Chemistry Final

The state of matter with both definite shape and definite volume is a
A measure of the amount of space matter occupies is
Democritus’ view that matter was atomic in nature was
not widely accepted until the 1800s
Which component of the atom has a positive charge
From the periodic table, which of the following elements is likely to have physical and chemical properties closest to those of Chlorine
How many electrons are there in the outer shell of Arsenic?
What would be the most likely formula for barium sulfide?
The alchemists were interested in turning lead into gold by a process called
The type of bond between atoms in which electrons are lost by one atom and gained by another is called
If fluorine were to form an ion, it would most likely be
Study of separation and analysis of chemical substances both qualitative and quantitative
Analytical chemistry
Substance which is a chemical combination on an atomic level of two or more elements
General truth
Substance which can not be subdivided into small components by chemical means
Study of living things
Biological science
Conjective statement
Non-chemical combination of materials separable by physical means
Study of non-living things
Physical science
Study of the physical changes associated with chemical reactions and the dependence of physical properties on chemical composition
Physical chemistry
Hypothesis which has been tested and appears to be true
1 m=___ cm
100 cm
4.7 L=___ mL
4700 mL
360 kg=___ g
360,000 g
1 ul=___ L
0.000001 L
2300 g=___ Mg
0.002300 Mg
2 Mg=___ kg
2000 kg

Write in scientific notation


3 x 103

Write in scientific notation


7 x 10-4

Write in scientific notation


7 x 107

Write in scientific notation


1.23 x 10-3
What is the formula for calculating density
It is known that Napoleon at the time of his death suffered from arsenic poisoning.; This was determined by
analysis of hair samples that still exist today
What;uses fusion to generate most of their energy
Stars and hydrogen bombs
At the instant an atomic bomb detonates the uranium or plutonium goes from
subcritical to supercritical
There is no evidence of any substantial amounts of what in our universe
In radioactive decay
A proton can change into a neutron and a positron, a neutron can change into a proton and an electron, a proton and an electron can combine to form a neutron, 2 protons and 2 neutrons can be kicked out of the nucleus
What technique is appropriate for dating something which contains organic molecules
Carbon-14 dating
Two types of atom bombs are
Gun type and implosion type
At the temperatures of million of degrees necessary for controlled fusion, the fuel would exist in a fourth state of matter called
The person who showed that all uranium and thorium compounds are radioactive and then went on to isolate other radioactive elements like radium and polonium from uranium ore was
Marie Curie
Carbon-12 and carbon-14 represent a;pair of
Magnetic confinement and inertial confinement could be used in
controlled fusion reactors
Deuterium oxide is also called
Heavy water
Graphite can be used in a nuclear reactor as the
Some countries have built reactors which make more fuel than they consume.; Such reactors are called
Breeder reactors
In addition to her work in explaining nuclear fission, Lise Meitner was responsible for the discovery of the element
According to the video tape, “The Bomb’s Lethal Legacy,” residents of the Hanford area may have a higher than normal incidence of thyroid problems due to the release of radioactive
Nuclear reactors are usually built near a river or ocean so the water can be used to
Cool the steam in the turbine back into liquid water
If 400 grams of a radioactive material decays to 25 grams in 10 days, what is its half-life
2.5 days
In the equation, E=MC2, the M stands for
In 1938, Eruci Fermi received the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of
Slow neutrons
According to current theory, all of the elements can be built up in stars starting from
Until recently, the U.S. planned for the permanent storage of commercial high level nuclear waste
In a granite mountain in Nevada
According to the article “Buried in Ice” the members of the Franklin expedition died while suffering from what kind of poisoning
Positrons and electrons combine to form
Gamma rays
Plutonium-238 does not exist in nature but can be made in
Nuclear reactors
If there are too many neutrons for the number of protons what type of decay would improve the situation
Geologists can use potassium-argon dating to determine how long it has been since a rock last
If a star were so dense that the electrons were forced into the nucleus, they would combine with the protons to form
An atom can change a proton into a neutron by
Either positron decay or electron capture
A process that has been used to separate U-235 from U-238 is
Gaseous diffusion
Uranium-235 and uranium-238 undergo a long series of decays ultimately resulting in isotopes of
Krypton has an atomic weight of 83.8.; This is not a whole number because
There is more than one isotope of Krypton found in nature
The “Manhattan Project” was the code name for the project to build the first
Atomic bomb
The elements with the most stable nuclei are the ones
Near the middle of the periodic chart like iron
The fuel used in most nuclear reactors today is
The idea that the universe began in a huge explosion 13.7 billion years ago is called
The big;bang theory
Uranium which contains more uranium-235 than natural uranium is called
Enriched uranium
How many cities have been destroyed by nuclear weapons in the history of the world
Which type of decay does not change the number of protons or neutrons present
Gamma decay
In present nuclear power plants, electricity is generated by a turbine which is turned by
The control rods in nuclear reactors are often made of
Radioactive isotopes of iodine are dangerous byproducts of fission which are very hazardous to health because the body will store them in the
Thyroid gland

