Chemistry II: Chapter 14 Mixtures and Solutions

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Suspension
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a type of heterogeneous mixture whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration.
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Heterogeneous
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mixtures do not blend smoothly throughout
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Colloid
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a heterogeneous mixture of intermediate-sized particles(between atomic-size of solution particles and the size of suspension particles).
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Brownian motion
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the erratic, random, movements of colloid particles that results from collisions of particles of the dispersion medium with the dispersed particles.
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Suspension and Colloid
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two types of heterogeneous mixtures
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Tyndall effect
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the scattering of light by colloidal particles
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Miscible
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describes two liquids that are soluble in each other
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solube
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describes a substance that can dissolved in a given solvent.
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Insolube
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a substance that cannot be dissolved in a given solvent.
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Immiscible
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two liquids that can be mixed together but separate shortly after you cease mixing them
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Tyndall effect
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colloids exhibit what?
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Concentration
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a measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution
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Concentrated or dilute
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words used dissolving
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molarity
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the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution; also know as molar concentration (M)
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Molality
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the ratio of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent
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Mole fraction
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the ratio of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent
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Solvation
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the process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution; occurs only where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other
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Heat of solution
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the overall energy change that occurs during the solution formation process
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Unsaturated Solution
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contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution; has further capacity to hold more solute
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Saturated solution
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contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
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supersaturated solution
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Contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
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Henrys law
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states that at a given temperature, the solubility (S) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (P) of the gas above the liquid.
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colligative property
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a physical property of a solution that depends on the number, but not the identity, of the dissolved solute particles
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vapor pressure lowering
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the lowering of vapor pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent
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boiling point elevation
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the temperature difference between a solutions boiling point and pure solvents boiling point
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freezing point depression
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the difference in temperature between a solutions freezing point and the freezing point of its pure solvent
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osmosis
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the diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration
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osmotic pressure
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the pressure caused when water molecules move into or out of a solution.

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