Chem 170 CH 0

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Classify each of the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture.
Classify each of the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture.
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The blue spheres below represent atoms. What state of matter is depicted in each bin?
The blue spheres below represent atoms. What state of matter is depicted in each bin?
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Classify each of the changes as a physical change or a chemical change.
Classify each of the changes as a physical change or a chemical change.
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When tarnish forms on silver, the outer layer of silver atoms has reacted with sulfur to become a new substance, silver sulfide.
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Classify each of the properties as a physical property or a chemical property.
Classify each of the properties as a physical property or a chemical property.
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Classify each of the following as an element, compound, or mixture.
Classify each of the following as an element, compound, or mixture.
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Classify each of the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Classify each of the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
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This substance has no definite volume or shape.
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Gas
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The particles in this substance do not interact with each other.
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Gas
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The particles in a substance are held in a rigid structure.
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Solid
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Describe each of the following as a physical or chemical property. Chromium is a steel-gray solid. Hydrogen reacts readily with oxygen. Nitrogen freezes at -210 degrees Celsius. Milk will sour when left in a warm room.
Describe each of the following as a physical or chemical property.  Chromium is a steel-gray solid.  Hydrogen reacts readily with oxygen.  Nitrogen freezes at -210 degrees Celsius.  Milk will sour when left in a warm room.
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What type of change, physical or chemical, takes place in each of the following?
What type of change, physical or chemical, takes place in each of the following?
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Describe each property of the element fluorine as physical or chemical. is highly reactive is a gas at room temperature has a pale, yellow color will explode in the presence of hydrogen has a melting point of -220 degrees Celsius
Describe each property of the element fluorine as physical or chemical.  is highly reactive  is a gas at room temperature  has a pale, yellow color  will explode in the presence of hydrogen  has a melting point of -220 degrees Celsius
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The water vapor in the clouds changes to rain.
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Condensation
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Wet clothes dry on a clothesline.
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Evaporation
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Lava flows into the ocean and steam forms.
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Boiling
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After a hot shower, your bathroom mirror is covered with water.
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Condensation
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The solid structure of a substance breaks down as liquid forms.
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melting
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Coffee is freeze-dried.
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sublimation
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Water on the street turns to ice during a cold wintry night.
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freezing
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Ice crystals form on a package of frozen corn.
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deposition
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When we report a measurement in science, we are careful to report only digits known with certainty, plus a final digit that is recognized to be uncertain. It is important to know how to count significant figures correctly, including in numbers containing zeros.
When we report a measurement in science, we are careful to report only digits known with certainty, plus a final digit that is recognized to be uncertain. It is important to know how to count significant figures correctly, including in numbers containing zeros.
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Determine the number of significant figures in the measurement 6.07 m.
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3
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Determine the number of significant figures in the measurement 0.0030 s.
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2 (Leading zeros are not significant. Trailing zeros are significant if there is a decimal point shown in the number.)
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Round the value 44.981 g to three significant figures.
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45.0 g (The number 44.981 is closer to 45.0 than it is to 44.9.)
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Multiplication and division When multiplying or dividing, the final answer is rounded to the same number of significant figures as the measured number with the fewest significant figures. Addition and subtraction When adding or subtracting, the final answer is rounded to the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as the measured number with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point.
Multiplication and division  When multiplying or dividing, the final answer is rounded to the same number of significant figures as the measured number with the fewest significant figures.    Addition and subtraction  When adding or subtracting, the final answer is rounded to the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as the measured number with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point.
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Compute 3.5 × 4.48697. Round the answer appropriately.
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16 (Because this calculation involved multiplication, the final answer must be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the measured value with the fewest significant figures.)
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Compute 1240.64 / 6.4. Round the answer appropriately.
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190 (Because this calculation involved division, the final answer must be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the measured value with the fewest significant figures.)
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Compute 214.056 + 9.3456 . Round the answer appropriately.
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223.402 (Because this calculation involved addition, the final answer must be rounded to the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as the measured value with the fewest number of digits to the right of the decimal point.)
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How many zeros are significant in the following number? 0.0035060
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2
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Identify the number in each of the following as measured or exact.
Identify the number in each of the following as measured or exact.
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Give the reason for your choice: A person weighs 67.5 kg.
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The measurement requires a measuring device.
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Give the reason for your choice: A patient is given 2 tablets of medication.
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The measurement is obtained by counting.
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Give the reason for your choice: In the metric system, 1 m is equal to 1000 mm.
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The statement contains the values in the metric definition.
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Give the reason for your choice: The distance from Denver, Colorado, to Houston, Texas, is 1720 km.
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The measurement requires a measuring device.
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Identify the measured number(s), if any, in each of the following pairs of numbers. 3 hamburgers and 6 oz of meat
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6 oz
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Identify the measured number(s), if any, in each of the following pairs of numbers. 1 table and 4 chairs
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none of the above
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Identify the measured number(s), if any, in each of the following pairs of numbers. 0.75 lb of grapes and 350 g of butter
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both
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Identify the measured number(s), if any, in each of the following pairs of numbers. 60 s = 1 min
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none of the above
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Indicate the significant zeros, if any, in each of the following measurements. 0.00380 m
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0.0038(0) m
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Indicate the significant zeros, if any, in each of the following measurements. 5.04 cm
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5.(0)4 cm
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Indicate the significant zeros, if any, in each of the following measurements. 800. L
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8(00). L
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Indicate the significant zeros, if any, in each of the following measurements. 3.0×10⁻³kg
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3.(0)×10⁻³kg
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Indicate the significant zeros, if any, in each of the following measurements. 85000 g
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There are none
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Identify the number that contains more significant figures. 250.0 L 2.5×10⁻²L
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250.0 L
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Identify the number that contains more significant figures. 12 000 s 0.0120 s
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0.0120 s
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Identify the number that contains more significant figures. 405.0 K 405 K
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405.0 K
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Identify the number that contains more significant figures. 11.0 m 11.00 m
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11.00 m
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 10.09 g
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4
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 0.000 32 m
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2
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 36 000 000 m
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2
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 1.80×10⁴g
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3
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 0.8250 L
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4
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How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 65.0° C
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3
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Round off each of the following measurements to three significant figures. 1.702 kg
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1.70 kg
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Round off each of the following measurements to three significant figures. 178.5238 L
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179 L
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Round off each of the following measurements to three significant figures. 0.004 738 265 cm
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4.74×10⁻³ cm
