Chemistry Unit 2

Flashcard maker : Daphne Armenta

Strong Acids



Hydrochloric Acid

Strong Acids



Hydrobronic Acid

Strong Acids



Hydroiodic Acid

Strong Acid



Nitric Acid

Strong Acid



Chloric Acid

Strong Acid 



Perchloric Acid

Strong Acid



Sulfuric Acid
An insoluable solid product that seperates from a solution
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of a solvent @ a specific temperature

Soluability Rules 


+1 charge = soluable 





N?: Nirates ; Ammonium (NH4)

1’s: goup 1 elements

Insoluablity Rules 




O?: salts

OH: salts



*larger the charge less soluable*

Dissolving Properties 

Solids vs. Gases

Solids: some dissolve eaiser @ higher temps


Gases: Dissolve easier @ lower temps

Ionic Equations

  • Keeps precipitant together¬†
  • gets rid of ions that don’t contribute to the equation¬†

Spectator Reactions
ions that don’t contribute anything to the reaction
Aqeous Solution
a homogeneous mixture of 2+ substances

a substance that dissolves into water to yield a solution that conducts electricity

* presence of ions allows it to conduct electricity*

A substance that dissolves in water to yield a soltion that dosen’t conduct electricity
When an ionic compound breaks into its ions
When a covalent molecular compound forms into it’s ions
When a molecular compound stays intact
Strong Electrolyte
An electrolyte that dissociates comletely
Strong Bases

Metals in groups 1&2


Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2

a proton (H+) donor
a proton (H+) acceptor
Monoprotic Acids
strong acids wher each mlecule has 1 proton to donate
Diprotic Acids

Each acid milecule has 2 protons that it can donate 

*only strong during first ionization*

Polyprotic Acids

  • Those w/ many protons¬†
  • each ionization is incomplete

Neutralization Reaction

A reaction between an acid and a base that produces water and salt 

*anion from the acid & cation from the base*

Oxidation-Reduction Reaction/Redox Reactions
chemical rection in which high energy electons are transferred from 1 reactant to a lower energy reactant

OIL: Oxidation is the loss of electrons 


RIG: Reduction is the gain of electrons

*when you gain an electron the oxidation # decreases*

Assigning Oxidation #s

Free elements are 0 (neutral)

Ions: thier charge from PT

Oxygen is -2

Hydrogen is +1

Sum of the molecule is 0 or change indicted on the molecule 

Outside first Inside Last

Type of Redox Reaction


Displacement Reaction

metals are switched out

Zn + CuCl2 –> ZnCl + Cu¬†

Type of Redox Reaction


Combination Reaction

two ions come together 

N2 + 3H2 –> 2NH3¬†

Type of Redox Reaction 



Start with a compound and break down into ions

2NaH –> Na = H2

Type of Redox Reaction


Disproportion Reaction 

when a substance is reduced and oxidized at the same time 

2H2O2 –> 2H2O2 + O2

Type of Redox Reaction


Combustion Reaction 

when something burns in the presence of oxygen and creates carbon dioxide and water

CH4 + 2O2 –> CO2 + 2H2O

(C1)(V1) = (C2)(V2)


the # of moles of solute per liter of solution

Symbol: M

Equation: M = Moles of solute/liters solution

g=MW (g/mol) x M (mol/L) x V(L)

Titration of an acid w/ a base
base of the known concentration is added to an acid of unknown concentration
the process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one
The capacity to do work or transfer heat
Kinetic Energy
energy that results from motion
Potential Energy
energy possessed by an object by virtue of its position
Thermal Energy
a form of kinetic energy when energy associated w/ the random motion of atoms & molecules
How does thermal energy measured?
measures changes by monitoring temp changes
Chemical Energy
energy stored w/in the structure units (molecules/polyatomic ions) of chemical substances
Electrostatic Energy
potential energy that results from the interaction of charged particles
law of conservation of energy
when energy of one form disappears, the same amount of energy must appear in another form(s)
the specific part of the universe that is of interest
Where the chemical reaction takes place
rest of the universe outside of the systems
Exothermic Process
process that gives off energy
ex) handwarmers, burning a log
Endothermic Process
process that absobrs thermal energy as heat
ex) cold packs
What is the SI unit of energy and what does it measure?
Joules & amount of kinetic energy
study of the effects of work, heat, and energy (E) of a system
Open System
chain exchange mass & energy w/ its surroundings
Closed System
allows the transfer of energy nut not mass
isolated system
does not exchange either mass or energy w/ its surroundings
First Law of Thermodynamics
mass & energy can’t be created or destroyed
Internal Energy
the system = delta U
Delta U = Uf – Ui
total must be 0
one +, one –
when a system releases of absorbs heat it’s internal energy (delta U) changes
q = ?
q = heat
w = ?
w = work
U decreases when…
releasing heat = q<0
doing work ON the surrounding
work ON the surrounding = w<0
U increases when…
heat is absorbed by the system q>0
work done on the system w>0
H = U+PV
internal E of system + (pressure x vol of system)
Change in Enthalpy
delta H = delta U + delta(PV)
Enthalpy (delta H)
the different between the enthapies of the products & the enthapies of the reactants
Thermochemical Equations
chemical equations that show the enthalpy changes & the mass relationships
Guidelines of thermochemical equations
1. always specify the physical states of all reactant & products becasue they help determine actual enthropy stages
2. multiply both sides of a thermochemical equation by a factor n
3. when we reverse a chemical equation we have to reverse the rules of delta H
Specific Heat (s) of a substance
the amount of heat required to change 1g of the substance by 1 degree C
Heat Capacity
heat required to raise the temp of an object by 1 degree C
Exothermic reactions what do they do to the specific heat equation?
Make it negative
Hess’s Law
Change in enthalpy that occurs when reactants are converted to products in a reaction is the same where they reaction takes place in one step or 3

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member