How many neutrons are there in 1H3


Radioactivity can be used to
Produce mutations in plants and animals, preserve food, operate small power supplies, treat cancer
Plutonium-239 can be produced by neutron bombardment of uranium-238.; Uranium-238 is therefore called a
Fertile fuel
A positively charged electron is referred to as a
A star in which gravity is so strong that matter is totally crushed out of existance is called a
Black hole
Which of the following is not true of present American electricity producing nuclear reactors
In a severe accident, they might explode with the force of an atom bomb.
In nuclear reactors a material is often present to slow down neutrons in order to promote more fissions.; Such a material is called a
The component of the atmosphere necessary for photosynthesis is
Carbon dioxide
Eutrophication is a process by which
A lake is converted to a swamp
Water-born diseases like cholera and typhoid have been largely eliminated in the U.S. because of
Due to the presence of sulfur oxides, rainfall down wind from highly industrialized areas is likely to be more
The method of disposal of ordinary garbage which is most used in the U.S. today is
Sanitary landfill
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is filtered out before it strikes the earth by
Scientists have been concerned that continued release of chlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere would
Deplete the ozone layer
The air pollutant that sucessfully competes with oxygen for bonding sites on the hemoglobin molecule in the blood is
Carbon monoxide
High temperature combustion always produces
Nitrogen oxides
Which of the following air pollutants does not contribute to acid rain
Carbon monoxide
Secondary pollutants produced in the atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons, oxygen and nitrogen dioxide are
Peroxyacyl nitrates
Give three examples of major pollutants produced by the automobile internal combustion engine
Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide
Automobiles produced in the U.S. since 1975 produce less carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emmisions that older cars due primarily to
Catalytic converters
The most efficient and most expensive method for removal of particulate pollution from smoke stacks is
Electrostatic precipitators
If water contains lots of dissolved oxygen, organic materials will undergo
aerobic decay
Mercury is a cummulative poison which means it
is difficult for the body to eliminate
Runoff from strip mined land is often
Thermal pollution is waste
Torrey Canyon, Amoco Cadiz, and Exxon Valdez were the names of
Oil tankers
Alum and lime are used to
Precipitate suspended particles from water
What are three effective ways of killing bacteria in water
Ultraviolet light, ozone, chlorine
Secondary sewage treatment is
The process in which air or oxygen is pumped into sewage to aid in decay is called
Activated sludge
The worst method of disposal for ordinary household garbage is
Open dump
Soap can be made from
Animal fat and lye
When mixed with water micelles are produced by
Soaps, ABS detergents, LAS detergents
Limestone dissolves in
Calcium, magnesium and iron are examples of
Hard ions
Which of the following could be added to hard water to precipitate some of the hard ions
Washing soda
One advantage of linear alkyl sulfonate (LAS) detergents over alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS) detergents is that they
Are more easily biodegraded
Phosphates are often added to detergents as
Enzyme additives seem to be effective in removing
Protein stains
The second most abundant gas in the earth’s atmosphere is
If a compound is labeled mutagenic, that means it can cause
Saponification is a process used in
Manufacturing soap
Permanent hardness can be removed by
Precipitation with chemicals like washing soda, ion exchange
In 1980 Congress passed legislation designed to clean up abandoned or orphan toxic waste site. This legislation is commonly known as the
Hardness in water is undesirable because it
Precipitates soap
Bacteria in the root nodules of legumes like peas and beans can fix (convert to a useable form)
Name three parts of the carbon cycle
Photosynthesis, respiration, decay
A 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite can be used in cleaning clothes because it is a
The agency of the federal government with the primary responsibility for regulating polluters is the
Environmental Protection Agency
The videotape “The River Must Live” dealt with
Natural biological processes in streams and sewage treatment
A toxic chemical which has been more of a problem in Missouri than any other state is
The main reason carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been going up year after year is
The burning of fossil fuels like natural gas, petroleum and coal
The town of Donora, Pennsylvania is somewhat famous because in 1948 it was the site of the worst ____ pollution incident in the U.S.
During WWII a group of compounds derived from sulfanilamide were used to fight infections.  These were called
Sulfa drugs
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms which kill bacteria or inhibit their growth are called
Nerve impulses are transmitted to the brain as
A combination of electrical and chemical signals
A class of drugs used in pep pills and diet pills are the
The ultimate effect of over-stimulation of the central nervous system is
Opium is a mixture which contains several
Enkephalins and endorphins are natural brain neurotransmitters which are mimicked by
Name four hallucinogenic drugs
LSD, peyote, STP, PCP
Heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and arsenic are toxic because they
