undermines young children’s motivation and emotional well-being.
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Studies on computer use in early childhood demonstrate that
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combining everyday and computer experiences with math manipulatives is especially effective in promoting math concepts and skills.
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Research on pragmatics shows that by age 2, most children
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take turns in face-to-face interactions.