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Round off each of the following measurements to three significant figures. 7042 m
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7040 m
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Round off each of the following measurements to three significant figures. 1.847×10⁻⁵ s
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1.85×10⁻⁵ s
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Perform each of the following calculations and give answers with the correct number of significant figures: 49.8×0.026
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1.3
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Perform each of the following calculations and give answers with the correct number of significant figures: 0.00178×8
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1×10⁻²
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Perform each of the following calculations and give answers with the correct number of significant figures: 40.26/1.40
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28.8
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Perform each of the following calculations and give answers with the correct number of significant figures: ((0.2635)(21))/2.32
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2.4
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Perform each of the following calculations, and give answers with the correct number of decimal places: 48.64cm+8.519cm
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57.16 cm
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Perform each of the following calculations, and give answers with the correct number of decimal places: 23.55g+100.3g+0.030g
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123.9 g
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Perform each of the following calculations, and give answers with the correct number of decimal places: 146.905mL−21.0mL
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125.0 mL
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Perform each of the following calculations, and give answers with the correct number of decimal places: 1.10L−0.555L
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0.55 L
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 76.600 kJ
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5
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 4.50200×10³g
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6
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 3000 nm (Check all that apply)
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1,2,3,4
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 0.00300 mL
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3
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 18 students
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This is an exact number
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 3 ×10⁻⁵g
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1
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 47.60 mL
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4
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How many significant figures does each of the following quantities have? 2070 mi (check all that apply)
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3,4
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Carry out the following calculations, expressing each result with the correct number of significant figures: 24.567 g + 0.044 78 g = ? g
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24.612
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Carry out the following calculations, expressing each result with the correct number of significant figures: 9.2376 g / 0.002 53 L = ? g/L
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3.65×103
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Carry out the following calculations, expressing each result with the correct number of significant figures: 0.541 mL + 32.1 mL – 2.5833 mL = ? mL
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30.1
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Round off each of the following quantities to the number of significant figures indicated in parentheses. 3.940499 L (4)
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3.940 L
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Round off each of the following quantities to the number of significant figures indicated in parentheses. 291.1514 K (3)
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291 K
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Round off each of the following quantities to the number of significant figures indicated in parentheses. 91.775 kg (4)
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91.78 kg
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Round off each of the following quantities to the number of significant figures indicated in parentheses. 726.891 kJ (5)
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726.89 kJ
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What is the temperature reading on the Celsius thermometer? How many significant figures do you have in your answer?
What is the temperature reading on the Celsius thermometer?    How many significant figures do you have in your answer?
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T = 32.4° C 3 significant figures
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Temperature can be measured using three different scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin. The Celsius degree (°C) is the common unit of temperature, but most people in the United States use the Fahrenheit degree (°F). The kelvin (K) is used in science. You can convert from one temperature scale to another by using the conversions
Temperature can be measured using three different scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin. The Celsius degree (°C) is the common unit of temperature, but most people in the United States use the Fahrenheit degree (°F). The kelvin (K) is used in science. You can convert from one temperature scale to another by using the conversions
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The boiling and freezing points of water are constants. Water boils at 212 °F, 100 °C, or 373.15 K. Although these temperatures are equivalent, the scales used to measure them are different. Water freezes at 32 °F, 0 °C, or 273.15 K. Note that these conversions are based on the fact that water will boil or freeze at a certain temperature regardless of the scale used to measure it.
The boiling and freezing points of water are constants. Water boils at 212 °F, 100 °C, or 373.15 K. Although these temperatures are equivalent, the scales used to measure them are different. Water freezes at 32 °F, 0 °C, or 273.15 K. Note that these conversions are based on the fact that water will boil or freeze at a certain temperature regardless of the scale used to measure it.
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The average normal human body temperature is 98.6 °F. What is normal body temperature in degrees Celsius?
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37.0 °C Notice that the conversion factor includes the fraction 5 °C/9 °F. This indicates that for every change of 5 °C, there is a change of 9 °F. Because a change of 1 Celsius degree is approximately the same as a change of 2 Fahrenheit degrees, you can double the temperature in Celsius and add 30 to quickly estimate a temperature in degrees Fahrenheit from a Celsius measurement. This estimation method is useful for Americans traveling abroad.
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The average normal human body temperature is 98.6 °F. What is normal body temperature in kelvins?
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310.2 K
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Rank the size of a change in temperature of one degree Fahrenheit, one degree Celsius, and one kelvin. In other words, if a thermometer were to show that the temperature outside increased by these amounts, which change would feel the largest? If any of the options are the same magnitude, stack them above one another. Rank the sizes of one degree in each scale from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
Rank the size of a change in temperature of one degree Fahrenheit, one degree Celsius, and one kelvin. In other words, if a thermometer were to show that the temperature outside increased by these amounts, which change would feel the largest? If any of the options are the same magnitude, stack them above one another.  Rank the sizes of one degree in each scale from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
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Convert −28.0 °F to Celsius.
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−33.3°C
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Carry out the indicated temperature conversions. -79 ∘C = ? K
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T₁ = 194 K
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Carry out the indicated temperature conversions. 149 ∘C = ? ∘F
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T₂ = 300 °F
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Carry out the indicated temperature conversions. 355 K = ? ∘F
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T₃ = 179 °F
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Tungsten, the element used to make filaments in lightbulbs, has a melting point of 6192 °F. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius.
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T = 3422 °C
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Tungsten, the element used to make filaments in lightbulbs, has a melting point of 6192 °F. Convert this temperature to Kelvins.
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T = 3695 K
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Suppose that your oven is calibrated in degrees Fahrenheit but a recipe calls for you to bake at 163 °C. What oven setting should you use?
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T°F = 325 °F
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Express this number in scientific notation. 0.00026
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2.6 × 10⁻⁴
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What is the basic SI (Systeme Internationale) unit of mass?
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Kilograms
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Which of the following is a unit of measurement for mass?
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kilograms (kg)
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Type the number 1340000 in scientific notation.
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1340000 = 1.34×10⁶ (So 1.34×106=1.34×10×10×10×10×10×10=1340000.)
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Type the number 0.000354 in scientific notation.
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0.000354 = 3.54×10⁻⁴ So 3.54×10−4=3.54× 1/(10×10×10×10)=0.000354
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Rank the following numbers.
Rank the following numbers.
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The number 1.23×10⁶ is the greatest number in the group because its exponent is the greatest.
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Scientific Notation vs. Standard Notation
Scientific Notation vs. Standard Notation
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Type the number 3.14×10³ in standard notation.
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3.14×10³ = 3140 Thus 3.14×10³=3.14×10×10×10=3140.
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Type the number 8.75×10⁻⁴ in standard notation.
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8.75×10⁻⁴ = 8.75×10⁻⁴ Thus 8.17×10−4=8.17×(1/10x10x10x10)=0.000817
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Convert the number 0.000127 to scientific notation, then enter the answer using the MasteringChemistry format.
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1.27×10⁻⁴
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Use your calculator to determine the answer to the following calculation: (1.0×10⁻¹⁵/4.2×10⁻⁷) Express the answer in MasteringChemistry format using two significant figures.
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2.4×10⁻⁹ The MasteringChemistry format can be used to actually perform the calculations as well as just for entering the final answer. However, be sure that you know how to do the same operations on your calculator when not using MasteringChemistry.
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4.3×10⁻⁶ is between which two numbers?
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1×10⁻⁵ and 1×10⁻⁶ Comparison of numbers in scientific notation is sometimes easier to do if all numbers are converted to have the same exponent.
