Chemistry VESPER, organic function groups, and intro to organic chemistry notes

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2 areas of electron density (2bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Linear Molecular Structure: Linear Bond Angle: 180 Polarity: Non Polar
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3 areas of electron density (3bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Planar Molecular Structure: Trigonal Planar Bond Angle: 120 Polarity: Non Polar
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3 areas of electron density (2bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Planar Molecular Structure: Bent Bond Angle: <120 Polarity: Polar
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4 areas of electron density (4bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Tetrahedral Bond Angle: 109.5 Polarity: Non Polar
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4 areas of electron density (3bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Trigonal Pyramidal Bond Angle: <109.5 Polarity: Polar
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4 areas of electron density (2bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Bent Bond Angle: <<109.5 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (5bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: Trigonal Bipryamidal Bond Angle: axial-90 Equatorial-120 Polarity: Non Polar
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5 areas of electron density (4 bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: See saw Bond Angle: axial-<90 Equatorial-<120 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (3 bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: T-shaped Bond Angle: <<90 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (2bonds,3 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: Linear Bond Angle: 180 Polarity: Non Polar**(exception)
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6 areas of electron density (6bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Octahedral Bond Angle: 90 Polarity: Non Polar
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6 areas of electron density (5bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Square pyramidal Bond Angle: <90 Polarity: Polar
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6 areas of electron density (4bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Square Planar Bond Angle: 90 Polarity: Non Polar**(exception)
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Organic chemistry
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The study of carbon-containing compounds Now includes compounds which do not exist in nature
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Carbon
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Always forms 4 covalent bonds in compounds Forms stable bonds with other atoms of carbon to form molecules with chains of carbon atoms (CATENATION)
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Inorganic substances
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Most unchanged when heated Nonliving matter More likely to dissolve in water More likely to have ionic bonds Most are not flammable Atoms seldom bond to the other atoms of the same element
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Organic substances
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From living matter Most decompose or burn when heated Made of chains or rings of carbons bonded to other carbons with 4 covalent bonds Most do not dissolve in water Many are flammable and poisonous Many more organic than inorganic because of carbon's ability to form bonds with itself
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Hydrocarbons
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Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Usually represented by structural formula or condensed structural formula As molecular mass increases so does boiling point
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Alkanes
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Saturated hydrocarbons Single bonds Formula = CnH2n+2 End with "-ane" Soluble in non polar solvents like oils (NP dissolve in NP)
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Alkenes
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At least two carbons (NO METHENE) Unsaturated hydrocarbons Double bonds Formula = CnH2n End with "-ene"
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Naming Alkenes
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Number the longest chain containing the double bond so that the lowest position number is assigned to the first carbon atom to which the double bond is bonded
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Alkynes
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At least two carbons (NO METHYNE) Unsaturated hydrocarbons Triple bonds Formula = CnH2n-2 End with "-yne" Named like Alkenes except ending
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Cyclic hydrocarbons
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Form a ring Can be Alkanes, Alkenes, or Alkynes Put "Cyclo-" before root word NO CYCLOMETHANE OR CYCLOEHANE
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Prefix Meth
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1 Carbon
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Prefix Eth
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2 Carbons
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Prefix Prop
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3 Carbons
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Prefix But
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4 Carbons
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Prefix Pent
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5 Carbons
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Prefix Hex
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6 Carbons
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Prefix Hept
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7 Carbons
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Prefix Oct
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8 Carbons
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Prefix Non
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9 Carbons
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Prefix Dec
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10 Carbons
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Aromatic Hydrocarbon
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Smelly-high volatility-weak IMFs Closed ring structure with alternating single and double bonds Benzene is simplest aromatic Non polar LDF
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Alcohol
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-OH attached End with "-ol" Very polar HBF
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Ether
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Contain -O group (ROR')-stuck in middle Symmetrical or Asymmetrical End with word ether Non polar LDF Tastes and smells b/c weak IMFs
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Aldehyde
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O double bonded to terminal (end Carbon) End with "-al" Polar Dipole Dipole
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Ketone
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O double bonded to any carbon except end carbons End with "-one" or word ketone Polar Dipole Dipole
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Carboxylic Acid
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O double bonded to a terminal C bonded to OH End with "-oic acid" Very Polar HBF
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Ester
