Chemical Cycles and Organic Chemistry

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Forms of water
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Liquid, solid, gas
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Evaporation
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Turns water from a liquid to a gas, and the gas reenters the atmosphere
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Transpiration
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When groundwater is taken up by plants and released from their leaves as a gas
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Condensation
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Gaseous water in the atmosphere cools at a certain rate
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Precipitation
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When liquid forms a large enough droplet in the atmosphere, and falls back to the surface
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Aspects of the water cycle
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Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, freezing, melting, absorption/drinking (refer to water cycle diagram handout)
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Driving force of the carbon cycle
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Sun, gravity, Earth’s internal energy
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Carbon reservoirs
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Atmosphere/ocean, decomposers, consumers, producers, rocks, dead organisms/waste, fossil fuels
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Carbon movement processes
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Photosynthesis, cellular respiration, feeding, death and waste (detritus), burial and compaction, eruption, decomposition, burning (human impact), fossil fuel formation (refer to carbon cycle diagram handout)
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Photosynthesis symbol equation
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6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy = C6H12O6 + 6 O2
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Photosynthesis word equation
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Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = glucose + oxygen (reverse of cellular respiration)
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Photosynthesis occurs in which plant organelle
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Chloroplast
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Cellular Respiration word equation
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Glucose + oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water + Chemical energy (ATP; Reverse of photosynthesis)
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Cellular Respiration symbol equation
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C6H12O6 + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + energy (ATP)
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Law of Conservation of Matter
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The amount of matter is always constant. No matter can be added (more atoms) and none can be removed. Matter can only change forms
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Cellular Respiration occurs in which organelle
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Mitochondria
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Weathering and erosion
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The change overtime of rocks into sediments
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Formation of metamorphic rock
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When sedimentary and igneous rock is put under extreme heat and pressure (chemical process)
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Formation of igneous rock
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Cooling off of magma (chemical process)
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Formation of sedimentary rock
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Compaction and cementation of sediments (physical process)
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What is the driving force of the rock cycle
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Earth’s core, sun, gravity
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What type of rock are fossils found in
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Sedimentary rock
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Monomers
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Molecule that can be linked to other monomers to create polymers; There are a small number of monomers used by living things, but livings things differ in the way that the monomers are put together to make macromolecules
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Similar species make similar ___
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Macromolecules
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Macromolecules
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Very large number of molecules that are bonded together in a specific pattern
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Organic Molecules
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Any molecule in a living system, containing carbon; carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
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All living things contain ___
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Carbon
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Carbon
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Can create larger, more complex molecules
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Why does carbon create the backbone of macromolecules
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What do organic macromolecules include?
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Polysaccharides (monosaccharides), nucleic acid (nucleotides), proteins (amino acids), lipids (glycerols)
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Macromolecule
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A molecule containing a very large amount of molecules
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Which organic molecule does not form polymers?
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Lipids
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Polymer
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A collection of monomers
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Elements of Carbohydrates
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Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
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Elements of Proteins
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Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen
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Elements of Lipids
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Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
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Elements of Nucleic Acid
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Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
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Monomers of Carbohydrates
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Monosaccharide (glucose)
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Monomers of Proteins
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Amino Acids (20 total – different R groups)
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Monomers of Lipids
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Glycerol and fatty acid chains
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Monomers of Nucleic Acid
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Nucleotide (5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base)
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Polymer of Carbohydrates
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Polysaccharide
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Polymer of Proteins
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Polypeptide
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Polymer of Lipids
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NONE
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Polymer of Nucleic Acids
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Nucleic Acid
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Function of Carbohydrates
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SHORT term energy storage, structural component (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
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Function of Proteins
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Metabolism (enzymes), structural support (collagen), transport (in cell membrane), defense (antibodies), regulation (hormones), motion (muscle contraction)
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Function of Lipids
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LONG term energy storage, structural component (cell membrane), insulation, prevention of water loss, steroids (hormones and cholesterol)
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Function of Nucleic Acids
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Store and transmit genetic information (contains the code for proteins)