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Which of the following are equal to 5×10¹⁰?
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0.5×10¹¹, 50×10⁹, 500×10⁸ The number 5×10¹⁰ literally means 5 multiplied by 10 to the 10th power, which is equivalent to multiplying 50 by 10 to the 9th power, 500 by 10 to the 8th power, or 0.5 by 10 to the 11th power.
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How many milliliters of liquid does the smaller graduated cylinder contain?
How many milliliters of liquid does the smaller graduated cylinder contain?
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3.54 mL Looking at the \”zoomed-in\” view, you can see that the bottom of the meniscus is slightly more than halfway between 3.4 and 3.6. The uncertainty in the final digit is actually 0.04 mL to 0.08 mL depending on the quality of the graduated cylinder. The answer is therefore 3.54 ± 0.08 mL. Some may be tempted to round this to 3.5 mL, but that understates the precision in the last digit.
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How many milliliters of liquid does the larger graduated cylinder contain?
How many milliliters of liquid does the larger graduated cylinder contain?
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1.5 mL
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If you could use only one of these graduated cylinders, which graduated cylinder would more precisely measure a given volume of liquid?
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The smaller.
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I filled my gas tank with 12 L of gasoline.
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volume
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My friend is 170 cm tall.
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length
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We are 385000 km away from the Moon.
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length
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The horse won the race by 1.2 s.
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time
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4.8 km The name of the unit is The type of measurement is
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kilometer length
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325 mg The name of the unit is The type of measurement is
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milligram mass
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1.5 mL The name of the unit is The type of measurement is
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milliliter volume
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480 s The name of the unit is The type of measurement is
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seconds time
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28 °C The name of the unit is
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Celsius temperature
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56000 m written in scientific notation?
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5.6×10⁴ m
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430 g written in scientific notation?
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4.3×10² g
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0.000006 cm written in scientific notation?
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6×10⁻⁶ cm
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0.00051 s written in scientific notation?
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5.1×10⁻⁴ s
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0.00484 L written in scientific notation?
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4.84×10⁻³ L
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690000 kg written in scientific notation?
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6.9×10⁵ kg
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Which number is larger? 8.2×10²cm 7.2×10³cm
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7.2×10³ cm
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Which number is larger? 4.5×10⁻⁴ kg 3.2×10⁻² kg
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3.2×10⁻² kg
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Which number is larger? 1×10⁻⁴ L 1×10⁴ L
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1×10⁴ L
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Which number is larger? 0.00052 m 6.8×10⁻² m
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6.8×10⁻² m
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Write each of the following as standard numbers 5×10⁻³ m
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0.005 m
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Write each of the following as standard numbers 4×10⁶ g
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4000000 g
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Write each of the following as standard numbers 8.25×10⁻² kg
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0.0825 kg
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Write each of the following as standard numbers 1.2×10⁴ s
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12000 s
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Express the following quantities in scientific notation. The diameter of a sodium atom, 0.000000000372 m.
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3.72∗10⁻¹⁰ m
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Express the following quantities in scientific notation. The distance from the Earth to the Mars 55,800,000 m.
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5.58∗10⁷ m
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What is the difference between a derived SI unit and a fundamental SI unit?
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Fundamental SI units are base units from which all derived units are formed.
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Choose the fundamental SI units.
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m A kg
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Choose the derived SI units.
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Pa mL dm³
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What SI units are used for measuring the following quantities? For derived units, express your answers in terms of the six fundamental units. Mass Length Temperature Volume Energy Density
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kg m K m³ J kg/m³
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What is the difference between a cubic decimeter (SI) and a liter (metric)?
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1 dm³=1 L
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Which quantity in each of the following pairs is larger? 5.63×10⁶ cm 6.02×10¹ km
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6.02×10¹ km
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Which quantity in each of the following pairs is larger? 3.2×10⁻² ms 46 μs
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46 μs
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Which quantity in each of the following pairs is larger? 985,449 g 7.51×10⁸ mg
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985,449 g
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The Vehicle Assembly Building at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, is the largest building in the world, with a volume of 3,666,500 m3. Express this volume in scientific notation.
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3.6665×10⁶ m³
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The diameter of the Earth at the equator is 7926.381 mi. Round off this quantity to four significant figures
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7926 mi
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The diameter of the Earth at the equator is 7926.381 mi. Round off this quantity to two significant figures
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7900 mi
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Which of the following is a conversion factor for the statement below? A dosage for an antibiotic is 270 mg for 50 kg of body mass.
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270 mg antibiotic/50 kg body mass
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Keeping track of units during conversions can get confusing. Therefore, a good strategy is to use dimensional analysis. In dimensional analysis, unit factors are used to cancel out unwanted units and leave the desired units. Consider the following example: How many football fields could fit on a 1 mile stretch of land? Here are the relevant conversion factors:
Keeping track of units during conversions can get confusing. Therefore, a good strategy is to use dimensional analysis. In dimensional analysis, unit factors are used to cancel out unwanted units and leave the desired units.  Consider the following example: How many football fields could fit on a 1 mile stretch of land? Here are the relevant conversion factors:
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The conversion factor relating miles to meters is 1mile=1610m. The speed of light is 3.00×10⁸ m/s. How fast is this in miles per hour (miles/h)?
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6.71×10⁸ miles/h
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The conversion factor relating feet to meters is 1 ft=0.305 m. Keep in mind that when using conversion factors, you want to make sure that like units cancel leaving you with the units you need. You have been told that a certain house is 164 m² in area. How much is this in square feet?
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1760 ft²
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The melting point of gold is 1064 °C. What is this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit?
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1947 °F
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How large, in cubic centimeters, is the volume of a red blood cell if the cell has a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 6×10⁻⁶ m and a height of 2×10⁻⁶ m?
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V = 6×10⁻¹¹ cm³
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Gemstones are weighed in carats, with 1 carat = 200 mg (exactly). What is the mass in grams of the Hope Diamond, the world’s largest blue diamond at 44.4 carats? What is this mass in ounces?
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m = 8.88 g m = 0.313 ounces
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Carry out the following conversions. 9 pm =____ cm=____ nm
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9 pm = 9×10⁻¹⁰ cm 9 pm = 9×10⁻³ nm
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8.6 cm³ =____ m³=____ mm³
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8.6 cm³ = 8.6×10⁻⁶ m³ 8.6 cm³ = 8600 mm³
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62.6 mg =____ g=____ pg
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62.6 mg = 6.26×10⁻² g 62.6 mg = 6.26×10¹⁰ pg
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How many grams of meat are in a quarter-pound hamburger (0.25 lb)?
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m = 110 g
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How tall in meters is the Sears Tower in Chicago (1454 ft)?
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h = 443.2 m
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How large in square meters is the land area of Australia (2941526 mi2)?
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A = 7.6181×10¹² m²
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 5.9 in .
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5.9 in = 0.15 m
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 66.53 lb
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66.53 lb = 30.18 kg
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 0.5600 gal .
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0.5600 gal = 2.120×10⁻³ m3
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 62 mi/h .
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62 mi/h = 28 m/s
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 977.4 yd³ .
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977.4 yd³ = 747.3 m³
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Convert the following quantities into SI units with the correct number of significant figures. 2.390 mi²
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2.390 mi² = 6.190×10⁶ m²
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Among many alternative units that might be considered as a measure of time is the shake rather than the second. Based on the expression \”faster than a shake of a lamb’s tail,\” we’ll define 1 shake as equal to 2.5×10−4 s. If a car is traveling at 51 mi/h , what is its speed in cm/shake?
answer

