Chemistry 1070 @ NSU – Shreveport Dr. Fry

An Electrically charged atom or group of atoms
Ion
A positively charged Ion
Cation
A negatively charged ion
Anion
The energy required to remove one electron from a single atom in the gaseous state
Ionization Energy
The energy released on adding an electron to a single atom in the gaseous state
Electron affinity
The electrical attraction between ions of opposite charge in a crystal
Ionic bond
A crystalline solid held together by ionic bonds
Ionic Solid
A compound that contains ionic bonds
Ionic compound
An Ion that is composed of more than one atom.
Polyatomic Ion
The formula that identifies the smallest neutral unit of an ionic compound
Formula Unit
Main group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with 8 valence electrons
Octet Rule
An atomic symbol with dots placed around it to indicate the number of valence electrons
Electron-dot symbol
A substance that provides H+ ions in water
Acid
A substance that provides OH- ions in water
Base
Atoms are converted into ________ by the loss of one or more electrons
Cations
Atoms are converted into ____ by the gain of one or more electrons
Anions
Ionic Compounds are composed of cations and anions held together by
Ionic bonds
_____ loses electrons more easily than ________
metals , nonmetals
What determines the chemical formula of an ionic compound?
Ionic compounds contain appropriate numbers of anions and cations to maintain overall neutrality, thereby providing a means of determining their chemical formulas
A bond formed by sharing electrons between atoms
Covalent bond
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecule
The optimum distance between nuclei in a covalent bond
Bond length
A compound that consists of molecules rather than ions
Molecular compound
A covalent bond formed by sharing one electron pair
Single bond
A covalent bond formed by sharing two electron pairs
Double bond
A covalent bond formed by sharing three electron pairs
Triple bond
The covalent bond that forms when both electrons are donated by the same atom
Coordinated covalent bond
A formula that shows the numbers and kinds of atoms in one molecule of a compound
Molecular formula
A molecular representation that shows the connections among atoms by using lines to represent covalent bonds
Structural formula
A molecular representation that shows both the connections among atoms ad the locations of lone pair valence electrons
Lewis Structure
Pair of electrons that is not used for bonding
Lone Pair
A molecular representation in which bonds are understood by the order in which they are written rather than specifically shown
Condensed structure
The angle formed by three adjacent atoms in a molecule
Bond angle
A geometric figure with 4 identical triangular faces
Regular tetrahedron
A bond in which the electrons are attracted more strongly by one atom than by the other
Polar covalent bond
The ability of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond
Electronegativity
A compound formed by combination of two different elements
Binary compound
Ionic compound properties
Smallest components are Ions, usually composed of metals combined with nonmetals, crystalline solids, high melting points, high boiling points, conduct electricity when molten, many water soluble, not soluble in organic liquids
Molecular compound properties
Smallest components are molecules, usually composed of nonmetals with nonmetals, gases liquids or low melting solids, low melting points, low boiling points, do not conduct electricity, few are water soluble, many are soluble in organic liquids.
The study of carbon compounds
Organic Chemistry
_____ molecules often contain hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to carbon
organic
An atom or group of atoms within a molecule that has a characteristic structure and chemical behavior
functional group
an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
Hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon that has only single bonds
alkane`
an alkane that has all its carbons connected in a row
straight-chain alkane
an alkane that has a branching connection of carbons
Branched-chain alkane
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures
Isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different connections among their atoms
Constitutional isomers
A shorthand way of drawing structures in which C-C and C-H bonds are understood rather than shown.
Condensed structure
The specific three dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Conformation
Molecular structures having identical connections between atoms , they represent identical compounds
Conformer
An atom or group of atoms attached to a parent compound
Substituent
The part of an alkane that remains when a hydrogen atoms is removed
Alkyl Group
The -CH3 alkyl Group
Methly group
The -CH2,CH3, alkyl group
Ethyl group
The straight chain alkyl group _CH2CH2CH3
Propryl group
The branched chain alkyl group – CH(CH3)2
Isopropyl group
name the ten alkanes.. starts with methane
Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane,decane
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