Chem 121 Chapter 11: Organic Chemistry Essay

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Organic Molecules
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contain carbon, nearly always bonded to other carbons and hydrogens, and often to other elements (N, O, S) .
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Heteroatom
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any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen.
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Organic Chemistry
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the branch of chemistry concerned with the compounds of carbon: originally confined to compounds produced by living organisms but now extended to include man-made substances based on carbon, such as plastics.
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Hydrocarbons (functional group)
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Contain only _ & _ Alkane: R-H Alkene: C=C (carbon, carbon double bond) Alkyne: C=(+1)C (Carbon, carbon triple bond) Aromatic Compound: Benzene ring
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Saturated vs. Unsaturated
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Saturated: fatty acids with single bonds between carbons Unsaturated: fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbons
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Stick drawing
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• One line, one bond • All vertices are Carbon atoms, unless noted • The ends of a line are also carbon, unless noted • Fulfill valencies with preferred bonding patterns • Carbon makes 4 bonds • Nitrogen makes 3 bonds & 1 lone pair • Oxygen makes 2 bonds & 2 lone pairs • When more bonds are needed, they are filled in with bonds to hydrogen atoms
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Compounds containing a single bond to a heteroatom (functional group)
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Alkyl halide: R-X(F,Cl,Br,I) (-X) Alcohol: R-OH (-OH hydroxyl group) Ether: R-O-R (-OR) Amine: R-NH2 or R2NH or R3N (-NH2 amino group)
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Compounds containing a C=O group (functional group)
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Aldehyde: Ketone: Carboxylic acid: Ester: Amide:
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Properties of Organic Compounds
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•Organic compounds are composed of covalent bonds only. •Organic compounds exist as discrete molecules with much weaker intermolecular forces than those seen in ionic compounds. •As a result, organic compounds have lower boiling points and melting points than ionic compounds. •Organic compounds tend to be liquids or gases at room temperature, while ionic compounds are solids
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Properties of Organic Compounds: Solubility
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•The rule of solubility is “like dissolves like.” •Most organic compounds are soluble in organic solvents. •Hydrocarbons and other nonpolar organic compounds are insoluble in water. •Polar organic compounds are water soluble only if they are small and contain a N or O atom that can hydrogen bond with water.
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Nonpolar covalent bond
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a covalent bond is nonpolar when two atoms of identical or similar electronegativity are joined together. Thus, C-C and C-H bonds are nonpolar bonds.
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Polar covalent bonds
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a covalent bond is polar when atoms of different electronegativity are joined together. Thus bonds between carbon and common heteroatoms (N, O, and the halogens) are polar bonds.

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