vcm/shake = 0.57 cm/shake
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The height of a horse is usually measured in hands instead of in feet, where 1 hand equals 1/3 ft (exactly). How tall (in centimeters) is a horse of 18.7 hands ?
answer

hcm = 190 cm
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The height of a horse is usually measured in hands instead of in feet, where 1 hand equals 1/3 ft (exactly). What is the volume (in cubic meters) of a box measuring 6 × 3.0 × 14 hands ?
answer

V = 0.26 m3
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You add 8.8 g iron to 26.60 mL of water and observe that the volume of iron and water together is 27.72 mL . Calculate the density of iron.
answer

7.9 g/mL
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Calculation of density of a metal using water displacement Water displacement can be used to find the volume of a solid by placing the object in a known volume of water. When the object is added to water, the measured total volume increases. This final volume is equal to the volume of the initial water plus the volume of the solid object added. To determine the volume of the water that is displaced by the object subtract the initial volume from the final volume. Using a scale to measure the mass of the object, you can now calculate the density of the object as its mass divided by its volume. For example, if you add 13.7 g of silver to 20.0 mL of water, the final volume observed in the measuring cylinder is 21.3 mL. The change in volume is 21.3 mL−20.0 mL=1.3 mL. The density of silver is thus
Calculation of density of a metal using water displacement  Water displacement can be used to find the volume of a solid by placing the object in a known volume of water. When the object is added to water, the measured total volume increases. This final volume is equal to the volume of the initial water plus the volume of the solid object added. To determine the volume of the water that is displaced by the object subtract the initial volume from the final volume. Using a scale to measure the mass of the object, you can now calculate the density of the object as its mass divided by its volume.    For example, if you add 13.7 g of silver to 20.0 mL of water, the final volume observed in the measuring cylinder is 21.3 mL. The change in volume is 21.3 mL−20.0 mL=1.3 mL. The density of silver is thus
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In Europe, gasoline efficiency is measured in km/L. If your car’s gas mileage is 27.0 mi/gal , how many liters of gasoline would you need to buy to complete a 142-km trip in Europe? Use the following conversions: 1km=0.6214mi and 1gal=3.78L.
answer

12.4 L A 142-kilometer trip is approximately 90 miles so it would make sense that it would take about 8-16 liters (or 2-4 gallons) of gas to make that trip, depending on the efficiency of your car.
question

While in Europe, if you drive 123 km per day, how much money would you spend on gas in one week if gas costs 1.10 euros per liter and your car’s gas mileage is 33.0 mi/gal ? Assume that 1euro=1.26dollars.
answer

84.9 dollars After a fairly heavy week of driving, this would be an appropriate amount of money to spend on gas.
question

A sprinter set a high school record in track and field, running 200.0 m in 21.4 s . What is the average speed of the sprinter in kilometers per hour?
answer

33.6 km/h Approximately 33-35 kilometers per hour is equal to 20-22 miles per hour. This is the top speed that humans can possibly move on foot. Even the best sprinters in the world would not beat this speed by much. Answers that are much higher than this would not be possible by humans. Answers that are much lower than this would be too slow for a top athlete.
question

A specific brand of gourmet chocolate candy contains 7.00 g of dietary fat in each 22.7-g piece. How many kilograms of dietary fat are in a box containing 4.00 lb of candy?
answer

