Chemistry chemical bonds study guide

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electron configuration order
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1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p
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oxygen(Lewis structure)
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is a double bond 0=0 has 8 total electrons
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Nitrogen (Lewis structure)
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Is a triple bond, Has 8 total electrons N=_N
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Hydrogen Cyanide (Lewis structure)
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HCN; is a triple bond H-C=_N:
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Carbon Dioxide (Lewis Structure)
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2 double bonds O=C=O
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Covalent vs. Polar Covalent
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Both are covalent bonds but polar covalent has ionic character
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Ionic vs. Hydrogen Bonds
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Ionic bonds has a full charge while the hydrogen bond doesn’t transfer of valence electrons based on difference in charge. The hydrogen bond involves hydrogen
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Metallic vs. cooridinate
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Metallic is a force that binds metal atoms together and allows heat and electricity to be conducted Coordinate is when a metal cation ion accepts an electron pair from an atom Both have metals
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Metallic vs ionic
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Ionic is the transfer of valence electrons Metal has more mobile electrons both have electrons
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Pep-tide and disulfide
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Peptide joins 2 amino acids disulfide is the cross link between proteins and is a covalent bond between 2 sulfur atoms both make proteins
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Coordinate and covalent
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Both have pairs of electrons but coordinate has electron pairs that are accepted by cation metals. Covalent is when the electrons are shared
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Covalent
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A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
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Polar covalent
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covalent bond with ionic character
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Hydrogen bond
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hydrogen attracted to a highly electron negative atom
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Metallic bond
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A force that binds metal atoms together and allows heat and electricity to be conducted. A force due to the attraction of mobile electrons
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Coordinate Bond
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metal cation accepts an electron pair from an atom; forms complexes; PRODUCES COLOR
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Peptide
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Joins two amino acids together
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Di sulfide bond
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A covalent bond between two sulfur atoms. It is the only cross link found in protein
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Phosphate Bonds
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A high energy bond
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Hybrid orbitals
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orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom SP3 and SP2 used to help explain multiple bonds and the geometry
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Methane
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Tetrohedron angle of 109.5 CH4 Has hybrid orbital SP3
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Water
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H20, Bent, 104.5 angle has hybrid orbital SP3
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Ammonia
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Tetrohydrogen 107.5 NH3 has hybrid orbital SP3
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Resonance
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Used when a molecule cannot be represented by a lewis structure.means Neither side is a double bond or a singe bond
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Benzene
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Hexagon, Resonance
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ozone
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03, Resonance 0=0-0 or 0-0=0
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Bond energy
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Is the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
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Bond lenght
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is distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy that is the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
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Relationship between Bond length and bond energy
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Bond energies become larger as bond lengths get smaller.
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Shortest bond length
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H-H
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Longest bond length
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I-I
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Greatest bond energy
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H-F
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the smallest bond energy
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I-I
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Multiple bond
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are shorter and have higher bond energies; Double and triple bonds
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Shortest multiple bond lenght
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N=_N
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Greatest multiple bond energy
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C=_0
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Relationship between bond length and bond energy for multiple bonds
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As the bond energy gets larger, the length gets shorter
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Chemical bond
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The force that keeps atoms together. They form forms mutual attraction of electrons for the nuclei
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Vander Waals force
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Forces attraction between molecules
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Dispersion interaction
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Forces of attraction between all molecules
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Dipole dipole forces
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Force of attraction between polar molecules
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London dispersion forces
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An intermolecular attraction that results Tom the motion of electrons
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VSEPR
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Valence shell electron pair repulsion
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Carbon monoxide
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:C=_0:

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