Chemistry 101

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The Scientific Method
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A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem.
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Observation
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Information obtained through the senses. Often the first step in the scientific method. Measures or describes something about the physical world.
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Hypothesis
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A theory or law before it has become well established– a tentative explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation
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Scientific Law
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A statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones. Usually formulated from a series of related observations.
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Theory
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A proposed explanation for observations and laws. Predicts behavior that extends well beyond the observations and laws from which it was formed.
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Matter
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Anything that occupies space and has mass.
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Physical Properties
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Those properties that a substance displays with out changing its composition.
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Chemical Properties
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Properties that a substance can display only through changing it’s composition.
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Physical Changes
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A change in which matter does not change its composition even through its appearance might change.
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Chemical Changes
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A change in which matter changes composition.
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Rusting of Iron
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chemical change
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the evaporation of fingernail-polish remover from the skin
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physical change
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the burning of coal
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chemical change
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the fading of a carpet upon repeated exposure to sunlight
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chemical change
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Tendency of copper to turn green when exposed to air. Physical or Chemical Property?
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Copper turns green because it reacts with gages in air to form compounds; this is a chemical property
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Tendency of automobile paint to dull over time
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Automobile paint dulls over time because it can fade due to sunlight or it can react with oxygen in the air. Chemical property.
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Tendency of gas to evaporate quickly when spilled
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has a low boiling point. physical property
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The low mass of aluminum relative to other metals
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low density this is a physical property
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Law of Conservation of Mass
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A law stating that all chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed
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Energy
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The capacity to due work
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Kinetic Energy
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Energy associated with the motion of the object
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Potential Energy
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The energy of a body that is associated with its position or arrangement of its parts
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Endothermic Reaction
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A chemical reaction that absorbs energy from surroundings.
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Exothermic Reaction
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A chemical reaction that releases energy into it’s surroundings.
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F—-> C
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Deduct 32, then multiply by 5, then divide by 9
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C—–>F
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Multiply by 9, then divide by 5, then add 32
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Naming Binary acids
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Hydro_______acid
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Oxyacids
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Contain polyatomic; name of ion and change to ic or ous
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-ate
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ic
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-ite
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ous
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Solution
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A homogeneous mixture of two of more substances Ex: Salt water, sweet tea, air, brass, alcohol. SOLVENT + SOLUTE
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Solvent
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majority component in solution
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Solute
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minority component in solution
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Mass of solution
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mass solvent + mass solutes
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Chemical Reaction
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color change, formation of a solid or gas, heat absorption or emission, light emission
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Gas Evolution Reaction
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A reaction in which two aqueous reactants produce at least one gaseous product
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Oxidation Reaction
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Reaction in which electrons are transformed from one substance to another
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Oxidized
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One substance loses electrons to another
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Reduced
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One substance gains electrons
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Precipitation Reactions
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A reaction in which soluble reactants combine to form one insoluble product
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Happy 7
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N2, H2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
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Covalent/molecular
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consists of 2 or more nonmetals Ex: H2O
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Ionic Compound
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Consists of a cat-ion(positively charged Ion) and an anion (negatively charged ion) metal and nonmetal

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