0.560 kg The recommended daily amount of dietary fat (based on a 2000 calories a day diet) is about 67 g (0.067 kg).
question

A particular brand of gasoline has a density of 0.737 g/mL at 25 ∘C. How many grams of this gasoline would fill a 15.9 gal tank (1US gal=3.78L)?
answer

4.43×10⁴ g
question

A block of metal has a width of 3.2 cm, a length of 17.1 cm, and height of 3.4 cm . Its mass is 1.3 kg . Calculate the density of the metal.
answer

7.0 g/cm³ The density of this object is greater than that of water (1.0 g/mL) so it would sink in water. Intuitively, this makes sense as the majority of metals sink in water.
question

The density of iron is 7.87 g/mL. What is the mass of a 5.00 cm × 4.00 cm × 1.00 cm block of iron?
The density of iron is 7.87 g/mL. What is the mass of a 5.00 cm × 4.00 cm × 1.00 cm block of iron?
answer

mass = 157 g
question

Chloroform, a substance once used as an anesthetic, has a density of 1.483 g/mL at 20 °C.
answer

V = 4.28 mL
question

The density of silver is 10.5 g/cm³. What is the mass (in kilograms) of a cube of silver that measures 0.46 m on each side?
answer

m = 1000 kg
question

Aspirin has a density of 1.40 g/cm3. What is the volume (in cubic centimeters) of an aspirin tablet weighing 2.8×102 mg ? Of a tablet weighing 492 lb ?
answer

V₁ = 0.20 cm³ V₂ = 1.59×10⁵ cm³
question

What is the density of lead (in g/cm3 ) if a rectangular bar measuring 0.50 cm in height, 1.55 cm in width, and 25.00 cm in length has a mass of 217.1 g ?
answer

ρ = 11 g/cm
question

Amounts of substances dissolved in solution are often expressed as mass per unit volume. For example, normal human blood has a cholesterol concentration of about 200mg/100mL. Express this concentration in the following units. mg/L μg/mL g/L ng/μL
answer

2000 mg/L 2000 μg/mL 2 g/L 2000 ng/μL
question

How much total blood cholesterol in grams does a person have if the normal blood volume in the body is 5 L?
answer

m = 10 g
question

A pure diamond with a mass of 0.1000 g contains 5.014×10²¹ carbon atoms and has a density of 3.52 g/cm³. What is the volume of the Hope Diamond, the world’s largest blue diamond at 44.4 carats? (1 carat = 200 mg) How many carbon atoms does it contain?
answer

V = 2.52 cm³ N = 4.45×10²³ C atoms
question

The volume of water used for crop irrigation is measured in acre−feet, where 1 acre−foot is the amount of water needed to cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 ft. If there are 640 acres per square mile, how many cubic feet of water are in 5 acre−feet? How many acre-feet are in Lake Erie (total volume=116mi3)?
answer

Vft³ = 2.18×10⁵ ft³ V = 3.92×10⁸ acre−feet
question

What are the abbreviations for a teragram, a nanosecond, and a kiloliter, respectively?
answer

Tg,ns,kL Even though all SI prefix-unit combinations are possible, not all of them are commonly used. The prefix centi, for example, is commonly used with meters, but not so commonly with grams, which is why you have probably heard of a centimeter, but not a centigram. The prefix mega, while commonly used with non-SI units such as pixels and bytes, is not often used for meters.
question

Rank the following quantities in order of decreasing mass.
Rank the following quantities in order of decreasing mass.
answer

question

Write the numerical values for each of the following prefixes. centi kilo milli tera mega pico
answer

0.01 1000 0.001 10¹² 10⁶ 10⁻¹²
question

Write the abbreviation for each of the following units: nanometer milliliter centimeter megagram femtoliter nanosecond
answer

nanosecond mL cm Mg fL ns
question

Complete the following metric relationship.
answer

1 m = 1×10₉ nm
question

Complete the following metric relationship.
answer

1 dm = 0.1 m
question

Complete the following metric relationship.
answer

1 L = 1000 mL
question

Which is the larger unit? milliliter kiloliter
answer

kiloliter
question

Which is the larger unit? milliliter microliter
answer

milliliter
question

Which is the larger unit? kg g
answer

kg
question

Which is the larger unit? kL dL
answer

kL
question

Which is the larger unit? nanometer picometer
answer

nanometer
question

centimeters and meters Conversion factors are
answer

1 m = 100 cm 1 m/100 cm and 100 cm/1 m
question

milligrams and grams Conversion factors are
answer

1 g = 1000 mg 1 g/1000 mg and 1000 mg/1 g
question

liters and milliliters Conversion factors are
answer

1 L = 1000 mL 1 L/1000 mL and 1000 mL/1 L
question

deciliters and milliliters Conversion factors are
answer

1 dL = 100 mL 1 dL/100 mL and 100 mL/1 dL
question

One yard is 3 ft Conversion factors are
answer

1 yd = 3 ft 1 yd/3 ft and 3 ft/1 yd
question

One kilogram is 2.20 lb. Conversion factors are
answer

1 kg = 2.20 lb 1 kg/2.20 lb and 2.20 lb/1 kg
question

One minute is 60 s. Conversion factors are
answer

1 min = 60 s 1 min/60 s and 60 s/1 min
question

A car goes 27 miles on 1 gal of gas. Conversion factors are
answer

1 gal = 27 mi 1 gal/27 mi and 27 mi/1 gal
question

Sterling silver is 93% by mass silver. Conversion factors are
answer

100 g sterling = 93 g silver 100 g sterling/93 g silver and 93 g silver/100 g sterling
question

Identify the numbers from the statements above as exact or measured.
Identify the numbers from the statements above as exact or measured.
answer

question

Give the number of significant figures for 2.20 lb.
answer

3
question

Give the number of significant figures for 27 miles.
answer

2
question

Give the number of significant figures for 93 g of silver.
answer

2
question

Write the equality and give conversion factors for each of the following statements. A bee flies at an average speed of 3.5 m per second.
answer

1 s = 3.5 m 1 s / 3.5 m and 3.5 m / 1 s
question

The daily requirement for potassium is 3500 mg.
answer

1 day = 3500 mg of potassium 1 day / 3500 mg potassium and 3500 mg potassium / 1 day
question

