chem chapter 17 nuclear chemistry

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antione-henri-becquerel
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discovers radioactivity but called it “uranic rays” at first
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marie curie
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finds out other elements emit radioactivity and got 2 nobel peace prizes in chemistry and physics
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proton symbol
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neutron symbol
neutron symbol
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electron symbol
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alpha radiation
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1. atom emits piece of itself 2. most potential to damage other cells 3. highest ionizing power 4. low penetrating power 5. slow speed and positive charge
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beta decay
beta decay
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1. neutron hits atom and neutron changes to proton 2. medium ionizing power and penetrating power 3.negative charge 4. no mass
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gamma radiation
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1. electromagnetic radiation 2. high energy and short wavelength 3. usually happens with other types of decay 4. lowest ionizing energy 5. highest penetrating power 6. neutral charge
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positron
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1. proton changes to neutron 2. medium penetrating power and ionizing energy
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film badge dosimeter
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photographic film that measures radioactivity
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Geiger counter
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particles pass through argon chamber and if voltage is high, a clicking noise is heard
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scintillation counter
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radioactive emissions are passed through and if it is detected then it is turned to an electrical signal
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half life
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time it takes for amount of atom to cut into half
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when is an atom stable
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if ratio of protons to neutrons is 1:1
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how do atoms gain stability
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go through decay
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what part of an atom goes through decay
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nucleus
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radiocarbon dating
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use carbon-14 to measure how old an organism is by using the half-life of carbon-14. the concentration of carbon-14 decreases when a living thing dies, it is constant when it is alive
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radioactive decay
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atom loses part of itself to become stable
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transmutation reaction
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reaction that changes nucleus, element turns to some other element
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chain reaction
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atom keeps going through decay to become stable
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band of stability
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a line that tells how stable atom is using neutrons/protons <1: positron 1: stable 1-1.49: beta 1.5<: alpha
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radioactive isotope
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element that is unstable isotope of atom
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what is the relationship between half-life and stabilitiy of the element
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as half-life increases atom becomes more stable
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fission
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1. takes place in the nucleus 2. big thing breaks down into smaller things 3. element is hit with neutron 4. lots of energy
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fusion
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1. small ones to bigger ones 2. used in sun 3. fusion has more energy that fission and is less dangerous 4. used in high temperature
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what are properties of radioactive tracers
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have short half lives
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how is radiation therapy different from tracers
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radiation therapy is more energy and used to treat cancer
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isotope scanning
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patient is given isotope to identify cancer tumors which uses gamma rays and uses nuclear radiation
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what body cells are most sensitive to ionization radiation
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reproductive organs becuase they divide fast and weak tissue cells
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what type of radiation would most likely happen in your room
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gamma

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