Chemistry test: acids and bases

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
List characteristics for both acids and bases
ACIDS: sour taste, reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas, change color of litmus paper to red (example: lemons
BASES: Bitter taste, slippery feel, reacts with acids to neutralize the characteristic properties, change litmus paper to blue (examples: soap, baking soda)
Differentiate between the Arrhenius and bronsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases
Arrhenius acid: a substance that produces H⁺ ions (a proton) when dissolved in water
Bronsted-lowry acid: can donate a proton tpo another substance
Arrhenius base: a substance that produces OH⁻ ions (hydroxide ions) when dissolved in water
Bronsted -lowry base: can accept a proton from another substance
Know how to name acids and bases. also know how to write the formula from the name.
ACIDS W/ ONLY ONE ELEMENT: prefix hydro-, stem from element w/ the hydrogen, suffix -ic, word acid; HF- hydrofluoric acid
ACIDS W/ 2+ ELEMENTS: contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element/polyatomic ion; acids with polyacomic ions ending in -ATE, remove -ate and add -IC followed by word acid; acids w/ -ITE, drop -ite and add -OUS
BASES: a metal and hydroxide (OH); called by ionic names (example: NaOH – sodium hydroxide
Know how to write the reactions for the ionization of acids and bases in water
ACIDS: H₃PO₄ = H₃PO₄ + H₂O → H₂O⁺ + H₂PO₄⁻
HI = HI + H₂O → H₃O⁺ + I⁻
Sr(OH)₂ = Sr(OH)₂ → Sr²⁺ + 2OH⁻
Be able to identify whether an acid is monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic
Monoprotic: can only lose one p⁺ upon complete ionization (HCl would be HCl + H₂O → H₃O + Cl)
Diprotic: can lose 2 p⁺ ions (H₂SO₄ would be H₂SO₄ + H₂O → H₃O⁺ + HSO₄ then to HSO₄ + H₂O → H₃O⁺ + SO₄²⁻)
Triprotic: can lose 3 p⁺
Given a reaction, know how to identify acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base
HNO₂ + H₂O → NO₂⁻ + H₃O⁺
HNO₂ loses the H therefore it is the acid and NO₂⁻ is the conjugate base
H₂O gains the H and forms H₃O⁺ therefore it is the base and forms the conjugate acid
More info on conjugate acids and conjugate bases
Conjugate acids are formed when the bases accepts a H⁺, and strong bases form weak conjugate acids because the more readily you want something the less readily you will give it up. weak bases form strong conjugate acids because the less you want it the more readily you will give it up (regifting)
same with acids – weak acid = strong conjugate base and strong acid = weak conjugate base
Be able to identify shifts in equilibrium in an acid-base reaction
you need a chart for this that tells you which acid is stronger : the conjugate acid or the acid
HClO₄(aq) + OH⁻(aq) ↔ H₂O (l) + ClO₄⁻(aq)
acid is HClO₄ and conjugate acid is H₂O
Since the chart says that the acid is stronger in this case, it shifts TO THE SIDE WITH THE WEAKER ACID or in this case to the right
Have an understanding of what pH is and what it tells you
pH scale measures the [H⁺] (molar concentration of protons) in a given solution; less than 7 is acid, more than 7 is base, 7 at 25° C is completely neutral
1) Know how to calculate pH; 2) and molarity if given pH
1) pH = -log [H⁺] so what id pH of solution with 0.05 molarity? pH = -log [0.05] so pH = 1.301
2) How many grams of nitric acid would need to be dissolved is a 750 mL solution to create a pH of 1.55? → 1.55 = -log [H⁺] → H⁺ = 0.02818 → x / .75L = 0.02818 → x= 0.02113 → 0.02113 = 1.33 g nitric acid
Know how to deduce and write net ionic equations and be able to identify the spectators and participants
LiCl ( ) + AgNO₃ ( ) → AgCl ( ) + LiNO₃ ( )
determine which are aq and which are not with the chart,
LiCl (aq) + AgNO₃ (aq) → AgCl (s) + LiNO₃ (aq)
you can split up aq but not others to get:
Li + Cl+ Ag + NO₃ → AgCl + Li + NO₃
if there is one on both sides cross it out to get
Cl + Ag → AgCl
SPECTAORS: they are the ones on both sides that you can cross out
Neutralization equations
Ca(OH)₂ and HCl : How to get equation on right side? first second + second first. also be mindful of charge when putting the elements together as in the case an Ca and Cl so you get:
Ca(OH)₂ + HCl → H₂O + CaCl₂
Then balance equation!!!!
Ca(OH)₂ + 2HCl → 2H₂O + CaCl₂
the strength of an acid/base is directly related to what?
ACID: the number of hydroxide (H⁺) or hydronium (H₃O⁺) ions in solution
BASE: number of hydroxide (OH⁻) ions in solution
ALSO, strong and weak acids determined by ionization, not by concentration, so a change in concentration will not change whether the acid/base is strong or weak

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