An automobile traveled 46.0 km on 1 gal of gasoline.
answer

1 gal of gasoline = 46.0 km 1 gal gasoline / 46.0 km and 46.0 km / 1 gal gasoline
question

The label on a bottle reads 50. mg of Atenolol per tablet.
answer

1 tablet = 50. mg of Atenolol 1 tablet / 50. mg Atenolol and 50. mg Atenolol / 1 table
question

The pesticide level in plums was 29 ppm
answer

1 kg of plums = 29 μg of pesticide 1 kg plums / 29 μg pesticide and 29 μg pesticide / 1 kg plums
question

A low-dose aspirin tablet contains 81 mg of aspirin.
answer

1 tablet = 81 mg of aspirin 1 tablet / 81 mg aspirin and 81 mg aspirin / 1 tablet
question

Identify the numbers from the statements above as exact or measured.
Identify the numbers from the statements above as exact or measured.
answer

question

Give the number of significant figures for 3.5 m.
answer

2
question

Give the number of significant figures for 3500 mg of potassium.
answer

2
question

Give the number of significant figures for 46.0 km.
answer

3
question

Give the number of significant figures for 50. mg of Atenolol.
answer

2
question

Give the number of significant figures for 29 μg of pesticide.
answer

2
question

Give the number of significant figures for 81 mg of aspirin.
answer

2
question

During a daily trip to the gym, you burned 288 kcal by running on the treadmill. Convert this value to joules.
answer

1.20 × 10⁶ J
question

How many milliliters of water does the graduated cylinder in (a) contain? How many significant figures do you have in this answer?
How many milliliters of water does the graduated cylinder in (a) contain?    How many significant figures do you have in this answer?
answer

V = 32.1 mL 3
question

How tall in centimeters is the paper clip in (b)? How many significant figures do you have in this answer?
How tall in centimeters is the paper clip in (b)?    How many significant figures do you have in this answer?
answer

h = 2.78 cm 3
question

Which is larger, a Fahrenheit degree or a Celsius degree?
answer

A Celsius degree is larger than a Fahrenheit.
question

By how much?
answer

9/5
question

Which of the following statements use exact numbers?
answer

1 cal = 4.184 J 1 ft = 12 in
question

How many picograms are in 1 ng?
answer

1 ng = 1000 pg
question

How many picograms are in 35 ng?
answer

35 ng = 3.5×10⁴ pg
question

Which quantity in each of the following pairs is smaller? 161 pm or 5.7×10⁻⁹ cm
answer

5.7×10⁻⁹ cm
question

Which quantity in each of the following pairs is smaller? 1.7×10¹¹ μm or 2.7×10² km
answer

1.7×10¹¹ μm
question

Which quantity in each of the following pairs is smaller? 3 GA or 3.3×1015μA
answer

3 GA
question

How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 35.0445 g 59.0001 cm 0.03003 kg 0.00450 m 67,000 m² 3.8200 ×10³ L
answer

6 6 4 3 2,3,4,5 5
question

Round off the following quantities to the number of significant figures indicated in parentheses. 3.568008 × 10⁴ m (4) 3.568008 × 10⁴ m (6) 70.651 g (2) 70.651 g (3) 4906 cm (3) 2.30323 × 10⁻⁴ kg (5)
answer

3.568×10⁴ m 3.56801×10⁴ m 71 g 70.7 g 4910 cm 2.3032×10⁻⁴ kg
question

Express the results of the following calculations with the correct number of significant figures. 4.938 × 2.15 98.03 ÷ 4.7 4.7 ÷ 98.03 5502.5 + 24 + 0.04 86.2 + 1.49 – 0.01 5.7 × 2.53
answer

10.6 21 4.8×10⁻² 5527 87.7 14
question

In the U.S., the emissions limit for carbon monoxide in motorcycle engine exhaust is 12.0 g of carbon monoxide per kilometer driven. What is this limit expressed in mg per mile with the correct number of significant figures?
answer

1.93×10⁴ mg/mi
question

When an irregularly shaped chunk of silicon weighing 8.763 g was placed in a graduated cylinder containing 25.00 mL of water, the water level in the cylinder rose to 28.76 mL. What is the density of silicon in g/cm³?
answer

ρ = 2.33 g/cm³
question

Sodium fluoride has a melting point of 1266 K and a boiling point of 1968 K . Convert these temperatures to degrees Celsius. Convert these temperatures to degrees Fahrenheit.
answer

993,1695 °C 1819,3083 °F
question

The density of chloroform, a widely used organic solvent, is 1.4832 g/mL at 20 °C. How many milliliters would you use if you wanted 105.5 g of chloroform?
answer

V = 71.13 mL
question

A bag of Hershey’s Kisses contains the following information: Serving size: 9pieces= 41grams Calories per serving: 230. Total fat per serving: 13 g The bag contains 2.0 lb of Hershey’s Kisses. How many Kisses are in the bag? The density of a Hershey’s Kiss is 1.4 g/mL. What is the volume of a single Hershey’s Kiss? How many calories are in one Hershey’s Kiss? Each gram of fat yields 9 Calories when metabolized. What percent of the calories in Hershey’s Kisses are derived from fat?
answer

200 3.3 mL 26 Cal/kiss 51%
question

A 115 mL sample of water at 300.0 K was heated for 9 min , 28 s so as to give a constant temperature increase of 3.0 °F/min. What is the final temperature of the water in degrees Celsius?
answer

T final = 42.6 °C
question

Weights in England are commonly measured in stones, where 1 stone=14 lb. What is the weight (in pounds) of a person who weighs 9.00 stones ?
answer

126 lb
question

A Big Mac hamburger from McDonald’s contains 540 Calories How many kilojoules does a Big Mac contain? For how many hours could the amount of energy in a Big Mac light a 100 watt lightbulb? (1 watt = 1 J/s)
answer

2300 kJ 6.3 hours
question

Substances have both chemical properties and physical properties. Which of the following properties of aluminum are chemical properties? Which of the following properties of a ice cube are physical properties?
answer

In moist air it combines with oxygen to form aluminum oxide, and it reacts with chlorine to form aluminum chloride. It has a mass of 27.3 g, it is hard, it is cold to touch.
question