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O double bonded to C bonded to O anywhere in the chain except the end End with "-oate" Polar Dipole Dipole
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2 areas of electron density (2bonds,0 lone pairs)
answer
Electronic Structure: Linear Molecular Structure: Linear Bond Angle: 180 Polarity: Non Polar
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3 areas of electron density (3bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Planar Molecular Structure: Trigonal Planar Bond Angle: 120 Polarity: Non Polar
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3 areas of electron density (2bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Planar Molecular Structure: Bent Bond Angle: <120 Polarity: Polar
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4 areas of electron density (4bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Tetrahedral Bond Angle: 109.5 Polarity: Non Polar
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4 areas of electron density (3bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Trigonal Pyramidal Bond Angle: <109.5 Polarity: Polar
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4 areas of electron density (2bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Tetrahedral Molecular Structure: Bent Bond Angle: <<109.5 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (5bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: Trigonal Bipryamidal Bond Angle: axial-90 Equatorial-120 Polarity: Non Polar
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5 areas of electron density (4 bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: See saw Bond Angle: axial-<90 Equatorial-<120 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (3 bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: T-shaped Bond Angle: <<90 Polarity: Polar
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5 areas of electron density (2bonds,3 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecular Structure: Linear Bond Angle: 180 Polarity: Non Polar**(exception)
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6 areas of electron density (6bonds,0 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Octahedral Bond Angle: 90 Polarity: Non Polar
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6 areas of electron density (5bonds,1 lone pair)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Square pyramidal Bond Angle: <90 Polarity: Polar
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6 areas of electron density (4bonds,2 lone pairs)
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Electronic Structure: Octahedral Molecular Structure: Square Planar Bond Angle: 90 Polarity: Non Polar**(exception)
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Organic chemistry
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The study of carbon-containing compounds Now includes compounds which do not exist in nature
question
Carbon
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Always forms 4 covalent bonds in compounds Forms stable bonds with other atoms of carbon to form molecules with chains of carbon atoms (CATENATION)
question
Inorganic substances
answer
Most unchanged when heated Nonliving matter More likely to dissolve in water More likely to have ionic bonds Most are not flammable Atoms seldom bond to the other atoms of the same element
question
Organic substances
answer
From living matter Most decompose or burn when heated Made of chains or rings of carbons bonded to other carbons with 4 covalent bonds Most do not dissolve in water Many are flammable and poisonous Many more organic than inorganic because of carbon's ability to form bonds with itself
question
Hydrocarbons
answer
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Usually represented by structural formula or condensed structural formula As molecular mass increases so does boiling point
question
Alkanes
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Saturated hydrocarbons Single bonds Formula = CnH2n+2 End with "-ane" Soluble in non polar solvents like oils (NP dissolve in NP)
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Alkenes
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At least two carbons (NO METHENE) Unsaturated hydrocarbons Double bonds Formula = CnH2n End with "-ene"
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Naming Alkenes
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Number the longest chain containing the double bond so that the lowest position number is assigned to the first carbon atom to which the double bond is bonded
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Alkynes
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At least two carbons (NO METHYNE) Unsaturated hydrocarbons Triple bonds Formula = CnH2n-2 End with "-yne" Named like Alkenes except ending
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Cyclic hydrocarbons
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Form a ring Can be Alkanes, Alkenes, or Alkynes Put "Cyclo-" before root word NO CYCLOMETHANE OR CYCLOEHANE
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Prefix Meth
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1 Carbon
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Prefix Eth
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2 Carbons
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Prefix Prop
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3 Carbons
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Prefix But
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4 Carbons
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Prefix Pent
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5 Carbons
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Prefix Hex
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6 Carbons
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Prefix Hept
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7 Carbons
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Prefix Oct
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8 Carbons
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Prefix Non
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9 Carbons
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Prefix Dec
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10 Carbons
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Aromatic Hydrocarbon
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Smelly-high volatility-weak IMFs Closed ring structure with alternating single and double bonds Benzene is simplest aromatic Non polar LDF
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Alcohol
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-OH attached End with "-ol" Very polar HBF
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Ether
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Contain -O group (ROR')-stuck in middle Symmetrical or Asymmetrical End with word ether Non polar LDF Tastes and smells b/c weak IMFs
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Aldehyde
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O double bonded to terminal (end Carbon) End with "-al" Polar Dipole Dipole
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Ketone
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O double bonded to any carbon except end carbons End with "-one" or word ketone Polar Dipole Dipole
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Carboxylic Acid
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O double bonded to a terminal C bonded to OH End with "-oic acid" Very Polar HBF
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Ester
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O double bonded to C bonded to O anywhere in the chain except the end End with "-oate" Polar Dipole Dipole