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Examples of Carbohydrates
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Sugars, starches, fruits, milk
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Examples of Proteins
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Found in muscle, bone, hair, nails; lean meat, nuts, beans
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Examples of Lipids
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Fats, steroids, phospholipids
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Examples of Nucleic Acids
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DNA, RNA; found in nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast
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Dehydration Synthesis
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The bonding of monomers by removal of a water molecule (H and OH)
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
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The separation of monomers through the addition of water molecules (H and OH)
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Anabolism
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Chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form complex molecules (ex. dehydration synthesis); store energy
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Catabolism
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Chemical reactions in that result in the break down of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances (ex. hydrolysis); release energy that is used chemical reactions
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Proteins
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consist of one or more polypeptides, most are globular (3D), each has a unique sequence and number of amino acids
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Polypeptide
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Long chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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Amino acids
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20 different amino acids (all have the same carboxyl and amino group, R group differs (ionized, polar, nonpolar)
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Protein molecules
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Function depends on specific sequence of amino acids and shape
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Primary structure
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chain of amino acids covalently bonded to form a polypeptide bond
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Secondary structure
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Hydrogen bonding between amino acids, forms alpha helix or pleated sheet, results in 3D shape
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Tertiary structure
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The unique overall 3D shape of a polypeptide due to hydrogen bonding between R groups
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Quaternary structure
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When two or more polypeptide chains (tertiary forms) combine
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Why does each protein fold into a specific shape
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It is due to the number and type of amino acids it is composed of
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Unity and diversity of proteins
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While some cells have the same proteins, the differences of proteins ultimately makes cells (and organisms) different
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Why are an infinite number of different protein shapes possible?
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Proteins can have any combination of amino acids, and a possible infinite number of amino acids in a chain
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Random collision
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Molecules must randomly collide in order for reactions to occur
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Chemical reactions
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Involve changes in chemical bonds that join compounds; involve changes in energy; energy is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or are broken
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Activation energy
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Energy needed to get a reaction started
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Metabolism
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The chemical processes that occur within an organism in order to maintain life
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Metabolic Reactions
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Photosynthesis, respiration, digestion, and synthesis of organic molecules
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Purpose of Photosynthesis
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To absorb energy, and pass it on to other organisms to keep life continuing on earth
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Purpose of Respiration
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To break down sugar and turn it into energy that organisms can use to help us function and live
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Purpose of digestion
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To help the body absorb and break down nutrients
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Enzyme
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Most common type of protein; used by cells for chemical reactions; not changed by reactions, reusable; catalyze (speed up) the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy required
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Catalyst
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A substance that increases the rate of chemical reactions without going under any chemical change
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Catalyzing
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Lowering the activation energy, allowing the reactions to occur faster
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Activation Energy Graph
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How does an enzyme change activation energy?
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It lowers the amount needed
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Enzymes and substrates
Enzymes and substrates
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Enzymes are specific to their substrates (lock and key) and catalyze only one reaction
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Enzyme name
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Usually derived from the reaction it catalyzes (lactASE breaks down lactose)
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Amylase
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Found in saliva, breaks down starch
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Pepsin
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Found in the stomach, works on digestion
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Catalase
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Breaks down hydrogen peroxide
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General Role of Enzymes in Metabolic Processes
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Some enzymes break down nutrient molecules (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) during digestion. They also can guide the broken down molecules into the bloodstream. (Also involved in storage and release of energy and many other processes)
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Optimal Conditions for Enzymes
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Enzymes require specific environmental conditions to work and are most effective at optimal conditions; factors influencing enzyme reactions are pH, temperature, and amount of substrate
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pH affect on Enzymes
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When the pH of an environment where enzymes are is changes, the H+ ions or OH- ions that are added may break the ionic bonds within the enzymes by bonding to the an ion, thus ruining the structure of the enzyme (denaturing it). This may cause the active site to become deformed, which causes the enzyme to not be able to react with a substrate. (no structure, no function)
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Temperature affect on Enzymes
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Low Temp: reactions are too slow; high Temp: can permanently alter the structure of most proteins, making it denatured; causes hydrogen bonds to break which changes the structure (usually changing the activation site) and giving it no function
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Denatured
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When a protein’s secondary or tertiary structure is altered, but the primary structure stays in tact
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Enzyme Activity pH graph
Enzyme Activity pH graph
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Enzyme Activity Temperature graph
Enzyme Activity Temperature graph
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