Physical properties can be classified as either intensive properties or extensive properties. An intensive property is independent of the amount of the sample. An extensive property varies with the amount of the sample. Classify the following as intensive or extensive properties of gold.
Physical properties can be classified as either intensive properties or extensive properties. An intensive property is independent of the amount of the sample. An extensive property varies with the amount of the sample.    Classify the following as intensive or extensive properties of gold.
answer

Note that two extensive properties such as mass and volume can combine to give an intensive property such as density.
question

You are given a sample resembling gold. Which of the following properties could be used to help determine whether the sample is really gold?
answer

the density, and melting point, of the sample A sample of any substance in the universe could have any given volume. This extensive property does not narrow down the identity of the unknown sample in any way. However, very few substances have a density of 19.3 g/mL, are lustrous yellow in color, and melt at 1064 ∘C. For this reason, intensive properties are most useful for identifying unknown substances.
question

Classify the following elements as main group elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals.
Classify the following elements as main group elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals.
answer

Keep in mind that not all metals are transition metals or inner transition metals. For example, all the elements of groups 1 and 2 are metallic, but they are main group elements.
question

Classify the following elements as halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, or noble gases.
Classify the following elements as halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, or noble gases.
answer

Elements within a group have similar chemical properties.
question

Match each element to its period.
Match each element to its period.
answer

question

Classify the following elements as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid (semimetal).
Classify the following elements as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid (semimetal).
answer

question

What is the ratio of hydrogen atoms (H) to oxygen atoms (O) in 2 L of water? Enter the simplest whole number ratio in order of hydrogen to oxygen, respectively. How many atoms of hydrogen (H) are present in 200 molecules of ammonia (NH₃)? A solution of ammonia and water contains 3.50×10²⁵ water molecules and 7.10×10²⁴ ammonia molecules. How many total hydrogen atoms are in this solution?
What is the ratio of hydrogen atoms (H) to oxygen atoms (O) in 2 L of water? Enter the simplest whole number ratio in order of hydrogen to oxygen, respectively.    How many atoms of hydrogen (H) are present in 200 molecules of ammonia (NH₃)?    A solution of ammonia and water contains 3.50×10²⁵ water molecules and 7.10×10²⁴ ammonia molecules. How many total hydrogen atoms are in this solution?
answer

2,1. This answer illustrates how Dalton’s atomic theory explains the law of definite proportions. In any sample of water, no matter how large or small, the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms will always be 2:1 because that is the ratio within one single molecule. Since each ammonia molecule contains three hydrogen atoms, there will always be three times as many H atoms as there are NH₃ molecules. 9.13×10²⁵ H atoms
question

Which of following changes that affect the composition of our atmosphere involve physical changes and which involve chemical reactions?
Which of following changes that affect the composition of our atmosphere involve physical changes and which involve chemical reactions?
answer

The composition of the atmosphere is determined by a complex interaction of both physical changes and chemical reactions.
question

In a laboratory experiment, a fermenting aqueous solution of glucose and yeast produces carbon dioxide gas and ethanol. The solution was heated by burning natural gas in a Bunsen burner to distill the ethanol that formed in the flask. During the distillation, the ethanol evaporated and then condensed in the receiving flask. The flame of the burner was kept too close to the bottom of the flask and some of the glucose decomposed into a black carbon deposit on the inside of the flask. During this experiment the following changes occurred. Which of these changes involved a physical change and not a chemical change?
answer

condensation of ethanol, and evaporation of ethanol
question

Applying Dalton’s Atomic Theory
answer

As early as 400 B.C., Greek philosophers proposed that matter was made up of particles. During the 1800s, John Dalton linked the idea of atoms with the chemical identity of an element. His atomic theory of matter involved the following postulates. 1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of other elements. 3. Atoms of an element are not changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. 4. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms. Scientists later discovered isotopes, which showed that the second postulate was not entirely true, and nuclear reactions, which showed that the third postulate was not true.
question

Which of the following reactions is possible according to Dalton’s atomic theory?
answer

N2+O2→2NO In this reaction, the atoms rearrange but they do not change their identities.
question

The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. This can be gleaned from the third postulate in Dalton’s series. Magnesium oxide decomposes into magnesium and oxygen. If 16.12 g of magnesium oxide decomposes to form 9.72 g of magnesium, what mass of oxygen gas is also released in the reaction?
answer

6.40 g
question

When carbon is oxidized in a small amount of oxygen, the principle product formed is carbon monoxide (CO). When the oxidation occurs in a higher concentration of oxygen, the principle product formed is carbon dioxide (CO2). The mass ratio of oxygen to carbon in carbon dioxide (CO2) is twice the mass ratio of oxygen to carbon in carbon monoxide (CO). Identify the statements that are correct.
answer

For two compounds of C and O, the mass ratio of C to O in one compound is a multiple of the mass ratio of C to O in the other compound. The mass ratio of oxygen to carbon in CO is 1.33 for every sample of CO. The mass ratio of oxygen to carbon in CO2 is 2.667 for every sample of CO2. (Elements can combine in different ways to form different substances whose mass ratios are small whole-number multiples of each other.)
question

Calculate the ratio of the mass ratio of S to O in SO to the mass ratio of S to O in SO2. Estimate that the mass of S = 32 g and the mass of O = 16 g for this experiment. That is, the experimenter has enough sample such that there are 32 g of S in each.
Calculate the ratio of the mass ratio of S to O in SO to the mass ratio of S to O in SO2.  Estimate that the mass of S = 32 g and the mass of O = 16 g for this experiment. That is, the experimenter has enough sample such that there are 32 g of S in each.
answer

2
question

The elements X and Y combine in different ratios to form four different types of compounds: XY, XY₂, XY₃, and XY⁴. Consider that there is enough of each sample to contain 2 g of X, and the mass of X is estimated to be 2 g and the mass of Y is estimated to be 4 g. Arrange the following ratios in order of their increasing value.
The elements X and Y combine in different ratios to form four different types of compounds: XY, XY₂, XY₃, and XY⁴. Consider that there is enough of each sample to contain 2 g of X, and the mass of X is estimated to be 2 g and the mass of Y is estimated to be 4 g.    Arrange the following ratios in order of their increasing value.
answer