Tie up enzyme proteins in the body
Nerve gases stockpiled by the U.S. and other countries are chemically related to
Organophosphates like Parathion
The videotape “The Insect Alternative” suggests insecticides should be used
Only as part of a program of integrated pest management
The videotape “The Frozen Addict” dealt with young people who had
Parkinson’s disease
The videotape “Witch’s Curse” suggests children in Salem accused various adults of witchcraft because
They had been poisoned and were hallucinating
Drug that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
A heavy user of a drug requires more to produce a certain effect that a novice
Mixture of two drugs which has a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects
Drug that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter
Heavy use of one drug reduces the effectiveness of similar drugs
Organic chemistry was originally defined as the chemistry of
Living things
Give an isomer of CH3-CH2-CO2H
Hydrocarbons are compounds containing only
Carbon and hydrogen
There is some concern about releasing aromatic hydrocarbons to the environment because some have been found to be
Coal, natural gas and petroleum are all
Fossil fuels
Propane and butane are major components of
Liquified petroleum gas
The octane rating of a given gasoline can be increased by adding
Tetraethyl lead
The main element in coal is
Peat is partially decayed organic matter which if further compressed will eventually produce
Natural gas or gasoline could be made from coal.; It isn’t done in the U.S. today because
 The economics are not favorable
Cotton is a possible starting material for which kind of polymer
Polymers made by opening the double bond in a monomer are
Addition polymers
Liquids of low viscosity which are added to polymers to make them more flexible are
In addition to nitrogen, plants need substantial amounts of
Potassium and phosphorus
Nicotine, in addition to its use as a recreational drug, has been used as an
A lake is sprayed repeatedly with a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide.  If this is a cumulative poison, the species likely to have the highest internal levels of the pesticide is
The birds that eat fish that eat crustaceans that eat algae
DDT has been useful in fighting diseases such as malaria because
It kills insects like mosquitos which transmit malaria
Natural sex attractants are called
2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T are
The rodenticide warfarin kills rats by
Interfering with the clotting mechanism of their blood
Drugs are detoxified in the body by the
A non-aspirin OTC pain reliever could mean
Used to separate low boiling fractions of petroleum like gasoline from higher boiling ones like kerosene
Crude distillation
Changing linear hydrocarbons into branched ones
Catalytic reforming
Breaking large hydrocarbons into smaller ones
Used to separate very high boiling components of petroleum
Vacuum distillation
Cross-linking with sulfur
Hooking small molecules together to make bigger ones
An essential amino acid is one which
Cannot be manufactured within the body
Enzymes necessary for the digestion of the food we eat are found in the
Saliva, small intestine, stomach
An example of an over-reaction of the body’s immune system is
The type of RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosomes is
Transfer RNA
In the genetics code the number of bases that code for one amino acid is
Pure sodium bicarbonate is called
Baking soda
High doses of this vitamin cause rats to live longer
Vitamin E
This vitamin is necessary for production of clotting proteins
Vitamin K
Deposited in bones and teeth
This vitamin is manufactured in the skin when exposed to sunlight
Vitamin D
This vitamin is necessary to prevent scurvy
Vitamin C
Helps to harden tooth enamel
This vitamin is a complex of several compounds used as coenzymes
Vitamin B
Absence of this vitamin causes night blindness
Vitamin A
Necessary for the production of thyroid hormones
Contained in hemoglobin in red blood cells
Polypeptides are short
The chemical buildup in the cells of the chemicals our body needs is called
A group of compounds which serve as very powerful hormones are the
A complex of lipid and protein in the blood is called a
Glucose can be stored in the muscles as
The type of RNA that contains the code for particular proteins is called
Messenger RNA
How many bases are there in the DNA alphabet
The transfer of genes from one organism to another is called
Recombinant DNA
Myelin is found around
The spinal cord and nerves
Traditional birth control pills prevent pregnancy by
Preventing ovulation
Chemicals produced by lymphocytes in response to antigen markers on foreign cells
Process by which a protein is built from a code in the RNA
Catalysts for biochemical reactions
The process by which one RNA molecule is built from a DNA molecule
The process by which one DNA molecule duplicates itself
Proteins are sometimes cross-linked with
Collagen is a
Structural protein
The function of insulin is to control the level of
Blood sugar
Hemoglobin is an example of a
Transport protein
Glucose is produced in plants by a process called
Protein synthesis takes place
At the ribosomes
Phospholipids are used by the body to make
Cell membranes
Anabolic steroids are most closely related to
Sugars and polymers of sugars
Polymers composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone with attached organic bases
Nucleic acids
Water insuluble compounds such as fats, cholesteral, etc.
Chemical messengers from one organ to another
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