In this example you were told that there was enough of element X in each sample such that each had 2 g of X. Atoms actually have masses on the magnitude of 10⁻²³ g, and chemists talk about the mass of a sample of atoms or molecules in terms of the mass of a mole (6.022×10⁻²³ molecules) of the species. The units for the atomic mass of an atom are g/mol or amu, reflecting that there are many atoms of the species in the measured sample.
question

Two different compounds are obtained by combining nitrogen with oxygen. The first compound results from combining 46.7 g of N with 53.3 g of O, and the second compound results from combining 22.5 g of N and 77.4 g of O. Calculate the ratio of the mass ratio of O to N in the second compound to the mass ratio of O to N in the first compound.
Two different compounds are obtained by combining nitrogen with oxygen. The first compound results from combining 46.7 g of N with 53.3 g of O, and the second compound results from combining 22.5 g of N and 77.4 g of O. Calculate the ratio of the mass ratio of O to N in the second compound to the mass ratio of O to N in the first compound.
answer

3
question

To understand the arrangement of the periodic table and identify certain groups of elements by name (e.g. halogens, metals, lanthanides etc.). The periodic table is a list of elements arranged by atomic number. As you can see in the image (Figure 1) below, the atomic number for each element is the whole number in the cell. The atomic mass, written below the symbol here although it may appear elsewhere in some periodic tables, is the average mass of the isotopes of that element.
To understand the arrangement of the periodic table and identify certain groups of elements by name (e.g. halogens, metals, lanthanides etc.).  The periodic table is a list of elements arranged by atomic number. As you can see in the image (Figure 1) below, the atomic number for each element is the whole number in the cell. The atomic mass, written below the symbol here although it may appear elsewhere in some periodic tables, is the average mass of the isotopes of that element.
answer

question

Columns in the periodic table are called groups, and the rows are called periods. Notice that the groups are labeled 1 to 18 and the periods are labeled 1 to 7. Groups 1, 2, and 13 to 18 are called the main group elements, groups 3 to 12 are the transition elements, and the bottom two rows are called the lanthanides and actinides, respectively. This table gives properties and alternate names for some of the groups:
Columns in the periodic table are called groups, and the rows are called periods. Notice that the groups are labeled 1 to 18 and the periods are labeled 1 to 7. Groups 1, 2, and 13 to 18 are called the main group elements, groups 3 to 12 are the transition elements, and the bottom two rows are called the lanthanides and actinides, respectively.  This table gives properties and alternate names for some of the groups:
answer

question

Metals vs. nonmetals
answer

Notice the heavy zigzag line running diagonally across the right part of the table. This line separates metals (below and to the left of the line) from the nonmetals (above and to the right of the line). Metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions, whereas nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form negative ions.
question

What is the atomic number of the element located in group 16, period 2 of the periodic table?
answer

8 The atomic number is the number of protons in one atom of an element. One oxygen atom contains 8 protons. A neutral oxygen atom also contains 8 electrons.
question

If a new element were discovered and it was found to form 1− ions, in which group would you place it in the periodic table?
answer

17 Elements in group 17 must gain an electron to have the same number of electrons as the adjacent noble gas. For example, F has 9 electrons, but it would be more stable if it had 10 electrons like Ne. Therefore, F will react to form a 1− ion (with 9 protons and 10 electrons).
question

Which of the following elements is not a metal?
answer

phosphorus
question

Which of the following is not an element?
answer

Water Elements are substances that cannot be broken down any further by chemical means. Water (H₂O) is a compound that can be broken down into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen.
question

Which of the following elements are found in group 3A or 3?
answer

Boron and aluminum
question

Which of the following is an alkaline earth metal?
answer

Mg
question

Which of the following situations demonstrates the law of definite proportions?
answer

When 20.0 g of nitrogen and 32.0 g of oxygen are combined and allowed to react in two separate experiments, both times the product contains 14.0 g of nitrogen and 32.0 g of oxygen.
question

Which of the following statements was formulated by Dalton in his atomic theory?
answer

Atoms of a particular element are alike.
question

You happen to be visiting Northern California and you are driving by Suisun Bay, a notorious graveyard for old ships. You notice that all of these ships appear to be rusting away. Which of the following statements is true?
answer

The rusting of the metal is a chemical change.
question

Black ice is a thin layer of water on a sidewalk or road that has frozen after the temperature has dropped below freezing. It is called black ice because the ice is nearly invisible, especially when driving in a car at night. Which of the following statements is true?
answer

Black ice is an example of a physical change.
question

On a balance, you have beakers of AgNO₃ solution and NaCl solution. When mixed, they will form AgCl(s). What will happen to the mass of the new mixture?
answer

The mass of the new mixture will stay the same.
question

Two iron oxide samples are given to you where one is red and the other is black. You perform a chemical analysis and you find that the red sample has a Fe/O mass ratio of 2.327 and the black has a Fe/O mass ratio of 3.491. You suspect the red sample is simple rust or Fe₂O₃. What is the chemical formula for the black sample?
answer

FeO
question

Look at the alphabetical list of elements, and find the symbols for the following elements. Mercury (used in batteries) Tin (used in alloys with other metals) Nickel (used in smoke detectors)
answer

Hg Sn Ni
question

The three so-called \”coinage metals\” are located near the middle of the periodic table. Use the periodic table to identify them.
answer

Cu,Ag,Au
question

Identify the following elements as metals, nonmetals, or semimetals. Pt Te Se Sc Mn Ar
answer

metal semimetal nonmetal metal metal nonmetal
question

Compounds A and B are colorless gases obtained by combining sulfur with oxygen. Compound A results from combining 6.00 g of sulfur with 5.99 g of oxygen, and compound B results from combining 8.60 g of sulfur with 12.88 g of oxygen. Show that the mass ratios in the two compounds are simple multiples of each other.
Compounds A and B are colorless gases obtained by combining sulfur with oxygen. Compound A results from combining 6.00 g of sulfur with 5.99 g of oxygen, and compound B results from combining 8.60 g of sulfur with 12.88 g of oxygen. Show that the mass ratios in the two compounds are simple multiples of each other.
answer

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